RULERS OF GERMANY (DEUTSCHLAND): HISTORICAL NOTE

 

                Parts of Germany were already under Frankish control under the Merovingians, but most of the country was acquired under Charlemagne with his annexations of Bavaria and Saxony in 780s.  The list of German kings commences arbitrarily with the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty in 751, although the appearance of the combination of lands that would become Germany did not occur until 840.  At this point Ludwig II the German succeeded his father Ludwig I the Pious as king of the East Franks, a position confirmed by the treaty of Verdun in 844.  After the deaths of Lodovico II of Italy and of Charles II the Bald of France in the 870s, the German kings intervened in Italy and claimed the imperial title.  The German branch of the Carolingians became extinct in 907 and, although Lorraine acknowledged the French Carolingian Charles III the Simple, the German nobility elected one of their own number, Konrad I of Franconia, to be their king.  On his deathbed, Konrad I nominated his greatest rival, Heinrich of Saxony as his successor, and the nobility elected Heinrich I king in spite of Bavarian opposition.  Heinrich I recovered Lorraine in 925 and his son Otto I the Great defeated the Magyars in 955.  In the early 950s and early 960s, Otto I also intervened in Italy, ultimately making himself Italian king, and acquiring the title of Emperor from the Pope in 962.  From this point on, all Roman emperors in the West were German kings, although the title was technically open to any deserving Christian ruler.  German kings (also called “Kings of the Romans”) were not considered Emperors unless crowned as such by a Pope until 1508.  The kingdoms of Germany and Italy were united by a personal union within an Empire that was eventually described as a Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Römisches Reich).  The throne remained technically elective, but the hereditary principle was strong and kings bolstered it by proclaiming their sons co-rulers.  On the childless death of young Otto III in 1002, the crown passed to his cousin Heinrich of Bavaria.  On Heinrich II’s death in 1024, the German nobility had to elect a new king, but its choice was still between descendants of Otto I, one of whom became Konrad II.  Konrad II also inherited the kingdom of Burgundy (Arelate) and brought it into the Empire as its third component in 1032.  His son Heinrich III was a strong ruler, but royal authority declined severely during the reign of a minor after his death.  When Heinrich IV sought to reassert his authority, he faced by the opposition of both the nobility and the Papacy.  The German kings never fully overcame this alliance or either of the parties involved.  On the death of Heinrich V in 1125, the succession ignored his Hohenstaufen natural heirs and went outside the royal family for the first time (in the person of Lothar II).  The Hohenstaufen Konrad III eventually succeeded Lothar II and passed the throne to his nephew Friedrich I.  The Hohenstaufen lost the throne again during the minority of Friedrich II and the civil war between Philipp of Swabia and Otto IV of Brunswick.  When Friedrich II recovered Germany, he faced implacable opposition from the Papacy which resented being surrounded by Friedrich’s German and Sicilian possessions.  With the death of Konrad IV in 1254, the hereditary principle was discarded in favor of election. 

Between 1257 and 1272, the throne was disputed between Alfonso X of Castile and Richard of Cornwall.  In 1273 Rudolf of Habsburg was elected king as a relatively insignificant prince.  However, the one power the crown had retained allowed Rudolf I to greatly enhance the position of his family.  The Babenberg margraves of Austria being extinct and the succession to the duchy being open to question, it could be recovered by the crown and conferred on a new prince.  Rudolf I defeated his rival Otakar II of Bohemia in 1276 and 1278, and endowed his own family with Austria and Styria.  Avoiding the hereditary principle and shying away from the now powerful Habsburgs, the electors next elected as king Adolf of Nassau, whose attempts at aggrandizement soon led to his deposition in favor of a second Habsburg, Albrecht I in 1298.  He too sought to expand his family possessions, planting one son as king of Bohemia.  On his assassination in 1308 the electors elected a fairly minor prince, Heinrich of Luxemburg, who immediately placed his own son Jan as king of Bohemia and thus enhanced the positions of his own family.  After Heinrich VII’s death in 1313, the electors selected Ludwig IV of Bavaria as king (Ludwig V).  He weathered Habsburg opposition and aggrandized his family’s possessions by marrying the heiress of Holland and Hainault and making his sons margraves of Brandenburg.  The next king to be elected was Karl IV (Karel I of Bohemia), the grandson of Heinrich VII.  In 1356 Karl IV issued a Golden Bull, which recognized the virtual independence of the major German princes and regulated imperial coronations.  Having thus resigned himself to the anarchic state of the Empire, Karl IV focused on improving his Bohemian kingdom, and acquired Brandenburg for his own family from the Wittelsbachs.  Karl IV also crowned his son Wenzel (Václav IV of Bohemia) co-ruler as King of the Romans and thus assured his succession in 1378.  Although the ineffective Wenzel was eventually deposed and replaced with Rupprecht of Pfalz in 1400, the kingship was gradually becoming hereditary once again.  Thus, Wenzel’s brother Sigismund succeeded Rupprecht in 1410, and was himself succeeded by his son-in-law Albrecht IV of Habsburg (king as Albrecht II).  On the death of Albrecht II, his cousin Friedrich of Styria was elected king (Friedrich III), and the succession remained in the hands of the Habsburgs with only one interruption down to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.  The one interruption was occasioned by the extinction of the direct male Habsburg line in 1740, but the contest over the succession (or election) was basically between two Habsburg sons-in-law. 

