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Aragorn was Dúnedan, sixteenth and last Chieftan of the Dúnedain of the North (2933-2019), restorer of the Dúnedain kingdoms in Middle-earth and, as Elessar, first King of the Reunited Kingdom (3019-Fourth Age 120). As the heir of Isildur, he was raised secretly in Rivendell and was known as Estel until he was twenty, when Elrond revealed to him his lineage. Aragorn then went off into the Wild; for nearly seventy years he fought against Sauron in many ways and learned the customs of various peoples, until he was the hardiest and the wisest Man of his time. During this period Aragorn served in disguise Thengel of Rohan and Ecthelion of Gondor. In Gondor he was known as Thorongil because of the star of the Rangers that he wore; his greatest feat there was a raid on Umbar in 2980 in which he destroyed a large part of the fleet of the Corsairs. In 2956, Aragorn met Gandalf and the two became close friends. In 3017, after thirteen years of intermittent searching at Gandalf's request, Aragorn captured Gollum. The next year, he met Frodo and his companions at Bree and helped them to get to Rivendell. Aragorn was one of the Nine Companion, and led the Fellowship after Gandalf fell in Khazad-dûm. After the War of the Ring, Aragorn became King of the Reunited Kingdom and Lord of the Western Lands as Elessar Telcontar and married Arwen, daughter of Elrond. During his 120-year reign, he extended the borders of the Kingdom and reestablished long-absent peace and prosperity. In addition to the wisdom he gained through his long period of fighting Sauron, Aragorn possessed Elven-wisdom and the foresight of the Dúnedain. It was said with justice that in him the nobility of the Númenóreans of old was restored. Aragorn met Arwen when he was twenty, just before he departed from Imladris. He loved her from that moment, and they plighted their troth in 2980. Elrond, however, would not consent to marry his daughter to any Man who was less than the King of both Arnor and Gondor, and so the two were not married until after the War of the Ring. Aragorn and Arwen had one son, Eldarion, and a number of daughters. From the time of its forging in 3018, Aragorn bore the sword Andúril, and before then on occasion he bore the shards of Narsil. Aragorn was called Elessar and Elfstone by Galadriel and the people of Gondor during the War of the Ring because of the emerald brooch he wore; he took this name, which was foretold for him, as his royal name. Called Strider in Bree before the War of the Ring, he took the Quenya equivalent of this name, Telcontar, as the name of his family. Also called Isildur's Heir, the Renewer, Longshanks, and Wing-foot, which was the last name given him by Eomer after the journey of the Three Hunters.
Arwen was an Eldarin princess, daughter of Elrond and Celebrían. For nearly three thousand years she lived in contentments in Imladris and Lórien, until in 2951 she met Aragorn in Rivendell. In 2980 they plighted their troth on Cerin Amroth, and after the War of the Ring they were wed, and Arwen became Queen of Gondor. She bore her husband one son and a number of daughters. However, by marrying Aragorn she chose not to accompany her father over Sea at the end of the Third Age, and thus became mortal. After Aragorn died in the Fourth Age 120, Arwen went to Lórien, where she died the next winter. Her grave was made on Cerin Amroth. Arwen was noted for her dark beauty, which was said to resemble that of Lúthien. Because of this beauty, which was never again to appear among the Elves in Middle-earth, she was called Udómiel, or in Westron, Evenstar, and she was known as the Evenstar of her people.
Aulë was Ainu, one of the Aratar; after Manwë, Varda, and Ulmo, the most powerful of the Valar. Aulë fashioned the substances of which Arda was composed and is the master of crafts and of the knowledge of substances. He delights in the nature of substances and in works of skill, but he is not concerned with possession or mastery. Besides the shaping of Arda, Aulë's greatest works were the Two Lamps of the Valar, the vessels of the Sun and Moon, and the Dwarves, whom he created out of impatience for the Children of Ilúvatar. Despite his lordly skill, Aulë is humble and compassionate, and indeed the Dwarves survived only because Aulë submitted them to the will of Ilúvatar. His spouse is Yavanna, with whom he dwells in central Valinor. Aulë was known as the Smith, the Maker, and (since he taught them much and shared their interest in crafts) the Friend of the Noldor. The Dwarves called him Mahal.
Balin was a Dwarf of the House of Durin and King of Khazad-dûm (2989-2994). He was a follower of Thráin, and later of Thorin, from the time of the War of the Dwarves and Orcs. Balin accompanied Thráin on the journey in 2841 that cost him his life, and a century later he was one of the members of Thorin and Company. After the death of Smaug he settled in Erebor, but in 2989 he went to Khazad-dûm with many Dwarves of Erebor and set up a Dwarf-colony there. Five years later he was slain by an Orc in Azanulbizar. Balin and Bilbo became quite friendly in 2941; he seems to have been kindlier than many Dwarves.
Beorn was a Man, chieftain of the Beornings, a berserker. Beorn violently hated Orcs and was in general distrustful of all strangers, but his heart was good. After Gandalf overcame his initial suspicions in the Third Age 2941, Beorn fed and protected Thorin and Company, and was later instrumental in winning the Battle of the Five Armies. In that battle he killed Bolg, the leader of the Orkish forces.
Bilbo Baggins was a Hobbit of the Shire, adventurer, Elf-friend, Ring-bearer, author, and scholar. Bilbo's involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth began in 2941, when Gandalf coerced him into being the burglar for Thorin and Company. In the course of this adventure he went to Rivendell and other faraway places, stole the One Ring, and played an important part in the death of Smaug and the success of the expedition. He returned home to Bag End with his modest share of the dragon's hoard and the Ring, and lived a comfortable life in the Shire for sixty years. In 2980, on the death of Drogo and Primula Baggins, Bilbo adopted their son Frodo and made him his heir. In 3001, Bilbo gave a huge birthday party, the Farewell Feast, and then disappeared, leaving his goods, including the Ring, to Frodo. Bilbo then went to Imladris and, except for a trip to Dale and Erebor in 3001 or 3002, stayed there for twenty years, writin poetry and studying Elven-lore. In 3021 Bilbo went over Sea with the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings. Bilbo wrote the account of his expedition to Erebor with Thorin and Company that appears in the Red Book of Westmarch and, edited by Professor Tolkien, forms The Hobbit. He also wrote numerous poems, including walking songs, Errantry, and a long poem about Eärendil. Bilbo's chief scholarly contribution was his Translations from the Elvish; his primary interest was the First Age. Bilbo lived for most of his life in Bag End, Hobbiton. He was, unlike most hobbits, a bachelor. Bilbo was the longest-lived hobbit in history, being 131 years and eight days old when he went over Sea; his longevity was partly due to the influence of the Ring, which otherwise affected him to a surprisingly small degree. Bilbo's Fallohide blood showed in his uncommon love of Elves and adventure and his skill in languages, but apart from this he was very much a normal hobbit. Bilbo's sword was the famous Elven-knife Sting; he wore a mithril-coat given him by Thorin 2.
