Since 1969, my roles and experiences at the University of Michigan have included developing and teaching academic programs, and conducting research projects. I developed an off-campus B.S.N. completion program for RNs, and an on-campus occupational health nursing Masters' degree program. Offering the B.S.N has enabled more than 1,000 RNs to obtain a baccalaureate degree, most of whom would not have been able to do so without the program because there were no programs available in their communities. Similarly, the Masters' degree program for occupational health nurses has now evolved into an on-job/on-campus (OJOC) format, enabling practicing occupational health nurses to obtain specialty preparation and retain their positions, essential since their families may be dependent on them as wage-earners.
Research also has been important. My research project was the first survey of corporate perspectives of occupational health nurses roles and its results have been widely used.
As I became more involved in the OHN field, I wanted to direct my efforts to the recipients of services, nursing's clients, rather than activities of nursing personnel. Thus, attention to workers, the recipients of services from occupational health nursing, was the next step. It was clear little attention had been directed to workers' attitudes regarding protecting themselves from illness or injury. After identifying this gap, I focused on workers' use of personal protective equipment. Believing workers' perceptions are at least as important as the equipment itself, I embarked on preliminary studies using components of the Health Promotion Model to explain workers' use of respirators, gloves, and hearing protection.
The resulting project, Nursing Model to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) founded by the National Institute of Nursing Research and the National Institute of Hearing and Communication Disorders at the National Institute of Health, has received international recognition. It was featured on the Sigma Theta Tau television program "Nursing Approach," and a press release distributed by the University of Michigan News and Information Services generated more than thirty requests from the business sector for additional information regarding our study.
The next phase involved the design and testing of an intervention to increase workers' use of hearing protection, which began with a pilot test of an intervention with 146 factory workers. As this pilot work was proceeding, NIOSH funded our project to identify the factors associated with construction workers' use of hearing protection, designed an intervention, and tested its effectiveness in a randomized controlled study. The intervention package (a videotape with a guided practice session, a brochure reinforcing content, samples of hearing protection devices (HPDs), and a flyer indentifying sources for HPDs was prepared and tested. It resulted in significant increases in use of HPDs by two of the four groups of workers at a twelve month post-test. This package, and the addition of a trainer's manual, is available through the American Association of Industrial Hygienists.
Concomitant with the focus on preventing NIHL, an opportunity arose to study non-auditory effects of noise exposure. Workers provided data through a questionnaire regarding lifestyle, stress, medical history, and psychological attributes, and selected workers wore ambulatory monitoring equipment to simultaneously measure blood pressure, pulse, and noise exposure as they worked. Designed as a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of conducting such a study in the worksite, it documented feasibility and demonstrated both acute and chronic effects of noise on blood pressure, pulse and symptomatology. If these results are replicated in a larger study, it will increase the importance of reducing noise exposure, through engineering and administrative controls as well as through the use of hearing protection.
A subsequent project funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research developed and tested an interactive multimedia individually-tailored intervention delivered via computer to factory workers in a randomized controlled design. This tailored intervention resulted in a significant increase in use of HPDs, while two other non-tailored interventions also delivered by computer did not significantly increase use six to eighteen months following the intervention. Tests of booster interventions found no significant long-term effect of boosters on HPD use.
