Plant and Microbial Toxins: SELECTED REFERENCES*

Ames, B. N. 1983. Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Science 221: 1256-1264.

Aucoin, R. R., E. Schneider and J. T. Arnason. 1992. Evaluating the phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of plant secondary compounds. pp. 75-86 in H. E. Linskins and J. E. Jackson (eds.), Plant Toxin Analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Barinaga, M. 1990. Amino acids: How much excitement is too much? Science 247: 20-22.

Bhatnagar, D, Lillehoj, E. B. and Arora, D. K. (eds.) 1992. Mycotoxins in Ecological Systems. Handbook of Applied Mycology, Vol. 5. M. Dekker, NY.

Blackwell, W. H. 1990. Poisonous and Medicinal Plants. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Bresinsky, A. and H. Besl. 1989. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi. A Handbook for Pharmacists, Doctors and Biologists. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Butler, G. W. and R. W. Bailey (eds.) 1973. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage. Vol. I. Academic press, London. Separate chapters cover amino acids and ureides, nonstructural carbohydrates, structural carbohydrates, lipids, phenolics, lignin, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates, chlorophyll, carotenoid pigments and sterols, forage saponins and mineral composition.

Carlini, C. R. and J. A. Guimaraes 1991. Plant and microbial toxic proteins as hemilectins: emphasis on canatoxin. Toxicon 29: 791-806.

Carmichael, W. W. (ed.). 1981. The Water Environment. Algal Toxins and Health. Plenum Publ. Co., NY.

Chadwick, D. J. and J. Marsh (eds.). 1990. Bioactive Compounds from Plants. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.

Chadwick, D. J. and J. Whelan (eds.) 1992. Secondary Metabolites: Their Function and Evolution. J. Wiley, Chichester, England; New York, NY. This volume has chapters covering many specialized topics including the origins of secondary metabolism, various antibiotics, and the roles of secondary metablites in plants and microbes.

**Ciegler, A. and J. W. Bennett. 1980. Mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses. BioSci. 30: 512-515.

Cheeke, P. R. 1985. Natural Toxicants in Feeds and Poisonous Plants. AVI Pub. Co., Westport, CT.

Cheeke, P. R. 1995. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Journal of Animal Science. 73: 909-18.

Cole, R. J. (ed.). 1986. Modern Methods in the Analysis and Structural Elucidation of Mycotoxins. Academic Press, London.

Colegate, S. M. and P. R. Dorling (eds.) 1994. Plant-associated Toxins: Agricultural, Phytochemical, and Ecological Aspects. CAB International, Wallingford, England.

Colegate, S. M. and R. J. Molyneux (eds.). 1993. Bioactive Natural Products. Detection, Isolation and Structural Determination. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

Committee on Food Protection, N.R.C. 1973. Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. (2nd ed.), Natl. Acad. of Sci., Washington, D.C. Chapters cover nitrates, nitrites, toxic proteins and peptides, amino acids, food lipids, sulfur compounds, antivitamins, enzyme inhibitors, cyanogenic glycosides, phenolics, oxalates, phytates, amines, seafood toxins, microbial toxins, spices, carcinogens, photosensitizers and others.

Coulombe, R. A. Jr. 1993. Biological action of mycotoxins. J. Dairy Sci. 76(3): 880-891.

Csaky, T. Z. and B. A. Barnes. 1984. Cutting's Handbook of Pharmacology, 7th edn. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk, CN.

Davis, W. 1988. Zombification. Science 240: 1715-1716. A controversial subject is summarized.

D'Mello, J. P. F. (ed.) 1997. Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Duke, J. A. 1992. CRC Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. A listing of about 3,000 biologically active plant chemicals and their activities and dosages.

Duke, J. A. 1992. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Eaton, D. L. and J. D. Groopman (eds.) 1994. The Toxicology of Aflatoxins: Human Health, Veterinary, and Agricultural Significance. Academic Press, San Diego.

Emboden, W. Narcotic Plants. Macmillan Publ. Co., NY (1979).

Ensminger, A. H. et. al. 1994. Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Fackelmann, K. A. 1992. Pacific cocktail. Science News 141: 424-425. All about kava.

Fackelmann, K. A. 1993. Food, drug or poison? Cultivating a taste for toxic plants. Science News 143: 312-314.

Felix D'Mello, J. P., C. M. Duffus and J. H. Duffus (eds.) 1991. Toxic Substances in Crop Plants. Royal Soc. Chemistry, Cambridge. Separate chapters deal with toxic amino acids, tannins, saponins, lectins, proteinase inhibitors, antigenic proteins, glucosinolates, alkaloids, cyanogens and mycotoxins.