Déagol was a Stoor of the Gladden Fields. While fishing with his cousin Sméagol, he found the One Ring, and was murdered by Sméagol, who coveted it. The name Déagol is a translation into Old English of the northern Mannish name Nahald, meaning “secret”.
Elendil was a Dúnadan of Númenor, son of Amandil of Andùnie and leader of the Faithful, the noblest of the Dúnedain to survive the fall of Númenor. A great mariner, Elendil gathered his sons Isildur and Anárion and some of the Faithful in ships off the coast of Númenor before the fleet of Ar-Pharazôn sailed to Aman. With four ships he was blown to Middle-earth by the storms of the Change of the World and landed in Lindon. He established the Kingdom of Arnor, which he ruled directly, and was the first High King of Arnor and Gondor. Elendil was one of the leaders of the Last Alliance, which overthrew Sauron, and with his friend Gil-galad, its greatest warrior. He was slain, along with Gil-galad, by Sauron on the slopes of Orodruin, but they in turn overthrew their enemy. Eleendil's sword was the famous Narsil. Elendil was also known as Elendil the Tall and Elendil the Fair.
In the Third Age 100, Elrond married Celebrían, the daughter of Galadriel and Celeborn; their children were Elladan, Elrohir, and Arwen. Throughout the Third Age, Elrond gave aid and counsel to the Dúnedain of the North, first military aid for the protection of Arnor and Arthedain and later shelter for the Dúnedain, especially the women and children of the royal line. At the end of the Third Age, Elrond departed over Sea with the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings. Elrond bore the greatest of the Three Rings, Vilya, which he was given by Gil-galad.
The Eye was the Eye of Sauron, the form in which he appeared in the Third Age and his emblem. The Eye was rimmed with fire, but glazed like a cat's; its pupil was a slit. As an emblem, the Eye was usually all red. It is also used attributively for Sauron. Additional names are the Evil Eye, the Great Eye, the Lidless Eye, the Red Eye, the Eye of Barad-Dûr, and the Eye of Mordor.
Fangorn was an Ent, the guardian of Fangorn Forest. At the time of the War of the Ring, Fangorn was the oldest surviving Ent, and thus the oldest living being in Middle-earth. Fangorn was responsible for arousing the Ents against Saruman during the War of the Ring; he probably also sent the Huorns to the Hornburg. Fangorn was bearded, and seems to have resembled an evergreen tree. Called in Westron Treebeard, he was also called Eldest by Celeborn.
The Flame of Anor was the power wielded by Gandalf, possibly an allusion to the white light of the Sun as a symbol of the Secret Fire.
Feanor was a Noldorin prince, only son of Finwë by his first wife, Míriel. The mightiest of the Noldor and in many ways the greatest of the Children of Ilúvatar, especially in skill of mind and hands, Fëanor was unfortunately as quick to pride, jealousy, and anger as to invention. In Eldamar he married Nerdanel, who bore him seven sons and restrained the excesses of his passion. During this time, the Noontide of Valinor, Fëanor, instructed by his father-in-law Mahtan and by Aulëe, made his great inventions: the Tengwar, and the art of fabricating gems and crystals, especially the Silmarilli and perhaps also the Palantíri. Melkor, coveting the Silmarils, sowed dissension between Fëanor and his half-brother, Fingolfin, until at last Fëanor spoke against the Valar and drew a sword on Fingolfin. For this he was banished from Tirion for twelve years, although he was reconciled with Fingolfin. Even though he saw through the plots of Melkor, Fëanor remained distrustful of the Valar and grew excessively fond of the Silmarils; when the Two Trees were poisoned he refused to give up the Silmarils, which preserved their light. But when he heard the further tragedy of Melkor's murder of Finwë and theft of the Silmarils, Fëanor resolved to return to Middle-earth in pursuit of Melkor, defying the Valar and swearing the terrible Oath of Fëanor, by which he, his sons, and Beleriand were later doomed. Undeterred by the banishment of Manwë and the Doom of Mandos, the fey Fëanor led the Noldor forth, in his haste and pride instigating the Kin-slaying at Alqualondë and the desertion of Fingolfin in Araman. In Middle-earth, Fëanor immediately won Dagor-nuin-Galiath, but in his wrath he recklessly pursued the fleeing Orcs into Dor Daedeloth, where he was overwhelmed by Balrogs and fatally wounded. Although rescued by his sons, he died near Eithel Sirion, he who brought the Noldor “their greatest renown and their most grievous woe.” His birth-name was Curufinwe; he was called Fëanor (from the Quenya Feanáro, the name given him by Míriel) because of the burning spirit evident within him.
Finglas was an Ent, one of the three eldest Ents still living at the time of the War of the Ring. By the end of the Third Age, Finglas had grown quite sleepy and “tree-ish,” and moved very little. He was covered with leaflike hair. In Westron he was called Leaflock.
Finrod was a Noldorin Elf, eldest son of Finarfin. In Eldamar, Finrod was friendly with Turgon and joined the revolt of the Noldor reluctantly; his beloved, Amarie of the Vanyar, did not go into Exile with him. Finrod was the first of the Eldar to encounter the Edain, whom he instructed in Ossiriand. He fought the Wars of Beleriand; during Dagor Bragollach he was surrounded by Orcs in the Fen of Serech but was rescued by Barahir, to whom he gave the ring of Barahir as a pledge of aid to his house. When Beren later came to Nargothrond for that aid, Finrod gallantly went forth to his doom in the Quest of the Silmaril. Overcome by Sauron in a duel of songs of power, Finrod was imprisoned with Beren in what had been his own dungeons of Minas Tirith. Finrod was slain by a wolf defending Beren and was buried on Tol Sirion. Finrod was very powerful, but also wise and just. He was a great traveler. He was called Felagund and master of Caves by the Dwarves for his labors at Nargothrond, Nóm by the Edain whom he instructed, and the Faithful and Friend-of-Men for giving his life for Beren.