Royal and imperial control over the realm was further compromised by the Reformation in the 16th century and by the Thirty Years’ War in 1618–1648.  Since the Habsburgs were at once staunchly Catholic and unable to defeat their Protestant challengers, their authority over the Protestant princes of the North diminished greatly.  In 1701 Friedrich III of Brandenburg was allowed to assume the title King in Prussia (i.e. beyond the boundaries of the Empire) as Friedrich I.  Several other German states became kingdoms during the Napoleonic Wars or were granted a high status after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 or later in the 19th century.  The Holy Roman Empire and the last vestiges of the Medieval German “state” were swept away in 1806, when the Habsburg emperor Franz II abdicated and became Emperor of Austria instead.  A movement for the unification of Germany gradually appeared and eventually culminated in the creation in 1870 of a German Empire headed by the King of Prussia as Emperor and including the other German kingdoms of Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg.  The rulers of the Medieval German kingdom, of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Württemberg, Bade, Hesse, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg are included in the list below.

 

RULERS OF GERMANY (DEUTSCHLAND): LIST

 

 

Kings of the Franks, Kings of the East Franks from 840, Kings of the Germans (Romans), Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519

751–768

PIPPIN the Short

Son of Charles Martel; elected king of the Franks

768–814

KARL I the Great (Charlemagne)

Son of Pippin (Emperor 800)

768–771

KARLMANN I

Son of Pippin

 

KARL the Younger

Son of Karl I; co-ruler 806–811

814–840

LUDWIG I the Pious

Son of Karl I (Emperor 813 and 816)

815–817

LOTHAR I

Son of Ludwig I; replaced, died 855 (Emperor 817 and 823)

817–876

LUDWIG II the German

Son of Ludwig I; King of Bavaria; of the East Franks 840

828–838

KARL II the Bald

Son of Ludwig I; King of Swabia; replaced, died 877 (Emperor 875)

876–880

KARLMANN II

Son of Ludwig II; King of Bavaria

876–882

LUDWIG III

Son of Ludwig II; King of Saxony

876–887

KARL III the Fat

Son of Ludwig II; King of Swabia; deposed, died 888 (Emperor 881)

887–899

ARNULF of Carinthia

Son of Karlmann II (Emperor 896)

900–911

LUDWIG IV the Child

Son of Arnulf

911–918

KONRAD I

Son of Konrad of Oberlahngau; elected king

919–936

HEINRICH I the Fowler

Son of Otto I of Saxony; elected king

936–973

OTTO I the Great

Son of Heinrich I (Emperor 962)

973–983

OTTO II the Red

Son of Otto I; co-ruler 961 (Emperor 967)

983–1002

OTTO III

Son of Otto II, co-ruler 983 (Emperor 996)

1002–1024

HEINRICH II the Saint

Son of Heinrich II son of Heinrich I of Bavaria son of Heinrich I (Emperor 1014)

1024–1039

KONRAD II the Salian

Son of Heinrich of Speyer son of Otto of Carinthia son of Konrad of Lorraine by Liutgard daughter of Otto I (Emperor 1027)

1039–1056

HEINRICH III the Black

Son of Konrad II; co-ruler 1028 (Emperor 1046)