Felix D'Mello, J.P. (ed.) 1997. Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Contents: Bioactive indolizidine alkaloids -- Glycoalkaloids -- Erythrina alkaloids -- Endophyte alkaloids -- The toxicity of bracken fern (genus Pteridium) to animals and its relevance to man -- Analysis of proanthocyanidins and related polyphenolic compounds in nutritional ecology -- Gossypol -- Flavones -- Isoflavonoids -- Pyrimidine glycosides -- Allergens in fruits and vegetables -- Linear furanocoumarins -- Photosensitization disorders -- Nitrate and oxalates -- Pinus ponderosa needle-induced toxicity -- Feeding behavior of herbivores in response to plant toxicants -- Modeling animal responses to plant toxicants -- Medicinal applications of plant toxicants -- Aflatoxins -- Fusarium mycotoxins -- Toxicants of the genus penicillium --Alternaria toxins.

Foster, S. and R. A. Caras (eds.) 1994. A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants, North America, North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Frohne, D. 1984. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants: A Handbook for Pharmacists, Doctors, Toxicologists, and Biologists. Wolfe Publishing, London.

Gallagher, C. and J. Allred 1992. Taking the Fear Out of Eating. A Nutritionist's Guide to Sensible Food Choices. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY.

Garcia-Olmedo, F. et al. 1987. Plant proteinaceous inhibitors of proteinases and a-amylases. pp. 275-334 in Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Vol. 4. B. J. Miflin (ed.), Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

Garland, T. and A.C. Barr (eds.) 1998. Toxic plants and Other Natural Toxicants. CAB International, Wallingford, England.

Geacintov, W. E. and C. E. Sovenberg 1991. Chemical, molecular biology, and genetic techniques for correlating DNA base damage induced by ionizing radiation with biological end points. Basic Life Sci. 58: 453-473.

Hansen, H. A. (M. Crofts, Transl.) 1978. The Witch's Garden. Unity Press - Michael Kesend, Santa Cruz, CA.

Harborne, J. B. 1993. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry, 4th ed. Academic Press, London. Contents: Plant and its biochemical adaptation to the environment -- Biochemistry of plant pollination -- Plant toxins and their effects on animals -- Hormonal interactions between plants and animals -- Insect feeding.

*Harborne, J. B. and H. Baxter. 1993. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor and Francis, London. A comprehensive listing of plant secondary comounds with their structure, sources and physiological action. A the start of each section, there is a good summary for that chemical group.

Harborne, J. B. (ed.) 1972. Phytochemical Ecology, Academic Press, London. Chapters on cyanogenic glycosides, aflatoxin, selenium toxicity, toxic amino acids in the legumes and Senecio alkaloids.

Harborne, J. B. and H. Baxter (eds.) 1996. Dictionary of Plant Toxins. Wiley, Chichester, England.

Harborne, J. BV. 1988. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry, Academic Press, London. pp. 82-119 survey plant toxins and their effects on animals. Earlier editions are still useful and may be more available.

Hardin, J. W. and J. M. Arena. 1974. Human Poisonings from Native and Cultivated Plants (2nd ed.), Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

Harlan, J. R. 1993. Crops and Man. 2nd ed. Am. Soc. Agron., CSSA, Inc. Madison, WI. Many aspects of crop evolution are discussed; however, the selective elimination of toxins from food crops is of special interest here.

Harris, J. B. (ed.) 1986. Natural Toxins. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Mostly venoms but pp. 72-94 deal with plant toxins.

Harvey, A. L. (ed.) 1993. Natural and Synthetic Neurotoxins. Academic Press, London, San Diego.

Harvey, A.L. (ed.) 1993. Natural and Synthetic Neurotoxins. Academic Press, London. Contents: Neurotoxins as tools in lesioning - Structure and function of bacterial exotoxins which regulate second messenger generation -- Neurotoxins acting on acetylcholine receptors -- Toxins affecting ion channels -- Differential neurotoxicity of endogenous and exogenous excitatory neurotransmitter receptor agonists -- MPTP and Parkinson's disease -- Neurotoxins from plants and fungi -- Actions of clostridial toxins on storage and release of neurotransmitters.

Hayes, A. W. 1981. Mycotoxin Teratogenicity and Mutagenicity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Henry, S. H. et al., 1999. Reducing liver cancer - Global control of aflatoxin. Science 286: 2453-2454.

Hirono, I. (ed.) 1987. Naturally Occurring Carcinogens of Plant Origin: Toxicology, Pathology, and Biochemistry. Kodansha, Tokyo.