Finwe was a Noldorin Elf, one of the ambassadors chosen by Oromë to visit Aman and later the leader of the Noldor on the Great Journey. Finwë had two wives: Fëanor was his son by the first, Míriel; Indis bore him two sons, Fingolf and Finarfin. During the Noontide of Valinor, Finwë was king in Tirion. He loved Fëanor dearly and shared his twelve-year exile in Formenos, where he was slain by Melkor defending the treasure-house of his family.
Frodo Baggins was a Hobbit of the Shire, Ring-bearer, Elf-friend, and hero. He was the only son of Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck. In 2980, on the death of his parents, he was adopted by his cousin Bilbo, and went to live with him in Bag End. In 3001, when Bilbo left the Shire, Frodo inherited all his goods, including Bag End and the One Ring. In 3018, on Gandalf's advice, Frodo, under the name of Mr. Underhill, went to Rivendell to escape the Nazgul. Along the way, he met Aragorn and was nearly slain by the Lord of the Nazgul. In Rivendell, he volunteered to undertake the Quest of Mount Doom. After great adventures and heroic deeds with the Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo reached the Sammath Naur, but at the last moment claimed the Ring for himself. However, Gollum bit off Frodo's ring-finger and then fell into the Sammath Naur, thus fulfilling the Quest. Even before the War of the Ring, Frodo was more thoughtful and moody than Hobbits were wont to be, and eagerly sought out news of far lands. Although this was in part because of Frodo's responsibility as Ring-bearer, he was also uncommonly perceptive of the hearts of those he met. The Ring influenced Frodo surprisingly little; although it caused him to age very slowly, and although he was greatly troubled by the burden and eventually succumbed to it, his resistance was very great. Frodo knew Sindarin and a little Quenya, and was said to show uncommon skill in pronouncing foreign languages. He seems to have had few friends of his oen age, although he was close to Bilbo and a number of Hobbits younger than himself. He was unmarried. He was also called the Ring-bearer, Frodo of the Nine Fingers, and Nine-fingered Frodo. After the War of the Ring, Frodo was for a while mayor of Michel Delving. However, he was discontented in mind and wounded in body (from his stabbing by the Nazgul-lord and his poisoning by Shelob) and so passed over Sea with the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings, leaving his goods to his beloved servant and friend, Sam Gamgee. Frodo wrote the account of the War of the Ring and the Quest of Mount Doom contained in the Red Book of Westmarch; he also composed a few songs.
Galadriel was a Noldorin princess, the daughter of Finarfin. Galadriel was the only woman to play a prominent role in the debate of the Noldor following the theft of the Silmarils, and, eager to return to Middle-earth, she was one of the leaders of the host of Fingolfin. During the War of the Ring, Galadriel gave shelter and great gifts to the Companions of the Ring, and she refused the One Ring when it was offered to her by Frodo. Because of this, and because of her endless opposition to Sauron, at the end of the Third Age the Valar permitted her to return to Valinor. Galadriel fulfiled her age-old desire in the Third Age 3021 when she went over Sea with the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings. Galadriel was very tall and the greatest beauty of the house of Finwë; she had the golden hair of her mother's kindred.
Gandalf was one of the Istari, as Gandalf the Grey the second most powerful of the Order. Gandalf can be said to have been the person most responsible for the victory of the West and the downfall of Sauron in the Third Age; he labored ceaselessly and ever faithfully for two thousand years toward that goal, and by his foresight he built up many powers to oppose Sauron in the final struggle. Gandalf looked like a grey-cloaked, grey-haired (after his resurrection, his hair and cloak were white), bent old man, and dpassed easily for a meddlesome old conjuror; at times, however, he revealed his true majesty and power. Prior to his fight with the Balrog, his body was apparently mortal, vulnerable both to weapons and “magical” force; but as Gandalf the White, no weapon could harm him, and his power over the Unseen was greatly incraeased. On Gandalf's arrival in Middle#earth about the Third Age 1000, Cirdan gave him Narya, one of the Three Rings. Gandalf had many adventures and trials during the Third Age, only the chief of which can be mentioned here. In 2063, at the request of the White Council, he went to Dol Guldur as a spy but was unable to determine the identity of its lord. In 2850 he again entered Dol Guldur, discovered that its lord was Sauron, received the key to Erebor from Thràin, and managed to escape. Later, in 2941, Gandalf interested Thorin in the recovery of Erebor, his goal being the establishment of a strong realm in the north to oppose an attack by Easterlings allied with Sauron. Gandalf's further action of persuading Thorin to hire Bilbo Baggins as burglar for the expedition, perhaps because he wished to use the latent strength of the Shire-folk at a later date, had even more important consequences, since Bilbo obtained the One Ring. Gandalf suspected that Bilbo obtained the One Ring. Gandalf suspected that Bilbo's treasure was indeed the One, and from 2941 to 3001, with the aid of the Rangers he put a close watch over Bilbo and the Shire. In 3001, Gandalf persuaded Bilbo to give the Ring to Frodo (an unparalleled action that confirmed Gandalf's high opinion of Hobbits), and in 3018 set into motion the Quest of Mount Doom. Gandalf was an important influence at the Council of Elrond, since he alone knew the full history of the Ring and of Saruman's treachery; later he was one of the Companions of the Ring. Although he was slain defending the Company from the Balrog in Khazad-dûm, he was sent back to Middle-earth as Gandalf the White to complete his task. During the War of the Ring he released Kind Théoden from Gríma's spells, cast Saruman out of the Order of the Istari, and gave invaluable counsel to Gondor and Rohan. During the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Gandalf contested the gates of Minas Tirith with the Lord of the Nazgûl for the few crucial minutes between their breaking and the arrival of the Rohirrim. After the successful completion of the War of the Ring, his task being completed, Gandalf went over Sea with the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Ring. Gandalf traveled mostly in the West and had no permanent home. Of all the Istari, he was the closest to the Eldar and was the only Wizard who truly cared about things of seemingly small value like Hobbits and trees. He was a great master of lore and (perhaps due to Narya) of fire. Gandalf was a friend and teacher to Aragorn seemingly above all other Men, and the two helped each other greatly. After 2941, in addition to his staff Gandalf bore the great sword Glamdring. In 3018, after escaping from Isengard, he tamed Shadowfax, the greatest of the mearas of Rohan, and rode him for the rest of the War of the Ring. “Gandalf” was the name given him by the Men of the North. He was called Mithrandir by the Elves; the Westron forms Grey Wanderer and Grey Pilgrim were also used. He was called Tharkun by the Dwarves, Incánus by the Haradrim, Gandalf Greyhame by the Rohirrim, and at various times Stormcrow (by Théoden and himself), Láthspell (by Gríma), and the Grey Fool (by Denethor 2, who disliked him becase of his friendship with Thorongil, the rival of his youth). He was also known as the Enemy of Sauron and (during the War of the Ring) the White Rider. His real name, given him in Valinor in his youth, was Olórin; he may have been a Maia.