1056–1105

HEINRICH IV

Son of Heinrich III; co-ruler 1054; deposed by son, died 1106 (Emperor 1084)

(1077–1080)

RUDOLF of Swabia

Son of Kuno of Rheinfelden; mortally wounded in battle

(1081–1088)

HERMANN of Salm

Son of Giselbert of Luxemburg; killed in battle

(1089–1090)

EKBERT of Meissen

Son of Ekbert I of Meissen; murdered

(1090–1101)

KONRAD

Son of Heinrich IV; co-ruler 1087–1093; deposed by father, anti-king from 1090

1105–1125

HEINRICH V

Son of Heinrich IV; co-ruler 1099 (Emperor 1111)

1125–1137

LOTHAR II of Supplinburg

Son of Gebhard of Supplinburg; elected king (Emperor 1133)

1138–1152

KONRAD III of Hohenstaufen

Son of Friedrich I of Swabia by Agnes daughter of Heinrich IV; formerly anti-king 1027–1035

 

HEINRICH

Son of Konrad III; co-ruler 1147–1150

1152–1190

FRIEDRICH I Barbarossa (Red Beard)

Son of Friedrich II of Swabia brother of Konrad III (Emperor 1155)

1190–1197

HEINRICH VI

Son of Friedrich I; co-ruler 1169 (Emperor 1191)

1197–1198

FRIEDRICH II Roger

Son of Heinrich VI; co-ruler 1196; deposed

1198–1208

PHILIPP of Swabia

Son of Friedrich I; murdered

1198–1218

OTTO IV of Braunschweig

Son of Heinrich XII of Bavaria; elected king (Emperor 1209)

1210–1250

FRIEDRICH II Roger

Restored (Emperor 1220)

 

HEINRICH

Son of Friedrich II; co-ruler 1220–1235; deposed by father, committed suicide 1242

(1246–1247)

HEINRICH Raspe of Thuringia

Son of Hermann I of Thuringia

(1247–1256)

WILHELM of Holland

Son of Floris IV of Holland

1250–1254

KONRAD IV

Son of Friedrich II; co-ruler 1237

(1257–1272)

RICHARD of Cornawall

Son of John of England; elected king

(1257–1274)

ALFONS the Wise of Castile

Son of Fernando III of Castile by Elisabeth daughter of Philipp; resigned, died 1284

1273–1291

RUDOLF I of Habsburg

Son of Albrecht IV of Habsburg; elected king

1292–1298

ADOLF of Nassau

Son of Walram II of Nassau; elected king; deposed, killed in battle 1298

1298–1308

ALBRECHT I of Austria

Son of Rudolf I; murdered

1308–1313

HEINRICH VII of Luxemburg

Son of Heinrich III of Luxemburg; elected king (Emperor 1312)

1314–1347

LUDWIG V the Bavarian

Son of Ludwig II of Bavaria; elected king; mortally wounded (Emperor 1328)

(1314–1322)

FRIEDRICH the Handsome

Son of Albrecht I; co-ruler 1325–1330

1346–1378

KARL IV of Bohemia

Son of Jan of Bohemia son of Heinrich VII (Emperor 1355)

(1349–1349)

GÜNTHER of Schwarzburg

Son of Heinrich VII of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg; abdicated, died 1349

1378–1400

WENZEL of Bohemia

Son of Karl IV; co-ruler 1376; deposed, died 1419

1400–1410

RUPRECHT the Little of Pfalz

Son of Ruprecht II of Pfalz

(1410–1411)

JOBST of Moravia

Son of Jan Jindřich of Moravia brother of Karl IV

1410–1437

SIGISMUND of Bohemia

Son of Karl IV (Emperor 1433)

1438–1439

ALBRECHT II of Austria

Son of Albrecht IV son of Albrecht III son of Albrecht II of Austria son of Albrecht I

1440–1493

FRIEDRICH III the Peaceful of Styria

Son of Ernst of Styria (Emperor 1452)

1493–1519

MAXIMILIAN I

Son of Friedrich III; co-ruler 1486 (Emperor 1508)