Institoris, H. (M. Summers, transl.) 1970. Malleus Maleficarum. B. Blom, NY. Transl. from the 15th century original with notes. This is basically the story of the Inquisition in Europe and the stamping out of witchcraft.

International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins. Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1986).

James, L. F. et. al. (eds.) 1992. Poisonous Plants: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Johns, T. 1990. With Bitter Herbs They Shall Eat It. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Jones, Julie Miller. 1993. Food Safety. Eagan Press, St. Paul, MN.

Keeler, R. F. and A. T. Tu (eds.) 1983. Handbook of Natural Toxins. Vol. 1. Plant and Fungal Toxins. Dekker, NY.

Keeler, R. F. and A. T. Tu (eds.) 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. M. Dekker, NY.

Keeler; R.F., N.B. Mandava and A.T. Tu (eds.) 1992. Natural Toxins: Toxicology, Chemistry, and Safety. Alaken, Inc., Fort Collins, CO. Contents: Activation and disposition of 3-methylindole associated with acute lung injury -- Teratogenicity and toxicity of solanum alkaloids -- Oxidative metabolism of toxic 3-substituted heterocycles. Comparisons of furans and indoles and their mechanisms of cytochromes P-450 bioactivation -- Biotransformation of toxic glycosides by ruminal microorganisms -- Metabolism and distribution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids -- Toxic alkaloids associated with endophytic fungi as a causative agent in tall fescue toxicosis -- Recombinant fusion toxins as immunogens -- Myotoxin a inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-pump activity (calcium ion loading) -- Lyngbyatoxin A, a potent chemoattractant/pustulant -- Cytotoxic compounds from marine organisms -- Biogenetic origin and natural analogs of tetrodotoxin -- Activation of cholera toxin by ADP-ribosylation factors -- Shiga toxin mode of action on human vascular endothelium -- Bacterial endotoxins: structure, function and mechanism of action -- Selected biological effects of mycotoxins relative to health and safety -- Laboratory safety considerations in the handling of natural toxins -- Safety aspects of aflatoxins in grain and in edible swine tissues -- Health and safety aspects of aflatoxin analysis in the official grain inspection system.

Kinghorn, A. D. (ed.) 1979. Toxic Plants. Columbia Univ. Press, NY.

Kingsbury, J. M. 1965. Deadly Harvest; A Guide to Common Poisonous Plants, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, NY.

**Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous Plants of the United States. Prentice-Hall, Inc. pp. 17-59 survey the major groups of plant toxins.

**Kingsbury, J. M. 1980. One man's poison. BioSci. 30: 171-176. A very readable account of the discovery of some important plant toxins and the benefits from their study.

Knudsen, I. (ed.) 1986. Genetic Toxicology of the Diet. Alan R. Liss, Inc., NY.

Krogh, P. (ed.) 1992. Mycotoxins in Food. Academic Press, London (1987).

Lampe, K. F. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago Review Press, Chicago, IL.

Laskin, A. I. and H. A. Lechevalier (eds.) 1987. Toxins and Enzymes. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Lewin, L. 1998. Phantastica: A Classic Survey on the Use and Abuse of Mind-altering Plants. Park Street Press, Rochester, VT.

Lewis, M. H. and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis. 1977. Medical Botany. John Wiley and Sons. Toxins classified according to pharmacological effect. pp. 11-63 survey plants and toxins causing internal poisoning.

Li, A. P. and R. H. Heflich. 1991. Genetic Toxicology. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

**Litton, W. 1975. The most poisonous mushrooms, Sci. Am. 232: 91-101.

Lincoff, G. and D. H. Mitchell. 1978. Toxic and Hallucinogenic Mushroom Poisoning, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, NY.

Linskens, H. F., and J. F. Jackson (eds.) 1992. Plant Toxin Analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Individual chapters deal with analytical methods, quantitative assays, host-selective toxins, phototoxicity, toxic extracellular enzymes, toxic extracellular polysaccharides, analysis of mycotoxins, elicitors, suppressors, antioxidants, allelolopathy involving pollen and nectar and cyanogenic glycosides.

Linz, J. E. and Pestka, J. J. 1992. Mycotoxins: molecular strategies for control. Biotechnology 23:217-231.

Lord, J. M. and Roberts, L. M. 1987. Plant toxins. Microbiol. Sci. 4:376-378.

Mann, J. 1993. Murder, Magic and Medicine. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

Marczewski, A. E. 1983. Pasture Plants Toxic to Livestock in Michigan. Extension Bull. E-1725, Mich. Agric. Exp. Station, E. Lansing.