Gollum was a Hobbit of the Stoor strain, born in the Stoor settlement near the Gladden Fields. About 2463 his cousin Déagol found the One Ring while fishing, and Gollum murdered him for it. Soon he became odious to his family and was driven out of the Stoor community. He hid in the Misty Mountains, falling more and more under the control of the Ring, until 2941, when he lost it. Bilbo Baggins found the Ring and took it with him to the Shire. Gollum, suspecting that Bilbo had the Ring, came out of the Misty Mountains to search for Bilbo, his need for the Ring overcoming his hatred and fear of the Sun, the Moon, and other living things. A few years before the War of the Ring, Gollum was captured by Sauron, who thus discovered about “Baggins.” Sauron released Gollum in 3017 and he was captured by Aragorn, who turned him over to Gandalf. The wizard learned that part of the story of the Ring which he had not previously known, and then gave Gollum over to the Elves of the Woodland Realm. In 3018, Gollum escaped from the Elves of the Woodland Realm during an Orc-raid ad immediately went off in search of the Ring. He caught up with Frodo and the company of the Ring outside Khazad-dûm, and followed the Company through Moria and Lórien. Gollum was captured by Frodo and Sam in the Emyn Muil. Partly out of fear of the Ring-bearer and partly to ensure that Sauron did not recover the Ring, Gollum led the Hobbits to Cirith Ungol, the least guarded route into Mordor. However, there he betrayed Frodo and Sam to Shelob, hoping to recover the Ring when Shelob discarded their clothing. His plan failed, and so he followed the Hobbits of Orodruin. There his last ambush of Frodo failed, but when the latter claimed the Ring as his own, Gollum attacked him again. In the struggle which followed, Gollum bit off Frodo's ring-finger and thus got the Ring. This betrayal of his oath to serve Frodo doomed Gollum; the other part of the oath—to prevent Sauron from recovering the Ring—was fulfilled at once, for Gollum fell into the Crack of Doom, destroying himself and the Ring. Gollum originally looked like a normal Hobbit, but his long years in dark and damp under the influence of the Ring drastically affected his appearance. The descriptions of him vary somewhat, but he seems by the time of Bilbo and Frodo to have been extremely thin and wiry, with black skin, flat feet, long thin hands, and large pale eyes. Although his sight was poor, his hearing was acute, and he could move silently and climb like an insect. Because of his long domination by the Ring, Gollum pathologically feared all things Elven; Elven ropes burned his flesh and lembas tasted like dust. He hated all creatures and was, because of the influence of the Ring on his naturally somewhat nasty character, generally despicable. Gollum's real name was Trahald, a northern Mannish name meaning “burrowing, worming in”; the Anglicized Mannish equivalent was Sméagol. He was called Gollum because of the disgusting noise he made in his throat; the name was originally given to him by his family after he found the Ring. The Orcs of Cirith Ungol called him Her Sneak for his service to Shelob. He called himself “my precious”, perhaps confusing himself and the Ring. Sam devised two names, Slinker and Stinker, for the two aspects of Gollum's nature while he was serving Frodo. The former referring to his fawning behaviour toward Frodo as Ring-bearer and his sworn master, which was in part a sincere desire to be a good person and escape the control of the Ring, while the latter referred to Gollum's spiteful, treacherous, hating behavior toward all else, which sometimes carried over to Frodo.
Halbarad was a Dúnadan, Ranger of the North. Halbarad led the company of the Rangers that met Aragorn in Rohan during the War of the Ring, and accompanied his Chieftain through the Paths of the Dead. He was Aragorn's standard-bearer during the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, in which he was slain.
Ilúvatar is God. Dwelling alone in the Timeless Halls, Ilúvatar created the Ainur with the Flame Imperishable of his spirit, and he revealed to each of them a part of his mind. Desiring to make their comprehension more complete, he revealed to the Ainur the three great themes of the Ainulindalë. When Melkor created discord within that Music, but others of the Ainur were drawn to the Vision which came from it, Ilúvatar gave it Being, and Eä was created. Within Eä, the Valar independently tried to fulfill the Music, but some things – the creation of Men and Elves, the destiny of Men, and the End, for example – remained known only to Ilúvatar. He intervened directly in the affairs of Eä only twice: to sanctify Aulëe's creation of the Dwarves, and to change Arda at the request of the Valar, when the Númenóreans landed on Aman. Ilúvatar is the name given to him in Arda; he is also called Eru, Eru Ilúvatar, the One, and (once) God.
Ingwe was an Elda of the Vanyar. One of the ambassadors chosen by Oromë to visit Valinor and encourage the Eldar to undertake the Great Journey, Ingwë became King of the Vanyar and led his people quickly to the West. In Aman he dwelt first in Tirion and later at the feet of Manwë upon Taniquetil, and was named High King of the Elves. Revered by all Elves, he never returned to Middle-earth.
The King of the Dead was a Man, chief of the Men of the Mountains at the time of the founding of Gondor. On behalf of his people, he swore allegiance to Isildur at Erech, but broke the Oath when called to fight with the army of the Last Alliance. For this, he and his people were doomed to dwell in the Ered Nimrais until they repaid their debt, which they did during the War of the Ring. Although he was a normal Man, he was known as the King of the Mountains.
Lobelia Sackvill-Baggins was a Hobbit of the Shire, wife of Otho Sackville-Baggins, and mother of Lotho. She was born in Hardbottle, and was a Bracegirdle. Known for her shrewish temper and grasping ways, Lobelia tried for most of her life to gain pOssëssion of Bag End from Bilbo and Frodo by one means of another, until finally, in the Third Age 2018, Frodo sold it to her when he left the Shire. During Saruman's control of the Shire, Lobelia was imprisoned in the Lockholes for arguing with some of the Chief's Men. On her release, she was popular for the first time in her life, but being crushed by her son's death returned to her family in Hardbottle, and gave Bag End back to Frodo. When she died, she left her money to Frodo to be used to aid Hobbits made homeless by her son and Saruman.