1519–1558

KARL V

Son of Felipe I of Castile son of Maximilian I; abdicated, died 1558

1558–1564

FERDINAND I

Brother of Karl V; co-ruler 1531

1564–1576

MAXIMILIAN II

Son of Ferdinand I; co-ruler 1562

1576–1612

RUDOLF II

Son of Maximilian II; co-ruler 1575

1612–1619

MATTHIAS

Son of Maximilian II

1619–1637

FERDINAND II

Son of Karl II of Austria-Styria son of Ferdinand I

1637–1657

FERDINAND III

Son of Ferdinand II; co-ruler 1636

 

FERDINAND IV

Son of Ferdinand III; co-ruler 1653–1654

1658–1705

LEOPOLD I

Son of Ferdinand III

1705–1711

JOSEF I

Son of Leopold I

1711–1740

KARL VI

Son of Leopold I

1742–1745

KARL VII Albert of Bavaria

Son of Maximilian II of Bavaria; husband of Marie Amalie daughter of Josef I

1745–1765

FRANZ I Stefan of Lorraine

Son of Léopold of Lorraine; husband of Maria Theresia daughter of Karl VI

1765–1790

JOSEF II of Austria

Son of Franz I

1790–1792

LEOPOLD II

Son of Franz I

1792–1806

FRANZ II

Son of Leopold II; abdicated, died 1835

1806–

 

Confederacy of the Rhine, to Germany 1871

 

RULERS OF PRUSSIA (PREUSSEN): LIST

 

 

Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg

1134–1170

ALBRECHT I the Bear

Son of Otto of Ballenstedt by Eilika of Saxony

1170–1184

OTTO I

Son of Albrecht I

1184–1205

OTTO II

Son of Otto I

1205–1220

ALBRECHT II

Son of Otto I

1220–1266

JOHANN I

Son of Albrecht II; in Stendal

1220–1267

OTTO III

Son of Albrecht II; in Salzwedel

1266–1281

JOHANN II

Son of Johann I; in Stendal

1266–1308

OTTO IV

Son of Johann I; in Stendal

1266–1304

KONRAD

Son of Johann I; in Stendal

1267–1268

JOHANN III

Son of Otto III; in Salzwedel

1268–1299

OTTO V

Son of Otto III; in Salzwedel

1268–1300

ALBRECHT III

Son of Otto III; in Salzwedel

1280–1303

OTTO VI

Son of Otto III; in Salzwedel

1286–1305

JOHANN IV

Son of Konrad; in Stendal

1291–1297

OTTO VII

Son of Konrad; in Stendal

1293–1318

HEINRICH I

Son of Johann I; in Stendal

1299–1308

HERMANN

Son of Otto V; in Salzwedel

1304–1319

WALDEMAR

Son of Konrad; in Stendal

1308–1317

JOHANN V

Son of Hermann; in Salzwedel

1319–1320

HEINRICH II

Son of Heinrich I; in Stendal

1324–1351

LUDWIG I the Elder of Wittelsbach

Son of Ludwig V of Germany; abdicated, died 1361

1351–1365

LUDWIG II the Roman

Brother of Ludwig I

1351–1373

OTTO V the Indolent

Brother of Ludwig II; abdicated, died 1379

1373–1378

WENZEL of Luxemburg

Son of Karl IV of Germany; abdicated, died 1419

1378–1395

SIGISMUND

Brother of Wenzel; deposed

1397–1411

JOBST of Moravia

Son of Jan Jindřich of Moravia brother of Karl IV of Germany

1411–1415

SIGISMUND

Restored; abdicated, died 1437

 

Hohenzollern Margraves of Brandenburg, Electors of Brandenburg from 1417

1415–1440

FRIEDRICH I of Hohenzollern

Son of Friedrich V of Nürnberg; Elector 1417

1440–1471

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Friedrich I

1471–1486

ALBRECHT Achilles

Son of Friedrich I

1486–1499

JOHANN Cicero

Son of Albrecht Achilles

1499–1535

JOACHIM I Nestor

Son of Johann Cicero

1535–1571

JOACHIM II

Son of Joachim I

1571–1598

JOHANN GEORG

Son of Joachim II

1598–1608

JOACHIM FRIEDRICH

Son of Johann Georg

1608–1619

JOHANN SIGISMUND

Son of Joachim Friedrich

1619–1640

GEORG WILHELM

Son of Johann Sigismund

1640–1688

FRIEDRICH WILHELM Great Elector

Son of Georg Wilhelm

1688–1701

FRIEDRICH III

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm; from 1701 King in Prussia, died 1713

