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Mellonsite for Advanced Learners of Hindi and Urdu

Notes on V- kr rh- and expressing determination.

      In Hindi-Urdu the conjunctive participle in  kr (or  kñ ) is typically used to express the anteriority of one action to another:

1.  j:Üt:ð,  p:g:_i Aaòr t:m:aK:Ü ka b:XÙAa l:akr s:am:n:ð p:Xk edy:ð.
   '...bringing (his) shoes, turban, and tobacco pouch, she threw them down in front (of him).'
   (from Chapter One of  )ðm:c:nd's  g:aðdan:. See
2.  kÙC n: p:ÜCað, dada, j:i y:hi c:aht:a T:a ek khiø j:akñ RÜb: m:-û.
   'Don't ask, Dada! I really feel like going somewhere and drowning myself.'
   (from Chapter Three of  g:aðdan:. See
   There are contexts, however, where the conjunctive participle cannot be understood in this way. In construction with the verb  rh, for instance, the V- kr must be interpreted as expressing determination on the part of the subject:

3.  m:òø t:að y:h n:aXk K:ðl:kr rhÜúg:a,  c:ahñ dØK:ant: hi Vy:aðø n: hað !
   'I will play this drama to the end, even if it turns out to be a tragedy!'
   (from Chapter Seven of  g:aðdan:. See
The sense of determination may be reinforced by interposing the particle  hi:

4.  ,p:O Q:c:ü krn:ð s:ð AcCa haðt:a,  t:að c:ahð B:iK: hi m:aúg:n:a p:_t:a,  v:h us:ð AcCa krkñ hi rhðg:a . . .
   'If spending money could make him well, then even if he had to beg, he was determined to make him well.'
   (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:. See
      The sense of determination in V- kr rh is lost if instead of  rh, the compound form  rh j:a is used. Contrast (5) with (6):

5.  edn: kað t:að daðn:aðø c:n:ac:b:ðn:a K:akr rh j:at:ð.
   'During the day the two of them would content themselves with eating roasted chickpeas...'
   (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:. See
6.  edn: kað t:að daðn:aðø m:Ø^:üm:Ùs:ll:m: K:akr rht:ð.
   'During the day the two of them would insist on having roasted chicken...'

The implication in (5) is that they would have liked more; in (6), that they would not take less. For more on this difference, see notes on V- kr rh j:a.
       If the meaning of determination is desired, the conjunctive participle V- kr permits a number of alternatives to  rh:
7.  m:al:t:i:  t:Øm: m:ÜúCðø s:af Vy:aðø n:hiø kr l:ðt:ð ?
     m:ðht:a:  m:ðri m:ÜúCðø m:ØJ:ð )aN:aðø s:ð e)y: hòø.
     m:al:t:i:  Ab:ki p:k_ l:ðg:a,  t:að uK:a_kr hi Cað_ðg:a !

   Malati: 'Why don't you shave off your moustache?'
   Mehta: 'My moustache is dearer to me than my life!'
   Malati: 'This time if he (the baby) gets a grip on it, there's no way he won't tear it out by the roots!'

   (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
Use of the masculine singular oblique form of the past passive participle plus  eb:n:a with negation of the following verb is another way of expressing determination.  See notes.

8.  Ab:ki p:k_ l:ðg:a,  t:að uK:a_ð eb:n:a n:hiø Cað_ðg:a !
      The meaning of some of these constructions can also be expressed with a  j:b: t:k-clause.  See notes.
9.  j:b: t:k uK:a_ n: l:ð t:b: t:k n:hiø Cað_ðg:a.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar

Drafted and posted 3-4 Feb 2001. Augmented 29 Oct 2001. Reformatted and relinked 30 June 2004.