The Lord of the Nazgûl was the chief Nazgul, the mightiest of Sauron's servants. Originally a king and sorcerer, he was enslaved by Sauron when he received the greatest of the Nine Rings. His fortunes rose and fell with Sauron's through the Second Age. With the other Nazgul, he arose again about the Third Age 1300. Disguising himself, he formed the evil realm of Angmar and became its Witch-king, seeking to destroy the already weakened Dúnedain of Arnor. As the Witch-king of Angmar, he directed the wars against the North-kingdom until 1975, when, after finally crushing Arthedain, his forces were routed by armies led by Círdan, Glorfindel, and Eärnur of Gondor in the Battle of Fornost. After the battle, the Lord of the Nazgûl disappeared from the North, but soon after, in 2000, he and other Nazgûl attacked Minas Ithil and took it after a two-year siege. The Nazgul-lord renamed the city Minas Morgul and became its lord. In 2043 and 2050 he challenged Eärnur, now King of Gondor, to single combat because the latter, owing to the terror of his horse, had notfaced him during the Battle of Fornost. In 2050 Eärnur accepted the challenge and was slain, probably treacherously. During the War of the Ring the Nazgul-lord led the search for Frodo during the latter's journey to Rivendell, and seriously wounded him at Weathertop. He led the army that attacked Minas Tirith in the Siege of Gondor, and broke the gates of the city. He was prevented from entering the city by the arrival of the Rohirrim. Although he killed King Théoden in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, he was in turn slain by Èowyn and Merry Brandybuck, fulfilling Glorfindel's prophecy at the Battle of Fornost that he was not to fall by the hand of Man.
Manwë is the noblest of the Ainur and the mightiest of the Aratar, the brother of Melkor, and spouse of Varda. Manwë is the dearest of the Ainur to Ilúvatar and understands his will and thought best. During the Ainulindalë, Manwë gave most attention to the ideas of air, wind, and clouds, and in Arda he is most cocncerned with these things, and with the birds that fly in the air. Within Eä, Manwë is the King of Arda and the lord of the Valar, ruling their councils, confirming their deeds, and hallowing their artifacts. His thrown is set in Ilmarin atop Taniquetil, whence he looks out over the world. Compassionate and wise, Manwë interceded to prevent the sundering of Elda-Adan lovers and attempted to avert the revolt of the Noldor and the downfall of Númenor. But he does not understand evil, and so he was deceived into unchaining Melkor, thus allowing the tragedy and glory of the wars of Elves and Men against the Darkness. Manwë loves the Vanyar best among the Eldar, and he delights in poetry. The clothing and eyes of his fana are blue, and his scepter is made of sapphire. His surname is Súlimo, Lord of a Breath of Arda. He is also called the King of Arda, the Elder King, and the Lord of the West.
Melkor was an Ainu given by Ilúvatar greater power and knowledge than any other of his kindred. Wise in all things, Melkor was, like Aulëe, especially gifted in the knowledge of substances and of crafts. Impatient with the slow designs of Ilúvatar, Melkor desired to bring things into Being himself, and he searched in the Void for the Flame Imperishable. On these solitary journeys, he began to have thoughts different from those of his fellows. These thoughts caused the discord of the Ainulindalë, and Ilúvatar wrought the Vision and Eä to show Melkor and the other Ainur the ultimate source of all thoughts and power. Melkor was one of the Ainur who entered into Eä, but there his eagerness turned to jealousy and he was excluded from the numbers of the Valar. Desiring to dominate created things and the wills of others, Melkor in his envy and malice claimed Arda as his own and, foiled in this by Manwë, hindered its completion and corrupted many of the Maiar into serving him. At last Melkor was defeated by Tulkas, but Arda was Marred. Soon after the Valar created the two Lamps, Melkor returned to Arda and secretly built the stronghold of Utumno in the far North. By now his desire had turned from Light to Darkness, and his ability to imagine and create new things had been reduced to deception and disortion, imitation and destruction. His chief weapons were cold and darkness. The Valar became aware of him by the blight that came over the Spring of Arda, but he forestalled their attack by destroying the Lamps. Melkor then retreated to Utumno, and while the Valar dwelt in the light of the Two Trees, he built Angband as a first defense against the Valar, forged weapons, bred monsters, and extended his dominion. When the Elves awoke he appeared among them as a dark Rider and probably captured Elves and from them bred Orcs. At last the Valar became concerned for the safety of the Elves, and in the Battle of the Powers Melkor was defeated and carried back to Valinor in chains. There he was imprisoned for three ages, but in Middle-earth his servants continued to labor. At the end of the third age of his Chaining, Melkor put on a fair countenance and deceived Manwë into freeing him. Forced to remain in Valimar, Melkor grew covetous of the Silmarils and the light of the Two Trees. Fiercely jealous of the Eldar Children of Ilúvatar, he kindled dissention within the House of Finwë, but he could not seduce Fëanor, although his lies did make the Noldo istrust the Valar. When Fëanor perceived his purposes Melkor fled from Valinor. Assuming permanently his old fana of the Dark Lord, Melkor came to the Avathar, where he enlisted the aid of Ungoliant to obtain the Silmarils and deprive all others of their light. Melkor and Ungoliant poisoned the Two Trees, stole the Silmarils, and slew Finwë. They fled to Middle-earth, where their quarrel over the spoils led to violence; Melkor's cry gave rise to the echo of Lammoth, but it summoned his Balrogs, with whose aid he escaped Ungoliant and came to Angband. In Middle-earth, Melkor became known as Morgoth, a name given to him by Fëanor. There, he defended the Silmarils against the Noldorin Exiles, although he also found time to corrupt the newly awakened Men. At first, dismayed by the light of the Moon and Sun, as well as by the fierceness of the Noldor, Melkor was defeated, and for nearly four hundred years he was besieged in Angband. He spent this time strengthening his forces, and he renewed the Wars of Beleriand with the assault of Dagor Bragollach, which marked the beginning of his conquest of Beleriand. Although not courageous in person, and although he was severely wounded many times, at last Melkor produced in Angband enough fires, vapors, pestilences, and monsters (dragons, trolls, Orcs, wolves, and bats) to wear down his foes, and the lies and treachery he fomented prevented the Eldar from fighting effectively or wisely. Even the loss of the Silmaril aided him, for the Oath of Maedhros and the Doom of the Noldor caused his enemies to slay each other. But when all seemed won, the Valar, moved by Eärendil and the Silmaril, interceded once more, and in the Great Battle Melkor's forces were destroyed. He was captured in the depths of Angband and cast out of Eä into the Void. Yet the Shadow of his malice and his lies remains on the hearts of Elves and Men and is mirrored in the broken patterns of Arda Marred. In later ages Melkor was worshipped by the Númenóreans and other Men deceived by Sauron. Melkor's fana was a tall, dark figure of great majesty and terr. By the end of the First Age it had burned hands (from the heat of the Silmarils) and eight great wounds (from the blows of Fingolfin and Thorondor); he was in constant pain. The symbol of his power in Middle-earth was the Iron Crown in which he had set the Silmarils. His weapon was the mace Grond. He dressed in black and his emblem was was a field of sable, unblazoned. The Sindarin form of Melkor's name, Belegur, was not used except in the punning variant Belegurth. In Middle-earth he was commonly named Morgoth or Morgoth Bauglir. He was also called the Foe of the Valar, the Enemy, the Great Enemy, the Dark King, the Dark Lord, the Lord of the Dark, the Dark Power of the North, the Evil of the North, the Black Hand, the Master of Lies, the Hunter and the Rider (by the Elves in Cuiviénen), and (by Sauron in Númenor) the Lord of the Darkness, the Lord of All, and Giver of Freedom. He called himself the King of the World.