 

Kings in Prussia 1701, Kings of Prussia 1742, from 1871 also Emperors of Germany

1701–1713

FRIEDRICH I

= Elector Friedrich III of Brandenburg

1713–1740

FRIEDRICH WILHELM I

Son of Friedrich I

1740–1786

FRIEDRICH II the Great

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm I; King of Prussia 1742

1786–1797

FRIEDRICH WILHELM II

Son of August Wilhelm son of Friedrich Wilhelm I

1797–1840

FRIEDRICH WILHELM III

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm II

1840–1861

FRIEDRICH WILHELM IV

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm III

1861–1888

WILHELM I

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm III; regent 1858; Emperor of Germany 1871

1888–1888

FRIEDRICH III

Son of Wilhelm I

1888–1918

WILHELM II

Son of Friedrich III; deposed, died 1941

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF BAVARIA (BAYERN)

 

 

Dukes of Bavaria

895–907

Liutpold

Margrave of Bavaria; killed at Bratislava against the Magyars

907–914

Arnulf

Son of Liutpold; Duke of Bavaria 911; deposed

914–918

Konrad I

Son of Konrad of Lahngau

918–937

Arnulf

Restored

937–938

Eberhard

Son of Arnulf; deposed

938–947

Berchtold

Son of Liutpold

947–955

Heinrich I

Son of Heinrich I of Germany; married Judith, daughter of Arnulf

955–976

Heinrich II the Quarrelsome

Son of Heinrich I; deposed

976–983

Otto I of Swabia

Son of Liudolf of Swabia son of Otto I of Germany brother of Heinrich I

983–985

Heinrich III

Son of Berchtold; deposed, died 989

985–995

Heinrich II the Quarrelsome

Restored

995–1004

Heinrich IV (II) the Saint

Son of Heinrich II; resigned

1004–1009

Heinrich V of Luxemburg

Son of Sigefroi of Luxemburg; brother of Heinrich IV’s wife Kunegund; deposed

1009–1017

Heinrich IV (II) the Saint

Restored; resigned, died 1024

1017–1026

Heinrich V

Restored

1026–1027

Konrad II the Salian

Son of Heinrich of Speyer; abdicated, died 1039

1027–1042

Heinrich VI (III) the Black

Son of Konrad II; resigned

1042–1047

Heinrich VII of Luxemburg

Son of Frédéric I of Luxemburg, brother of Heinrich V

1047–1049

Heinrich VI (III) the Black

Restored; resigned, died 1056

1049–1053

Konrad III of Zütphen

Son of Liudolf, son of Ezzo of Lothringen by Mathilde, daughter of Otto II of Germany; deposed, died 1055

1053–1054

Heinrich VIII (IV)

Son of Heinrich VI; abdicated

1054–1055

Konrad IV the Child

Son of Heinrich VI

1055–1061

Agnes of Poitou

Daughter of Guillaume V of Aquitaine; wife of Heinrich VI; resigned, died 1077

1061–1070

Otto II of Northeim

Son of Benno of Northeim; married Richza, daughter of Otto II of Swabia, son of Ezzo of Lothringen by Mathilde, daughter of Otto II of Germany; deposed, died 1083

1070–1077

Welf I of Este

Son of Adalberto Azzo II of Este; married Ethelind, daughter of Otto II; deposed

1077–1096

Heinrich VIII (IV)

Restored; resigned, died 1106

1096–1101

Welf I

Restored

1101–1120

Welf II the Fat

Son of Welf I

1120–1126

Heinrich IX the Black

Son of Welf I

1126–1138

Heinrich X the Proud

Son of Heinrich IX; deposed, died 1139

1139–1141

Leopold of Austria

Son of Leopold III of Austria by Agnes, daughter of Heinrich VIII

1141–1143

Konrad V (III) of Hohenstaufen

Son of Friedrich I of Swabia by Agnes, daughter of Heinrich VIII; resigned, died 1152

1143–1156

Heinrich XI Jasomirgott

Brother of Leopold, daughter of Heinrich VIII; resigned, died 1177

1156–1180

Heinrich XII the Lion

Son of Heinrich X; deposed, died of a fall from his horse 1195

 

