y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:
Second person singular.

(adapted from Chapter One of  Hindi Structures.)

      In addition to the formal  Aap: and the informal  t:Øm:,  Hindi possesses a third second person pronoun, namely the intimate  t:Ü.  Its forms are parallel to those of   m:òø:

  1a.    Oblique:   v:h m:ØJ: s:ð em:l:ðg:a.   v:h t:ØJ: s:ð em:l:ðg:a. 
  1b.    Special dative:   v:ð m:ØJ:ð p:òs:ð dðøg:ð.   v:ð t:ØJ:ð p:òs:ð dðøg:ð. 
  1c.    Possessive:   y:h m:ðra G:r hò.   v:h t:ðra G:r hò. 

      Except in the imperative, verbs agreeing with  t:Ü  have forms indistinguishable from those of those of the third person singular:

  2a.    l:_ka kp:_ð kb: l:aOg:a  t:Ü kp:_ð kb: l:aOg:a
  2b.    Vy:a l:_ki p:*: el:K: rhi hò  Vy:a t:Ü p:*: el:K: rhi hò
  2c.    v:h j:ldi p:hØúc:a.   t:Ü j:ldi p:hØúc:a. 
  2d.    Ag:r v:h c:l:i j:aO t:að AcCa hò.   Ag:r t:Ü c:l:i j:aO t:að AcCa hò. 

In the imperative,  t:Ü takes the bare stem:

  3a.   m:ðra haT: m:t: dðK:             Don't look at my hand! 
  3b.   y:haú s:ð en:kl: j:a             Get out of here! 
  3c.   Aa,  b:ðXð,  y:hiø b:òY             Come, child.  Sit right here! 

The plural of  t:Ü is  t:Øm: :

  4a.    Arð kÙ¶:ð,  hX  Get back, Dog! 
  4b.    Arð kÙ¶:að ( kÙ¶:aðø ),  hXað  Get back, Dogs! 

      t:Ü  is used when addressing those with whom one is at no social distance: animals, babies, lovers, God, and one's own self in mental soliloquy.  As social outsiders, visitors to India or Pakistan have little occasion to use  t:Ü (except, perhaps, when shooing dogs).  But in certain situations  t:Ü will be frequently heard.  In some families parents address their children with it and the children may reciprocate, at least with the mother.  Some husbands use  t:Ü with their wives and at least the non-traditional wife may respond in kind.  However, there is a tendency to use  t:Ü less in front of outsiders as a sign of respect to them.  Urban speakers of Hindi tend to replace it with  t:Øm: and may deny using  t:Ü altogether.

  5.   t:Øm: t:Ü-t:_ak s:ð m:t: b:aðl:að.  b:Øra l:g:t:a hò.
        'Don't use  t:Ü .  It sounds bad.'


To index of grammatical notes.

To index of m:lhar.

Keyed in and posted 5-6 Sept 2001.