A Hobbit of the Shire, son of Sardoc Brandybuck, adventuer and Master of Buckland, Meriadoc was also called Merry. He was a close friend of Frodo Baggins, and accompanied him to Rivendell in 3018. There he became one of the Companions of the Ring, and traveled with the Company until Parth Galen, where he and Peregrin Took were captured by Orcs. Merry and Pippin escaped into Fangorn where they were befriended by Fangorn the Ent, and were instrumental in launching the Ents' attack on Isengard. Merry later took service with King Théoden of Rohan, and as his esquire returned with him to Edoras. Although ordered to remain in Rohan when the Rohirrim rode to Gondor, Merry rode to Minas Tirith with Éowyn, and together they slew the Lord of the Nazgûl during the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Merry nearly died from the contact with the Lord of the Nazgul, but was healed by Aragorn.
Morgoth is the name given to Melkor by Fëanor when he learned of the theft of the silmarils and the murder of Finwë. Thereafter, Morgoth was the only name by which he was known among the Eldar. The fullest sense of the name is “Dark Enemy of the World” or “Black Foe of the World.”
Peregrin Took was a Hobbit of the Shire, the thirty-second Thain of the Shire (14-64), and a Counselor of the North-kingdom (14-64). In his youth, Pippin was a close friend of Frodo Baggins, whom he accompanied to Rivendell in 3018. There he became one of the Companions of the Ring. At Parth Galen he and Merry were captured by Orcs and taken toward Isengard. Escaping when the Orc-band was attacked by the Rohirrim, they fled into Fangorn Forest, where they were befriended by Fangorn the Ent, with whom they went to Isengard. There Pippin recovered the palantír which Gríma threw out of Orthanc, and being extremely curious in nature he looked in it and was questioned by Sauron. Gandalf later took him to Gondor, where he entered into the service of Denethor 2 and was made a Guard of the Citadel. During the Siege of Gondor, Pippin warned Beregond and Gandalf of Denethor's madness and thus helped to save Faramir's life. Later, Pippin marched with the Army of the West to the Morannon and in the final battle slew a great troll. After the War of the Ring, Pippin was rewarded by King Elessar and was made a knight of Gondor and a King's messenger. He then returned to the Shire and helped mobilize the Hobbits against the Chief's Men. Throughout his life Pippin maintained contact with the outside world, and in the Fourth Age 64 he and Merry resigned their offices and rode to Rohan and Gondor. They died in Gondor a few years later and were buried in Minas Tirith with great honor. Peregrin was universally known as Pippin. In Gondor during the War of the Ring, he was erroneously called Ernil I Pheriannath, Prince of the Halflings.
The dark, mysterious mounted figure who captured Elves who strayed from Cuiviénen. The Rider was probably Melkor, who needed to capture Elves so that he could breed them into Orcs; he probably appeared in this form to resemble Oromë and thus alienate the Elves from the Valar. He was also called the Hunter.
Samwise Gamgee was a Hobbit of the Shire, youngest son of Hamfast Gamgee. Like his father, Sam was a gardener; he took care of Bag End when Hamfast grew old. In this way he came to know Bilbo Baggins, who told him stories of his adventures and taught him to read; from this education Sam probably derived his love of Elves and lore. Because of his curiosity about such things, Sam was selected (after being caught eavesdropping) by Gandalf to accompany Frodo, as his servant, to Rivendell in 3018. There, under similar circumstances, he became one of the Companions of the Ring. When the Company was split at Parth Galen, Sam alone accompanied Frodo. On the journey to Mordor Sam many times proved his loyalty and devotion to Frodo. After Frodo was paralyzed by Shelob, Sam, thinking him dead, took the One Ring and vowed to continue the Quest, thus preventing the Ring from falling into the hands of the Orcs. Although tempted, Sam rejected the lure of the Ring because of his great practicality and honesty. With the aid of the Phial of Galadriel, Sam blinded Shelob and rescued Frodo from the Tower of Cirith Ungol. He then aided his master to reach Orodruin. After the War of the Ring, Sam returned to the Shire and married Rose Cotton. They had thirteen children and lived in Bag End, which was given to Sam by Frodo when the latter went over Sea in 3021. Because of the fame he had acquired as a result of his adventures, his friendship with the Thain and the Master of Buckland, his connection with the Cottons, and, as the heir of Frodo, his financial independence, Sam was elected Mayor of the Shire seven times. In the Fourth Age 82, after the death of his wife, Sam sailed over Sea, which was permitted to do because he had been a Ring-bearer. Sam contributed to the Red Book of Westmarch and also wrote numerous poems.