Wittelsbach Dukes of Bavaria

1180–1183

Otto I of Wittelsbach

Son of Otto IV of Wittelsbach

1183–1231

Ludwig I the Upright

Son of Otto I; murdered

1231–1253

Otto II the Illustrious

Son of Ludwig I

1253–1294

Ludwig II the Severe

Son of Otto II; in Upper Bavaria

1253–1290

Heinrich I

Son of Otto II; in Lower Bavaria

1290–1312

Otto III

Son of Heinrich I; in Lower Bavaria

1290–1296

Ludwig III

Son of Heinrich I; in Lower Bavaria

1290–1310

Stefan I

Son of Heinrich I; in Lower Bavaria

1294–1317

Rudolf I

Son of Ludwig II; in Upper Bavaria

1294–1347

Ludwig IV (V)

Son of Ludwig II; in Upper Bavaria; all Bavaria 1340; mortally wounded in battle

1310–1339

Heinrich II the Elder

Son of Stefan I; in Lower Bavaria

1312–1334

Otto IV

Son of Stefan I; in Lower Bavaria

1312–1333

Heinrich III the Natternberger

Son of Otto III; in Lower Bavaria

1339–1340

Johann I

Son of Heinrich II; in Lower Bavaria

1347–1361

Ludwig V the Elder

Son of Ludwig IV; in Upper Bavaria 1349

1347–1375

Stefan II

Son of Ludwig IV; in Lower Bavaria 1349; in Landshut 1353; also Upper Bavaria 1363

1347–1351

Ludwig VI the Roman

Son of Ludwig IV; in Upper Bavaria 1349; abdicated, died 1365

1347–1358

Wilhelm I the Mad

Son of Ludwig IV; in Lower Bavaria 1349; in Straubing 1353; deposed, died 1389

1347–1404

Albrecht I

Son of Ludwig IV; in Lower Bavaria 1349; in Straubing 1353

1347–1379

Otto V the Indolent

Son of Ludwig IV; in Upper Bavaria 1349–1351; abdicated; in Landshut 1376

1361–1363

Meinhard

Son of Ludwig V; in Upper Bavaria

1375–1413

Stefan III the Magnificent

Son of Stefan II; in Ingolstadt

1375–1393

Friedrich

Son of Stefan II; in Landshut

1375–1397

Johann II

Son of Stefan II; in Munich

 

Albrecht II the Younger

Son of Albrecht I; co-ruler 1387–1397

1393–1450

Heinrich IV the Rich

Son of Friedrich; in Landshut; also Munich 1447

1397–1438

Ernst the Forceful

Son of Johann II; in Munich

1397–1435

Wilhelm II

Son of Johann II; in Munich

1404–1425

Johann III

Son of Albrecht I; in Straubing; co-ruler 1397

1404–1417

Wilhelm III

Son of Albrecht I; in Straubing

1413–1441

Ludwig VII the Bearded

Son of Stefan III; in Ingolstadt; deposed, died 1447

1435–1440

Adolf

Son of Wilhelm II; in Munich

1438–1460

Albrecht III the Pious

Son of Ernst; in Munich

1441–1445

Ludwig VIII the Hunchback

Son of Ludwig VII; in Ingolstadt

1450–1479

Ludwig IX the Rich

Son of Heinrich IV; in Landshut

1460–1463

Johann IV the Truthful

Son of Albrecht III; in Munich

1460–1467

Sigmund the Generous

Son of Albrecht III; in Dachau; abdicated, died 1501

1460–1508

Albrecht IV the Wise

Son of Albrecht III

1479–1503

Georg the Rich

Son of Ludwig IX; in Landshut

1508–1550

Wilhelm IV the Steadfast

Son of Albrecht IV; in Munich 1514

1508–1545

Ludwig X

Son of Albrecht IV; in Landshut 1514

1550–1579

Albrecht V the Practical

Son of Wilhelm IV

1579–1597

Wilhelm V the Pious

Son of Albrecht V; abdicated, died 1626

1597–1623

Maximilian I

Son of Wilhelm V; Elector from 1623, died 1651

 

