y:Üen:v:es:üXiz: Aaôf ev:ej:üen:y:a OðøR em:eS:g:n:

(NOTE: To see the Devanagari font embedded in these pages it is necessary to use either NS 4.x or IE on a PC.  Xdvng does not fully display on a Mac.)

Key to exercise on compound verbs in  p:_-

     1a.  c:ðc:k PÝX p:_i.       'Smallpox broke out.'   (see Bahri's  eSax:aT:i ý ehndiAúg:Òðz:i SabdkaðSa.)
     1b.  b:aðt:l: PÝX g:I.       'The bottle broke.'
     Explanation: In (1b) the event of bursting leads to the destruction of the bottle. It "goes away".  In (1a) the breaking out of the disease leads to its presence, not its absence.  Compare remarks about  l:aòX p:_  versus  l:aòX j:a  in notes.

     2.   ekt:ab: em:l: g:I !       'Found the book!'
     Explanation (speculative):  The event denoted by  em:l:  can only lead to the presence of the book, not to its absence.  Vector  j:a's residual sense of going away is canceled out and with it the need to express a contrast by using vector  p:_.

     3a.  m:òø   ...   j:an: g:y:a ek  ...       'I learnt from his sister that he was sick.'
     3b.  m:ØJ:ð   ...    j:an: p:_a ek ...       'I learnt from his sister that he was sick.'   (see Bahri's  SabdkaðSa.)
     3c.  m:òø n:ð   ...   j:an: el:y:a ek  ...       'I learnt from his sister that he was sick.'

     Explanation: In this pair the distribution is determined by grammar.  In (3b) the use of vector  p:_  is the remnant of an old passive.  The phrase  j:an: p:_  is now a fixed expression which means 'seem' or (in 3b) 'learn' or 'find out' and which requires  kað  of experiencer (= the person who found out).  The construction in (3a) is straightforward.  Use of vector  j:a  implies the learning or finding out did not involve effort.  Contrast (3a) with the more deliberate  j:an: el:y:a  of (3c).

     4a.  dada ki g:a_i ... b:aðl: j:aOg:i.
            'Grampa's car (was so bad it) looked as if at any moment it would give up the ghost.'

     4b.  dada ki t:s:v:ir ... b:aðl: p:_ðg:i.
            'Grampa's portrait (was so good it) looked as if at any moment it would speak.'

     Explanation (speculative):  Does the existence of a special idiom  b:aðl: j:a  'break down entirely; stop working' favor the use of vector  p:_  when commoner meanings of  b:aðl:  are intended?

     5a.  ray: s:ahb: ka m:Øúh eg:r g:y:a.       (from  g:aðdan: )
            'Ray Sahib's face fell.'

     5b.  b:cc:a m:Øúh kñ b:l: eg:r p:_a  /  g:y:a.      (adapted from  g:aðdan: )
            'The boy fell on his face.'

     Explanation:  If  eg:r p:_a  were used in (5a) the sense would be something like 'Ray Sahib's face fell down', like a mango from a tree!

     6a.  s:ðn:a Sahr p:r XÜX p:_i ...       'Like a tiger the army fell on the city.'
     6b.  K:aðp:_i p:tT:r p:r XÜX g:I ...       'Like a teacup the coconut broke on the rock.'

     Explanation:  The role of subject in the idiomatic expression  XÜX p:_- 'attack' is an unlikely one for a coconut.

     7a. ... AaúK:aðø s:ð ... Aaús:Ü en:kl: p:_ð.            (from  g:aðdan: )
           '...tears of joy flowed from Govindi's eyes.'

     7b. ... ,p:O haT: s:ð en:kl: g:O ...             (from  g:aðdan: )
            '... if I lose the money, I'll be ruined.'

     Explanation:  It is possible to use  g:O  in (7a) as well as the  p:_ð  that  )ðm:c:nd  chose.  However, in (7b) using  p:_ð  instead of  g:O  would work against the sense of loss.  Compare a similar explanation for the  g:I  in (1b).

     8.  v:h p:Øel:s: kñ s:am:n:ð PÝX p:_a.      'He revealed everything to the police.'     (see Bahri's  SabdkaðSa.)
     Explanation:  The use of vector  j:a  instead of  p:_  would denote an actual physical explosion.


Back to exercise.

To notes on  p:_  as vector.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar .

Drafted and posted 23-27 Jul 2004.

Checked and commented on by  Â:i s:Üy:ü em:¶:l:  and  Raô0 s:ØrðS: kÙm:ar  Aug 2004. Emended 17 Aug 2004.