Saruman was one of the Istari; as Saruman the White he was the greatest of the Order. Saruman had great power over Men's minds and great skill in his hands, and was especially learned in the lore of the Elven-rings and the devices of Sauron. In the Third Age 2463 he was made the head of the White Council. In 2759, with the consent of Steward Beren of Gondor, he settled in Isengard. At first, Saruman was a true friend to Rohan, but it slowly became apparent that he wished to become a power, and eventually it was learned that he coveted the One Ring. It is for this reason that he settled in Isengard, for he thought to use its palantír. Also for this reason he persuaded the White Council not to drive the Necromancer out of Dol Guldur, since he hoped that the Ring, seeking its master, would reveal itself if Sauron was not disturbed. His duplicity toward the White Council, which trusted him as its Ring-expert, delayed many actions and lulled many justified fears. In 2953, Saruman took Isengard for his own and fortified it. There he gathered Orcs and Dunlendings, who at his orders began harassing Rohan and Fangorn; he also began spying on Gandalf and keeping agents in Bree and the Shire. About 3000 he used his palantír and was trapped by Sauron; after this time, although he thought himself free, he was actually controlled by Sauron. His pride grew even more rapidly than his power at this time, and by the time of the War of the Ring he called himself Saruman the Many-Colored. About 3010, through his agent Gríma, he caused Théoden of Rohan to decline into old age, but the King was revived by Gandalf in 3019. During the War of the Ring, Saruman brought on his own destruction by sending an Orc-band against the Fellowship of the Ring. The Orcs captured only Merry and Pippin; they later escaped into Fangorn Forest, where their presence aroused the Ents, who attacked Isengard and imprisoned Saruman in Orthanc. Gandalf then cast him out of the order of the Wizards. Saruman was later released from Orthanc by Fangorn, and he and Gríma went to the Shire, where he had financed Lotho Sackville-Baggins's rise to power. Frodo cast Saruman out of the Shire after he returned from Gondor, and he was slain by Gríma. Saruman, or Saruman the Wise, was the name given him by Men in the north of Middle-earth; he was called Curunír by the Elves. His emblem, which was also used attributively to refer to him, was the White Hand. He was called Sharkey by the Orcs of Isengard and his Men in the Shire.
Sauron was Ainu, one of the Maiar of Aulë. Seduced by Melkor early in the First Age, Sauron became the chief of his servants and anchored the front line of his defense against the Valar and Eldar. While Melkar dwelt in Utumno, Sauron held Angband; he escaped capture during the Battle of the Powers. When Melkor returned to Middle-earth with the Silmarils, Sauron joined him in Angband and even directed the War during Melkor's attempt to corrupt Men soon after their awakening. After the breaking of the Siege of Angband, Sauron again ventured forth to secure Melkor's southwestern front. In 457 he took Minas Tirith on Tol Sirion, filling it with his werewolves and opening West Beleriand to the ravages of Orcs. A few years later Sauron secured Dorthonion by capturing Gorlim and using a sorcerous trick to make him betray Barahir's outlaws. In 466 Sauron captured Finrod and Beren, overcame Finrod in a wizard's duel, and killed Finrod and his Elves one by one in his dungeons. But retribution came soon after when Lúthien and Huan came to rescue Beren. After Huan slew his werewolves, Sauron assumed wolf form and fought the hound. Overcome by Huan's strength and Lúthien's magic, Sauron surrendered the tower and fled in vampire form to Taur-nu-Fuin, where he remained, dreadful but passive, for the rest of the First Age. After the Great Battle, Sauron submitted to Eönwë, but was told that he would have to return to Aman to be judged by the Valar. Although his repentance may have been sincere, his pride would not allow him to endure such humiliation, and he fled and hid himself somewhere in Middle-earth. About the Second Age 500, he began to reveal himself again, and by 1000 he had gathered enough power to establish a stronghold in Mordor and begin building the Barad-Dûr. In the long millennia of the Dark Years, Sauron corrupted many races of Men. Under the name Annatar and wearing a fair body, he seduced many groups of Elves, notably the Gwaith-i-Mírdain of Eregion. The combination of Sauron's skill and Noldorin creativity enriched both parties, until about 1500 they began forging the Rings of Power, by which Sauron hoped to ensnare the Free Peoples. Sauron placed much of his power in the One Ring, with which he completed the Barad-Dûr. When Celebrimbor of Eregion discovered Sauron's treachery with the Rings, Sauron resorted to force and began the War of the Elves and Sauron (1693-1700), in which he destroyed Eregion and overran Eriador, but was defeated by Gil-galad and a fleet sent to Middle-earth by Tar-Minastir of Númenor. After Sauron was defeated by Gil-galad in the War of the Elves and Sauron, he revealed himself openly, gathering in his service Orcs and other monsters of Morgoth, ruling great areas (especially in the east) by force and terror, and apparently converting his vassals to the worship of Melkkor, for Sauron remained ever true in his allegiance. In his pride Sauron claimed the title King of Men, thus arousing the equal pride of the Kings of Númenor. In 3262, Ar-Pharazôn landed at Umbar with a vast force. Deserted by his armies, Sauron was forced to submit to Ar-Pharazôn, who took him back to Númenor. In fifty years Sauron played on the Númenóreans' fear of death so effectively that the majority utterly repudiated the Valar and worshipped Melkor at Sauron's Temple. Finally, he persuaded Ar-Pharazôn to seize immortality by invading Aman. To his surprise, the Valar reacted by calling on Ilúvatar; sauron's body was caught in the terrible catastrophe of the destruction of Númenor, and thereafter he was unable to assume a fair-seeming form. Sauron returned to Mordor and marshaled his forces. In 3429 he attacked Gondor, taking Minas Ithil and destroying the White Tree, a hated symbol of the Last Alliance and was besieged in the Barad-Dûr. In 3441, in a final battle on the slopes of Orodruin, Sauron was overthrown by Gil-galad and Elendil, but killed both his foes. Isildur cut off his finger and took the Ring. In the Third Age, without the One Ring which formed the base of his power, Sauron was extremely cautious. His policy was twofold: to weaken the Dúnedain kingdoms without provoking massive retaliation, and to recover the Ring. The latter policy was clouded by Sauron's uncertainty about the fate of the Ring, which should have been destroyed by Isildur. After Sauron rose again about the Third Age 1000, he hid his identity and was known