Wittelsbach Electors of Bavaria

1623–1651

MAXIMILIAN I

= Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria

1651–1679

Ferdinand Maria the Peaceful

Son of Maximilian I

1679–1726

Maximilian II Emanuel Blueking

Son of Ferdinand Maria; in exile 1706–1714

1726–1745

Karl Albert

Son of Maximilian II

1745–1777

Maximilian III Josef

Son of Karl Albert

1777–1799

Karl Theodor

Son of Johann Christian of Sulzbach

1799–1805

Maximilian IV Josef

Son of Friedrich Michael son of Christian III of Zweibrücken; King from 1805, died 1825

 

Kings of Bavaria

1805–1825

Maximilian I Josef

= Elector Maximilian IV of Bavaria

1825–1848

Ludwig I

Son of Maximilian I; abdicated, died 1868

1848–1864

Maximilian II

Son of Ludwig I

1864–1886

Ludwig II the Mad

Son of Maximilian II

1886–1913

Otto

Son of Maximilian II; deposed, died 1916

1913–1918

Ludwig III

Son of Liutpold, son of Ludwig I; deposed, died 1921

1918–

 

To Germany

 

Wittelsbach: Line of Pfalz-Sulzbach (Ancestors of Karl Theodor)

1319–1327

ADOLF

Son of Rudolf I of Bavaria; Count Palatine on the Rhine

1327–1398

RUPRECHT II

Son of Adolf

1398–1410

RUPRECHT III the Little

Son of Ruprecht I

1410–1459

STEFAN

Son of Ruprecht II; in Simmern

1459–1489

LUDWIG I the Black

Son of Stefan

1489–1514

ALEXANDER

Son of Ludwig I; in Zweibrücken

1514–1552

LUDWIG II

Son of Alexander

1552–1569

WOLFGANG

Son of Ludwig II

1569–1614

PHILIPP LUDWIG

Son of Wolfgang; in Neuburg

1614–1632

AUGUST

Son of Philipp Ludwig; in Sulzbach

1632–1708

CHRISTIAN AUGUST

Son of August

1708–1733

THEODOR

Son of Christian August

1733–1733

JOHANN CHRISTIAN

Son of Theodor

1733–1799

KARL THEODOR

Son of Johann Christian; Count Palatine on the Rhine 1742, Elector of Bavaria 1777

 

Wittelsbach: Line of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (Ancestors of Maximilian IV/I Josef)

1569–1600

KARL I

Son of Wolfgang; Count Palatine in Birkenfeld

1600–1654

CHRISTIAN I

Son of Karl I; in Bischweiler

1654–1717

CHRISTIAN II

Son of Christian I

1717–1735

CHRISTIAN III

Son of Christian II; in Zweibrücken from 1731

1735–1767

FRIEDRICH MICHAEL

Son of Christian III

1767–1825

MAXIMILIAN I Josef

Son of Friedrich Michael; Count Palatine in Zweibrücken 1795, of Pfalz and Elector of Bavaria 1799, King of Bavaria 1805

 

RULERS OF HANOVER (HANNOVER)

 

 

Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg

1202–1213

WILHELM I

Son of Heinrich III of Saxony

1213–1252

OTTO I the Child

Son of Wilhelm

1252–1279

ALBRECHT I

Son of Otto I; in Brunswick 1267

1252–1277

JOHANN I

Son of Otto I; in Lüneburg 1267

1277–1330

OTTO II

Son of Johann I; in Lüneburg

1279–1322

HEINRICH I

Son of Albrecht I; in Grubenhagen 1289

1279–1318

ALBRECHT II

Son of Albrecht I; in Göttingen 1289 and Brunswick 1292

1279–1292

WILHELM II

Son of Albrecht I; in Brunswick and Wolfenbüttel 1289

1318–1344

OTTO III

Son of Albrecht II; in Brunswick and Göttingen

1318–1369

MAGNUS I

Son of Albrecht II; in Brunswick 1345

1318–1367

ERNST I

Son of Albrecht II; in Göttingen 1345

1322–1351

HEINRICH II

Son of Heinrich I; in Grubenhagen

1322–1361

ERNST II

Son of Heinrich I; in Osterode, also Herzberg 1360

1322–1360

WILHELM III

Son of Heinrich I; in Herzberg and Grubenhagen 1391

1330–1352

OTTO IV

Son of Otto II; in Lüneburg

1330–1369

WILHELM IV

Son of Otto II; in Lüneburg (abdicated 1355?)