- Staff and Assistant Head Nurse, Memorial Hospital, South Bend, IN
- Staff Nurse, Elkhart County Health Department, Elkhart, IN
- School Nurse, Baugo Township Schools, Elkhart, IN
- Staff Nurse, EIkhart Community Schools, Elkhart, IN
At the University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI:
- Assistant Professor
- Assistant to the Dean
- Project Director, Community-Based BSN Program for RNs, Special Project Grant
- Chairperson & Director, Registered Nurse Studies
- Associate Professor of Nursing, with Tenure
- Interim Director, Occupational Health Nursing
- Associate Director, Center for Occupational Health and Safety Engineering
- Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
- Professor Emerita of Nursing*
* current position
- Effectiveness of Computer-based Hearing Test and Training, Co-P.I.,(Hong, P.I.) NIOSH
- A Preliminary Study to Evaluate the Benefits of Self-Medication using Over-the-Counter Medication Dispensing System in an Automotive Plant, Co-P.I.,(Abdoo, P.I.) Medique Products
- Intervention to Prevent Construction Worker Hearing Loss, Co-P.I.,(Kerr, P.I.) NIOSH
- Test of Interventions to Prevent Workers' Hearing Loss, P.I., NINR
- Preventing Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Construction Workers, P.I., NIOSH
- Noise Effects on Cardiovascular and Stress-Related Diseases, P.I., UAW-GM National Joint Committee on Health and Safety
- Supplement to "Nursing Model to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss," P.I., National Office for Research on Women and Health
- Hearing Protections in Mexican American Workers, P.I., University of Michigan, Office of the VP for Research
- Nursing Model to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, P.I., National Office for Nursing Reserch and Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, R01
- Evaluation of Nursing Home Personnel Records, P.I., NIOSH Research Contract
- Predictors of Workers' Use of Hearing Protection, P.I., Biomedical Grant
- Psychosocial and Ergonomic Stressors of Workers in Geriatric Nursing Homes, P.I., NIOSH Research Contract
- Determining OHN's Interest in Advanced Education, P.I., Subproject of NIOSH Grant to Michigan Center for Occupational Health Safety Education
- Health Promotion and Workers' Use of Protective Equipment, P.I., BRSG
- Assessing Demand for OHN's, P.I., Subproject of NIOSH Grant to Michigan Center for Occupational Health & Safety Engineering
- Attitudes and Factual Knowledge of Aging and Cognitive Styles of Nursing Students, Co-P.I., with R. Williams, Subproject NRE Grant
- Relationship of Locus of Control, Attitudes Toward Poor, and Performance of Nursing Students in Community Health, P.I., BRSG
Occupational Health Nursing Program, Project Director, NIOSH Grant to Michigan Center for Occupational Health & Safety Engineering, 1986-1990, 1990-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005.
- Memorial Hospital School of Nursing~Diploma~Nursing
- Indiana University~B.S.N.~Nursing
- University of Michigan~M.P.H.~Nursing and Public Health
- University of Michigan~Ph.D.~Educational Psychology
Recent Academic, Professional, and Community Service
- Chair, Midwest Nursing Research Society Awards Committee
- Member, Nominating Committee, American Academy of Nursing
- Chair, Media Awards Committee, Rho Chapter, Sigma Theta Tau
- Chair, Program Committee, Midwest Nursing Research Society
- Chair, Occupational Health Nursing Program Directors Group
- Member, Governing Board, Midwest Nursing Research Society
- Nursing and Environmental Health Roundtable collaborative effort by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Substances and Disease Registry, and the National Institute for Nursing Research.
- AAOHN Representative, National Healthy People Consortium: Healthy People 2010
- Member, Work Group on Environmental Health Sciences Research, National Institute of Nursing Research, NIH
- Member, Priority Expert Panel on Community-Based Models, National Institute of Nursing Research
- Member, Conference on Research Priorities for Nursing Practice, National Center for Nursing Research, NIH
- Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Symposium, National Farm Medicine Center, Marshfield, WI
Advisory Committees and Boards
- Scientist Representative, Advisory Board for the National Initiative to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, National Institute for Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and the National Insititute for Occupational Safety and Health
- Charter Member, NIH CSR Study Section
- Chair, Special Emphasis Panel, NIOSH Disease Disability and Injury Prevention and Control: Cooperative Agreement for Intervention Effectiveness
- Peer Reviewer, Low Back Problems Guidelines, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
- Editorial Board, Michigan Association of OHNs Notes
- Editorial Board, Volume 5, AAOHN Update Series, The Continuing Professional Education Center, Inc.
- The Annals of Occupational Hygiene
- American Journal of Industrial Medicine
- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
- Nursing Outlook
- Health Education Quarterly
- Journal of Rural Health
- American Journal of Health Promotion
- Journal of Nursing Education
- Public Health Nursing Journal
Selected Honors and Memberships
- Mary Louise Brown Research Recognition Award, American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 2001
- Distinguished Alumni Award from Indiana University, School of Nursing, 2000
- Fellow, AAOHN
- Distinguished Contribution to Research in the Midwest, MNRS, 1998
- Phi Kappa Phi, University of Michigan
- Delta Omega, School of Public Health, University of Michigan
- Sigma Theta Tau, Alpha Chapter, Indiana University
- Fellow, American Academy of Nursing
- Baccalaureate Degree with Highest Distinction, Indiana University
- Lusk, S.L., & Kerr, M.J. (1994). Conducting worksite research: Methodological issues and suggested approaches. AAOHN Journal, 42, 177-181.