as the Necromancer or the Sorcerer of Dol Guldur. Since Mordor was guarded by Gondor, he dwelt in Dol Guldur. About 1300 he began to attack the Free Peoples, especially the Dúnedain. He sent the Lord of the Nazgûl to the North, where he founded Angmar. In the South, Sauron stirred up the Haradrim and the Easterlings against Gondor. After the Great Plague of 1636, which may have been sent by Sauron, Gondor's watch on Mordor was relaxed, and the Nazgûl reentered that realm and prepared it for Sauron. In 2002 the Nazgûl took Minas Ithil, thus obtaining a palantír for Sauron, which he later used to ensnare Saruman and trick Denethor 2. In 2063, Gandalf went to Dol Guldur to learn the identity of the Necromancer, but Sauron fled to the East. He returned to Dol Guldur in 2460 with increased strength and renewed his plot until 2941, when he was driven out of Dol Guldur by the White Council. Sauron willingly retreated to Mordor, where he openly proclaimed himself, rebuilt the Barad-Dûr, and prepared to defeat the West by overwhelming Gondor and the smaller realms of the North with his vast armies of Orcs, trolls, Haradrim, Easterlings, and creatures more foul. Even though Sauron did not have the Ring, its very existence gave him enough strength to crush the West. Gandalf and Elrond, realizing this, saw that the only way to defeat Sauron was to destroy the Ring. Frodo Baggins volunteered to undertake the Quest of Mount Doom and, escaping Sauron's servants searching for him and the Ring, destroyed the Ring in the Fire of Doom. The Nazgûl were destroyed and Sauron so weakened that he was unable ever to take shape again. Sauron comes from the earlier Quenya form Thauron; the Sindarin name was Gorthaur the Cruel. He was also called Sauron the Deceiver, the Lord of the Earth (in the Second Age), the Enemy, the Master, the Dark Power, the Dark Lord, the Lord of Mordor, the Dark Lord of Mordor, the Power of the Black Land, the Black Master, the Black One, the Lord of Barad-Dûr, the Lord of the Dark Tower, and the Shadow. Other names were the Great Eye, the Red Eye, the Eye of Barad-Dûr, the Lidless Eye, the Evil eye, the Unnamed, the Nameless, the Nameless One, the Nameless Eye, He or Him, the Lord of the Rings, the Lord of the Ring, and the Ringmaker. He was also called, by Gollum, the Black Hand. Among Sauron's accomplishments are the invention of the Black Speech; the creation of the Nazgul, his most powerful servants, ensnared by the Nine Rings of Men; and the breeding of the Olog-hai, and perhaps, the Uruk-hai. After the ruin of his body in the destruction of Númenor, Sauron had the form of a Man; his skin was black and burning hot. In the Third Age, he most frequently appeared as a fearsome, ever-searching Eye.
The Shire was an area of about 18,000 square miles in Eriador between the Baranduin and the Far Downs, originally a fertile and well-tilled part of Arnor. In the course of the waning of the North-kingdom the area was deserted, and in the Third Age 1601 it was ceded by King Argeleb 2 of Arthedain to the Hobbits, led by Marcho and Blanco. By 1630 most of the Hobbits in Middle-earth lived in the Shire, which they divided into four Farthings, subdivided into the number of folklands. The Hobbits lived comfortably in their new land; the only adversities they faced in the Third Age were the Great Plague of 1636, the Battle of Greenfields (2747), the Long Winter and the Days of Dearth (2758-2760), the Fell Winter of 2911, and the domination of the Shire by Lotho Sackville-Baggins, Saruman, and evil Men during the War of the Ring. Indeed, the Hobbits of the Shire managed to ignore the outside world for so long that they almost forgot it existed, even though the Great East Road went through the middle of the Shire. In part, this safety was due to the ceaseless protection of the Rangers. Because of overpopulation, the Oldbucks of the Marish crOssëd the Brandywine in 2340 and settled in Buckland. In the Fourth Age 32, King Elessar formally added Buckland to the Shire and also gave the Hobbits the Westmarch, extending from the Far Downs to the Tower Hills. Earlier, in 17, he had issued a decree making the Shire a Free Land under his protection and forbidding any Men to enter the Shire. Before the death of Arvedui, the Shire had acknowledged the rule of the King, but was so divorced from outside affairs that this rule was only nominal. After the end of the North-Kingdom the Hobbits chose a Thain to rule until the return of the King; the Thain's duties were mostly ceremonial. The only official with active duties was the Mayor of Michel Delving, who had charge of the Watch and the Messenger Service.
Thorin 2, who lived from the Third Age 2746-2941, was a Dwarf of King of Durin's Folk in exile (from 2845-2941). In his youth Thorin foughtbravely in the Battle of Azanulbizar, and after that battle went with his father Thráin 2 and their folk to the Ered Luin. In 2845, after the disappearance of Thráin, Thorin became the King of Durin's Folk. For a hundred years he slowly increased the numbers and wealth of his people in the Ered Luin, until in 2941, long troubled by thoughts of the wrongs done his house, he met Gandalf and decided to reclaim Erebor from Smaug. This expedition of Thorin and Company met with success, but Thorin was killed soon after in the Battle of the Five Armies. He was known as Thorin Oakenshield, because in the Battle of Azanulbizar he used an oakbranch as a shield and club.
Varda is Ainu, the mightiest of the Valier, and one of the Aratar. She is the spouse of Manwë, with whom she lives in Ilmarin on the summit of Taniquetil. An ancient enemy of Melkor, Varda aids Manwë in the rule of Arda and the watching of Middle-earth. Varda is concerned with light. She made the stars, filled the Lamps of the Valar with light, collected the dews of the Two Trees in her Wells, fashioned the newer stars and constellations in preparation for the awakening of the Elves, hallowed the Silmarils, established the courses of the Moon and Sun, and set the star Eärendil in the sky.
Yvanna was Ainu, one of the Aratar and the second greatest of the Valier, the elder sister of Vána, and the spouse of Aulëe. She watches over the growing things of Arda, especially the olvar, and she planted the first seeds of all the plants of Arda. Yavanna's greatest creation was the Two Trees, but she held all trees dear and ordained the harvests; she also made Galathilion and brought forth the flower and fruit which became the Moon and Sun. Yavanna came often to Middle-earth in the early days of Arda, and since the evils of Melkor perverted the kelvar and olvar under her protection, she strongly supported all plans by the Valar to attack him. Her gardens in Valinor are the source of miruvórë. Her usual fana is tall and garbed in green, but sometimes she appears as a tree reaching to the heavens. She is surnamed Kementári, Queen of the Earth.