Department of history University of Michigan
History 241 Winter 2014
Course Title: America and Middle Eastern Wars
Class Schedule: Lec TTH 2:30-4:00
Office Hours: 2527 Haven Hall, Thurs. 1:30-2:30 and by appt.
Instructor: Juan Cole
Telephone: 764-6305; e-mail: j r c o l e /at/ u m i c h /dot/ e d u
This course treats the impact and experience of warfare on the Middle East in the last third of the 20th Century and into the 21st. We will examine how the Cold War, Afghanistan, the Gulf War, the Iraq War and the War on Terror have shaped the modern MiddleEast. We will consider political and social history as well as the military aspect. We will also look at the causes for Washington policy-making toward the region. Grading is based upon a midterm and a final.Required texts: (Available at Ulrich's and at Reserve Reading Room, 3rd Floor, Shapiro Undergraduate Library).
Optional coursepack at Dollar Bill's, 611 Church St.
Michael Axworthy, Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Toby Dodge, Iraq: From War to a New Authoritarianism. (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2012)
Seth G. Jones, In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010)
Phebe Marr, The Modern history of Iraq (Boulder, Co.: Westview, 3rd edn. 2011).
Jan. 9 Orientation
THE COLD WAR
Jan. 14 The Cold War and the Middle East
John C. Campbell, "The Soviet Union and the United States in the Middle East," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 401, America and the Middle East (May, 1972), pp. 126-135 JSTOR Stable URLJan. 16 The Islamic Revolution in Iran and Regional Implications
Marr, Chapters 5, 6
Douglas Little, "The Making of a Special Relationship: The United States and Israel, 1957-68." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 25, No. 4. (Nov., 1993), pp. 563-585. JSTOR Stable URL
Axworthy, Revolutionary Iran, chapters 1-3Jan. 21 Afghanistan Wars and the Fall of the Soviet Union
Judith Palmer Harik, "Between Islam and the System: Sources and Implications of Popular Support for Lebanon's Hizballah," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 41-67. JSTOR Stable URL
Jan. 23 Reagan and The Saudi Alliance
Nick Cullather, "Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State," The Journal of American History, Vol. 89, No. 2, (Sep., 2002), pp. 512-537, JSTOR Stable URL
Jones, Graveyard, chapters 1-2
Bruce W. Jentleson, "The Reagan Administration and Coercive Diplomacy." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 106, No. 1 (Spring, 1991), pp. 57-82. JSTOR Stable URL
Harvey Sicherman, "King Fahd's Saudi Arabia," Orbis Vol. 55, Issue 3. Date: 2011 Pages: 481-488.Jan. 28 The United States and the Iran-Iraq War
Jonathan Marshall, "Saudi Arabia and the Reagan Doctrine," Middle East Report, No. 155, (Nov. - Dec., 1988), pp. 12- 17
William Ochsenwald , "Saudi Arabia and The Islamic Revival," International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3. (Aug., 1981), pp. 271-286. [Or keyword search title at Jstor)
Axworthy, Revolutionary Iran, ch. 4, ch. 5 to p. 295HYPERPOWER AMERICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST CHALLENGE
Marr, Chapters 7-8
Jack Colhoun, "Washington Watch: How Bush Backed Iraq." Middle East Report, No. 176, Iraq in the Aftermath. (May - Jun., 1992), pp. 35-37 JSTOR Stable URL
Jan. 30 The Kuwait Crisis in a Post-Soviet Context
Marr, Chapter 9, first halfFeb 4 The Gulf War, 1991
Feb. 6 The Rise of the Jihadis and the Beginnings of al-Qaeda
Ziad Munson, "Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood," The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 487-510 Stable JSTOR URL
William E. Shepard, "Sayyid Qutb's Doctrine of 'Jahiliyya'," International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Nov., 2003), pp. 521-545 Stable JSTOR URL
Saad Eddin Ibrahim. "Egypt's Islamic Activism in the 1980s." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2, Islam & Politics. (Apr., 1988), pp. 632-657.