- Lusk, S.L., Ronis, D.L., Kerr, M.J., & Atwood, J.R. (1994). Test of the health promotion model as a causal model of workers' use of hearing protection. Nursing Research, 43, 151-157.
- Lusk, S.L., & Baer, L.M. (1994). Using incentives to promote workers' participation in worksite research. Psychological Reports, 75, 256-258.
- Lusk, S.L. (1995). Preventing noise-induced hearing loss. In P.V. Moore (Ed) AAOHN Update V, 14, 1-8.
- Lusk, S.L., Kerr, M.J., & Ronis, D.L. (1995). Health-promoting lifestyle of blue collar, skilled trade, and white collar workers. Nursing Research, 44, 20-24.
- Lusk, S.L., Ronis, D.L, & Baer, L.M. (1995). A comparison of multiple indicators: Observations, supervisors' report, and self-report as measures of workers' hearing protection use. Evaluation and The Health Professions, 18, 51-63.
- Lusk, S.L., Kerr, M.J., & Baer, L.M. (1995). Psychometric testing of the Reduced Laffrey Health Conception Scale. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9, 220-224.
- Lusk, S.L. (1995). Linking practice and research: Return to work following myocardial infarction. AAOHN Journal, 43, 155-158.
- Lusk, S.L. (1995). Linking practice and research: Health promotion by mail. AAOHN Journal 43, 346-348.
- Lusk, S.L., & Gillen, M. (1995). Linking practice and research: Use of back belts to prevent low back injury. AAOHN Journal 43, 489-193.
- Lusk, S.L., Williams, R.A., & Hsuing, S. (1995). Evaluations of the facts on aging quizzes I & II. Journal of Nursing Education, 34, 317-324.
- Lusk, S.L., Ronis, D.L., & Kerr, M.J. (1995). Predictors of workers' use of hearing protection: Implications for training programs. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 37, 635-640.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997) Linking practice and research: Health effects of stress management in the worksite. AAOHN Journal, 45(3), 149-152.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997). Linking practice and research: Spirometry. AAOHN Journal, 45(6), 319-321.
- Lusk. S.L. (1997) Noise exposures: Effects on hearing and prevention of noise induced hearing loss. AAOHN Journal, 45(8), 397-410,420.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997) Linking practice and research: Health complaints of older workers. AAOHN Journal, 45(9), 461-464.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997). Linking practice and research: Effects of back rests and rest breaks. AAOHN Journal, 45(12), 646-660.
- Lusk, S.L., Ronis, D.L., Hogan, M.M. (1997). Test of the Health Promotion Model as a Causal Model of Construction Workers' Use of Hearing Protection. Research in Nursing and Health, 20(3), 183-194.
- Lusk, S.L., Ronis, D.L., and Baer, L.M. (1997) Gender differences in use of hearing protection. Women & Health, 25(4), 69-89.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997) Adult Interventions in Work and Community Sites. In A.S. Hinshaw, S.L. Feetham & J.L. Shave (Eds.) Handbook on Clinical Nursing Research,. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997). Workers and Worker Populations. In M.K. Salazar, (Ed.) Core Curriculum for Occupational Health Nursing, (pp 25-57). Orlando, FL: W.B. Saunders Co.
- Lusk, S.L. (1997) Health promotion and disease prevention in the worksite. In J.J. Fitzpatrick & J. Norbeck (Eds.) Annual review of nursing research, (pp 187-213). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
- Lusk, S.L. (1998). Linking practice and research: Worksite cholesterol screening and diet education programs. AAOHN Journal, 46(3), 147-153.
- Lusk, S.L., Kerr, M.J., & Kauffman, S.A. (1998) Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss in construction workers. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 59, 466-470.
- Lusk, S.L. (1998) Linking practice and research: Agricultural workers. AAOHN Journal, 46(9), 465-468.
- Lusk, S.L. (1998) Linking practice and research: Culturally sensitive interventions for Hispanics. AAOHN Journal 46(12), 589-592.