Marnett, L. J. (ed.) 1992. Frontiers in Molecular Toxicology. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Marx, J. 1990. Animal carcinogen testing challenged. Science 250: 743-745.

Matossian, M. K. 1989. Poisons of the Past: Molds, Epidemics and History. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

*McGee, H. 1984. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Scribner's, NY. This volume and it's sequel below cover many aspects of the chemistry of plant stored nutrients and foods in general. In addition, many human nutritional and health problems related to foods are discussed.

*McGee, H. 1992. The Curious Cook. More Kitchen Science and Lore. MacMillan Publ. Co., NY.

Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. 11th edn., Merck and Co., Rahway, NJ (1989). A great source of information on natural products.

Miller, D. M. 1991. Ciguatera Seafood Toxins. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Mislivec, P. B. 1981. Mycotoxin production by conidial fungi. pp. 37-110 in Biology of Conidial Fungi. Vol. 2. G. T. Cole and B. Kendrick (eds.), Academic Press, NY.

Mitchell, J. 1979. Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. Greengrass, Vancouver.

Moore R. E. 1977. Toxins from blue-green algae, BioSci. 27: 797-802.

Moreau, C. 1979. Moulds, Toxins and Food. Wiley-Interscience, Somerset, NJ.

Mulligan, G. A. 1990. Poisonous Plants of Canada. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa.

Neel, J. V. 1991. Update on the genetic effects of ionizing radiation. JAMA 266: 698-701.

Nes, W. D., G. Fuller and L.-S. Tsai. 1984. Isopentenoids in Plants. Biochemistry and Function. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY. Topics covered include the chemistry, metabolism, and biological roles such as hormonal and defense roles. Monoterpenes, gibberellins, carotenoids, brassinolides, steroids and steroid alkaloid teratogenicity are discussed.

Peraica, M., B. Radic, A. Lucic, and M. Pavlovic. 1999. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 77: 754-66.

Perrine, D. M., 1996. The Chemistry of Mind-altering Drugs: History, Pharmacology, and Cultural Context. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Pitt, J. I. and A. D. Hocking. 1986. Fungi and Food Spoilage. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.

Placinta, C. M., J. P. F. D'Mello, and A. M. C. Macdonald. 1999. A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science & Technology. 78: 21-37.

Plumlee, K. H. and Galey, F. D. 1994. Neurotoxic mycotoxins: a review of fungal toxins that cause neurological disease in large animals. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8:49-54.

Pohland, A. E. 1993. Mycotoxins in review. Food Addit. Contam. 10:17-28.

Pohland, A. E. et al. 1991. Microbial Toxins in Foods and Feeds. Cellular and Molecular Modes of Action. Plenum Press, NY.

Prakash, A. S., T. N. Pereira, P. E. B. Reilly, and A. A. Seawright. 1999. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in human diet. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology & Environmental Mutagenesis. 443: 53-67.

Purchase, I. F. H. (ed.) 1974. Mycotoxins. Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., Amsterdam.

**Ray, O. and S. Ksir 1993. Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Mosby, St. Louis, MO. **pp. 323-354 cover hallucinogens.

Recheigl, M., Jr. 1983. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Rein, K. S., and J. Borrone. 1999. Polyketides from dinoflagellates: origins, pharmacology and biosynthesis. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 124: 117-31.

Riley, R. T., Norred, W. P. and Bacon, W. P. 1993. Fungal toxins in foods: recent concerns. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 13: 167-189.

Romeo, J. T. (ed.) 1999. Phytochemicals in Human Health Protection, Nutrition and Plant Defense. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry Vol. 33. Kluwer Academic, New York, NY. Individual chapters deal with cyanides, phenolic compounds and other physiologically active constituents.

Rumack, B. H. and E. Salzman (eds.) 1978. Mushroom Poisoning. Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Samson, R. A. 1992. Mycotoxins: a mycologist's perspective. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30 (Suppl 1): 9-18.

Scheuer, P. J. (ed.) 1977. Marine Natural Products. Chemical and Biological Perspectives. Academic Press, NY.

Schneider, M. F. 1984. Plants Poisonous to Children and Other People. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of the Rochester area, Rochester, NY.

Schultes, R. E. and A. Hoffman 1992. Plants of the Gods. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT. This is reprint, not an update, of an earlier (1979) edition, so it is strong on the ethnobotany, but weak on the neurochemistry.

Scott, P. M. 1995. Mycotoxin methodology. Food Additives & Contaminants 12: 395-403.