Ann M Lesch "Osama Bin Laden: Embedded in the Middle East crises," Middle East Policy, Washington: Jun 2002. Vol. 9, Iss. 2; pg. 82, 10 pgs Stable Proquest URL
Feb. 11 Warlords and Taliban in Afghanistan
Jones, Graveyard, chapters 3-4THE WAR ON TERROR
Feb. 13 Al-Qaeda and September 11
Jones, Graveyard, chapter 5Feb. 18 The Unseating of the Taliban in 2001-2003
Robert S. Snyder, "Hating America: Bin Laden as a Civilizational Revolutionary," The Review of Politics, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 325-349 JSTOR Stable URL
Jones, Graveyard, chapters 6-8
Feb. 25 Midterm
Feb. 27 The Build-Up to the Iraq War
Amy Gershkoff and Shana Kushner, "Shaping Public Opinion: The 9/11-Iraq Connection in the Bush Administration's Rhetoric," Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Sep., 2005), pp. 525-537 JSTOR Stable URLMar. 11 The US Invasion of Iraq
Alex Callinicos, "Iraq: Fulcrum of World Politics," Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4/5, (2005), pp. 593-608 JSTOR Stable URL
Sukumar Muralidharan, "Intelligence, Incompetence and Iraq: Or, Time to Talk of Democracy, Demography and Israel," Social Scientist, Vol. 32, No. 11/12 (Nov. - Dec., 2004), pp. 21-80 JSTOR Stable URL
John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, "The Israel Lobby," London Review of Books, 23 March 2006
Timothy Garden, "Iraq: The Military Campaign," International Affairs Vol. 79, No. 4 (Jul., 2003), pp. 701-718 JSTOR Stable URL
Marr, pp. 281-308
Eugene J Palka, Francis A Galgano, Mark W Corson. "Operation Iraqi Freedom: A Military Geographical Perspective," Geographical Review. Jul 2005. Vol. 95, Iss. 3; pg. 373, 27 pgs Stable Proquest URL
Toby Dodge, Chapter 1Mar. 18 The Rise of the Mahdi Army
Steve Negus, "The Insurgency Intensifies," Middle East Report, No. 232 (Autumn, 2004), pp. 22-27 Stable Jstor URL
Marr, Iraq, Chapter 10, first half
Dodge, Iraq, chapter 2Mar. 20 Shiite-Ruled Iraq and Civil War
Juan Cole, "The Iraqi Shiites: On the history of Americas would-be allies," Boston Review, Fall, 2003
Marr, Iraq, Chapter 10, second half
Juan Cole, "The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Iraq" ISIM Paper no. 7 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006).Mar. 25 The Kurdistan Question and Post-Baath Iraq
Marr, Iraq, Chapter 11, first half
Michiel Leezenberg, "Iraqi Kurdistan: Contours of a Post-Civil War Society," Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4/5, (2005), pp. 631-647 JSTOR Stable URLMar. 27 Surge, al-Maliki, SOFA and the End of American Iraq
Gareth Stansfield, Liam Anderson, "Kurds in Iraq: The Struggle between Baghdad and Erbil," Middle East Policy, Washington: Spring 2009. Vol. 16, Iss. 1; pg. 134, 12 pgs. Stable Proquest URL
International Crisis Group, Iraq and the Kurds: Trouble along the Trigger Line , 8 July 2009.
Dodge, Iraq, chapters 3-5Apr. 1 The US vs. Iran: Nuclear Issue and Sanctions
Marr, Iraq, Chapter 11, second half
Axworthy, Revolutionary Iran, chapter 7
Thijs Van de Graaf, "The 'Oil Weapon' Reversed? Sanctions Against Iran and U.S.‐EU Structural Power," Middle East Policy Vol. 20, Issue 3. Date: 10/01/2013 Pages: 145-163.
Jones, Graveyard, chapters 9-15Apr. 8 Obama and Counter-Insurgency
Jones, Graveyard, Chapters 16-18Apr. 10 The End of Bin Laden and Ongoing Crisis in Pakistan-US Relations
Rathnam Indurthy, "The Obama Administration's Strategy in Afghanistan and Pakistan," International Journal on World Peace 28. 3 (Sep 2011): 7-52. Proquest stable URL
Steve Niva, "Disappearing violence: JSOC and the Pentagon’s new cartography of networked warfare," Security Dialogue Vol. 44, Issue 3. Date: 06/2013 Pages: 185-202.
C. Christine Fair, "Pakistan in 2011: Ten Years of the 'War on Terror'" Asian Survey 52. 1 (Jan/Feb 2012): 100-113. Proquest Stable URLApr. 15 Libya
Muhammad Mazhar and Naheed Goraya, "An Analytical Study of Pak-Us Relations: Post Osama (2011-2012) South Asian Studies 27. 1 (Jan-Jun 2012): 77-87. Proquest Stable URL
Adeel Khan. "Pushtun Ethnonationalism and the Taliban Insurgency in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan." Asian Survey. Berkeley: Nov/Dec 2009. Vol. 49, Iss. 6; p. 1092 (23 pages) Proquest Stable URL
Anita Demkiv, "Pakistan's FATA, Transnational Terrorism and the Global Development Model," Journal of Global Change and Governance ? Volume II, Number 1 (Winter/Spring 2009), pp. 1-20.
Jacques Roumani, "From Republic to Jamahiriya: Libya's Search for Political Community," Middle East Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring, 1983), pp. 151-168 (JSTOR)Apr. 17 Review Toward Exam
Wolfram Lachner, "Families, Tribes and Cities in the Libyan Revolution," Middle East Policy 18. 4 (Winter 2011): 140-154. Proquest stable URL
Luca Tardelli (2011) "The United States after unipolarity: Obama's interventions: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya," IDEAS reports - special reports, Kitchen, Nicholas (ed.) SR009. LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
Final Exam: Tues. April 29, 4-6 pm