- Strasser, P.B., Lusk, S.L, Franzblau, A., Armstrong, T.J. (1999) Perceived psychological stress and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. AAOHN Journal, 47(1), 22-30.
- Lusk, S.L. (1999) Linking practice and research: Health impact of worksite health promotion programs. AAOHN Journal, 47(3), 135-136.
- Lusk, S.L., Kerr, M.J., Ronis, D.L., & Eakin, B.L. (1999) Applying the Health Promotion Model to Development of a Worksite Intervention. American Journal of Health Promotion 13(4), 219-227.
- Lusk, S.L. (1999) Linking practice and research: Demand management programs. AAOHN Journal, 47(6), 277-279.
- Lusk, S.L. (1999) Health promotion/disease prevention interventions in worksites. In A.S Hinshaw, S.L. Feetham & J.L. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of clinical nursing research, (pp 339-359).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing Co.
- Lusk, S.L. (1999) Linking practice and research: Light treatment for sleep disorders in shift workers. AAOHN Journal, 47(9), 436-439.
- Lusk, S.L. (1999) Linking practice and research: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Guildelines on rhinosinusitis and depression. AAOHN Journal, 47(12), 586-588.
- Lusk, S.L., Hong, O.S., Ronis, D.L., Kerr, M.J., Eakin, B.L., & Early, M.R. (1999) Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers use of hearing protection. Human Factors, 41(3), 487-494.
- Lusk, S.L. (2000) Linking practice and research: Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV exposed health care workers. AAOHN Journal, 48(3), 148-151.
- Lusk, S. L. (2000) Linking practice and research: Working conditions and adverse pregnancy outcomes. AAOHN Journal, 48(9), 414-417.
- Hong, O.S., Lusk, S. L., & Klem, L. (2000, Fall/Winter). Factor replication of the reduced Laffrey health conception scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement 8(2), 105-116.
- Lusk, S.L. (2000, November/December) AAN News & Opinion: American academy of nursing senior scholar at the Agency for healthcare research and quality. Nursing Outlook 48(6), 315-316.
- Lusk, S.L. (2000) Linking practice and research: Effects of peer education on food intake. AAOHN Journal 48(12), 551-552.
- Eakin, B. L., Brady, J., Lusk, S. L. (2001) Creating a tailored, multimedia computer-based intervention. Computers in Nursing Journal 19(4) 152-163.
- Lusk, S.L. (with contributions from Connon, C., Dirksen, M. and Miller, M.)(2001) Workers and worker populations. In M.K. Salazar, (Ed.) AAOHN core curriculum for occupational & environmental health nursing, 2nd ed., (pp 33-69). Orlando, FL: W.B. Saunders Company.
- Lusk, S. L. (2001) Linking practice and research: Effects of pre-work screening and early return to work programs. AAOHN Journal 49(6), 276-279.
- Lusk, S.L. (2001) Linking practice and research: Healthy People 2010. AAOHN Journal 49(9), 418-419.
- Lusk, S. L. (2001) Linking practice and research: Priorities for preventive services. AAOHN Journal 49(12), 540-541.
- McCullagh, M., Lusk, S., & Ronis, D. L. (2002) Factors influencing use of hearing protection among farmers: A test of the Pender Health Promotion model. Nursing Research 51, 33-39.
- Lusk, S. L. (2002) Linking practice and research: Preventing work related eye injuries. AAOHN Journal 50(6), 253-254.
- Lusk, S.L. and Raymond, D. (2002). Impacting Health Through the Worksite. In M. Wierenga, (Ed.) Nursing Clinics of North America: Lifestyle Modification, (pp 247-256). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.
- Kerr, M.J., Lusk, S.L., & Ronis, D.L. (2002) Explaining Mexican American Workers' Hearing Protection Use with Health Promotion Model. Nursing Research 51(2), 100-109.
- Smith, P. S., & Lusk, S. L. (2002) Occupational Health Nursing Research: An Overview from January 1990 to December 1999. AAOHN Journal 50(7), 315-323.
- Lusk, S. L. (2002). Prevention of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. In M. Wierenga, (Ed.) Nursing Clinics of North America: Lifestyle Modification, (pp 257-262). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.
- Lusk, S. L., Haggerty, B.M., Gillespie, B., & Caruso, C. (In Press) Chronic effects of workplace noise on blood pressure and heart rate. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal.
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