Scott, P. M. 1996. Mycotoxins transmitted into beer from contaminated grains during brewing. Journal of AOAC International 79: 875-82.

Seawright, A. A. 1995. Directly toxic effects of plant chemicals which may occur in human and animal foods. Natural Toxins 3:227-32.

Shahidi, F. (ed.) 1997. Antinutrients and Phytomedicines in Food. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Shahin, M.; Smith, B. L., and Prakash, A. S. 1999. Bracken carcinogens in the human diet. Mutation Research 443: 69-79.

Shank, R. C. 1981. Mycotoxins and N-nitroso Compounds: Environmental Risks. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Sharma, R. P. 1993. Immunotoxicity of mycotoxins. Journal of Dairy Science 76:892-7.

*Sharma, R. P. and D. K. Salunkhe (eds.) 1991. Mycotoxins and Phytoalexins. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. *pp. 671-730 provide quite a good coverage of toxins in plants. *pp. 3-30 introduce the mycotoxins. Separate chapters cover other, more specialized aspects of mycotoxins.

Shier, W. T. 1994. Metals as toxins in plants. J. Toxi.-Toxin Rev. 13: 205-216.

Smayda, T. J. and Y. Shimizu (eds.) 1993. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Newport, RI. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Smith, J. E. and M. D. Moss. 1985. Mycotoxins. John Wiley and sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ.

Spencer, P. S. 1999. Food toxins, ampa receptors, and motor neuron diseases. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 31:561-87.

Spoerke, D. G. 1991. The Hidden Hazards in House and Garden Plants. Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., Inc., Missoula, MT.

Spoerke, D. G. and B. H. Rumack 1994. Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning and Diagnosis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Stegelmeier, B. L., R. J.Molyneux, A. D. Elbein and L. F.James 1995. The lesions of locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), swainsonine, and castanospermine in rats. Vet. Path. 32: 289-298.

Steidinger, K. A. and D. G. Baden. 1984. Toxic marine dinoflagellates. pp. 201-261 in Dinoflagellates. D. L. Spector (ed.), Academic Press, Orlando FL.

Steyn, P. S. 1995. Mycotoxins, general view, chemistry and structure. Toxicology Letters 82-83:843-51.

Suginmura, T. 1986. Studies on environmental chemical carcinogenesis in Japan. Science 233: 312-318.

Sweeney, M. J. and Dobson, A. D. 1998. Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species. International Journal of Food Microbiology 43:141-58.

Sweeney, M. J. and Dobson, A. D. 1999. Molecular biology of mycotoxin biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 175:149-63.

Tampion, J. 1977. Dangerous Plants. Universe Book, NY.

Taylor, W. I. and N. R. Farnsworth (eds.) 1975. The Catharanthus Alkaloids. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY.

Thurston, E. L. and N. R. Lersten. 1969. The morphology and toxicology of plant stinging hairs. Bot. Revs. 35: 393-412.

Timothy J. 1996. The Origins of Human Diet and Medicine: Chemical Ecology. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Tu, A. T. (ed.) 1992. Food Poisoning. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY. Separate chapters cover bacterial toxins, mushroom poisons, alkaloids, plant lectins, mycotoxins, seafood poisonings, marine toxins, goitrogens, teratogens and nitrosamines.

Turner, N. J. 1991. Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Tyler, V. E., L. R. Brady and J. E. Robbers. 1988. Pharmacognosy, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. Many toxins and their pharmacological value. Arranged mainly by chemical group. Older editions may be more readily available, and they are still very useful.

Vietmeyer, N. 1985. Science has got its hands on poison ivy, oak and sumach. Smithsonian 16 (Aug.): 89-95.

Watson, D. H. (ed.) 1987. Natural Toxicants in Food. Horwood, Chichester, England.

Watters, D. et al. 1992. Toxins and Targets. Harwood Acad. Publs., Reading, U.K. Mostly animal toxins but some algal toxins.

Westbrooks, R. G. 1986. Poisonous Plants of Eastern North America. 1st ed. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC.

Wood, G. E. 1992. Mycotoxins in foods and feeds in the United States. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3941-3949.

World Congress on Animal, Plant, and Microbial Toxins. 1989. Natural toxins: Characterization, Pharmacology, and Thereapeutics. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press.

Wyllie, T. D. and L. G. Moorhouse (eds.) 1978. Mycotoxic Fungi, Mycotoxins, Mycotoxicoses. 3 vols., Marcel Dekker, NY.

* The general references and that on chemical groups, especially the alkaloids, also provide some coverage of toxins. The reference lists on antibiotics and plant medicines also cover many toxins.

** Suggested reading.

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