1345–1373

MAGNUS II

Son of Magnus I; in Brunswick; killed in battle

1351–1399

OTTO V

Son of Heinrich II; in Grubenhagen

1355–1367

LUDWIG

Son of Magnus I; in Lüneburg

 

ERNST

Son of Ernst I; co-ruler 1355–1363 in Göttingen

 

ALBRECHT

Son of Ernst I; co-ruler 1363 in Göttingen

 

ERNST

Son of Magnus I; co-ruler 1385 in Blankenburg

1361–/1383

ALBRECHT III

Son of Ernst II; in Salzderhelden

1361–/1421

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Ernst II; in Herzberg and Osterode

1367–1394

OTTO VI

Son of Ernst I; in Göttingen

1373–1400

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Magnus II; in Gifhorn 1381

1373–1434

BERNHARD I

Son of Magnus II; in Lüneburg 1388, then Brunswick 1409, then Lüneburg 1429

1373–1416

HEINRICH III

Son of Magnus II; in Lüneburg 1409

/1383–1427

ERICH I

Son of Albrecht III; in Salzderhelden

1394–1463

OTTO VII

Son of Otto VI; in Göttingen

1416–1482

WILHELM V

Son of Heinrich III; in Lüneburg, then Brunswick 1429, also Calenburg 1432, Göttingen 1463, Wolfenbüttel 1473

/1421–1452

OTTO VIII

Son of Friedrich I; in Herzberg and Osterode

1427–1464

HEINRICH IV

Son of Erich I; in Salzderhelden and Grubenhagen

1432–1473

HEINRICH V

Son of Heinrich III; in Wolfenbüttel

1434–1445

OTTO IX

Son of Bernhard I; in Lüneburg

 

ERNST

Son of Erich I; co-ruler 1441–1466 in Herzberg and Osterode

1445–1457

FRIEDRICH III

Son of Bernhard I; in Lüneburg; abdicated, died 1478

1452–1485

ALBRECHT IV

Son of Erich I; in Herzberg and Osterode

1457–1464

BERNHARD II

Son of Friedrich III; in Lüneburg

1464–1471

OTTO X

Son of Friedrich III; in Lüneburg

1464–1526

HEINRICH VI

Son of Heinrich IV; in Salzderhelden and Grubenhagen

1471–1532

HEINRICH VII

Son of Otto X; in Lüneburg

1482–1495

WILHELM VI

Son of Wilhelm V; in Wolfenbüttel; abdicated, died 1503

1482–1495

FRIEDRICH IV

Son of Wilhelm V; in Calenburg

1485–1551

PHILIPP I

Son of Albrecht IV; in Herzberg and Osterode

1495–1514

HEINRICH VIII

Son of Wilhelm VI; in Wolfenbüttel; killed in battle

1495–1540

ERICH II

Son of Wilhelm VI; in Calenburg

1500–1508

ERICH III

Son of Albrecht IV; in Herzberg and Osterode; abdicated, died 1532

1514–1568

HEINRICH IX

Son of Heinrich VIII; in Wolfenbüttel

1521–1549

OTTO XI

Son of Heinrich VII; in Lüneburg, then Harburg 1527

1527–1546

ERNST III

Son of Heinrich VII; in Lüneburg

1527–1549

FRANZ

Son of Heinrich VII; in Lüneburg, then Gifhorn 1539

1540–1584

ERICH IV

Son of Erich II; in Calenburg

1546–1559

FRANZ OTTO

Son of Ernst III; in Lüneburg

1549–1603

OTTO XII

Son of Otto XI; in Harburg, also Moisburg 1560

1551–1567

ERNST IV

Son of Philipp I; in Herzberg and Osterode

1559–1598

HEINRICH X

Son of Ernst III; in Dannenberg 1569

1559–1592

WILHELM VII

Son of Ernst III; in Lüneburg

1567–1595

WOLFGANG

Son of Philipp I; in Herzberg and Osterode

1568–1589

JULIUS

Son of Heinrich X; in Wolfenbüttel, also Calenburg 1584

1589–1613

HEINRICH JULIUS

Son of Julius; in Wolfenbüttel, also Grubenhagen 1596

1592–1611

ERNST V

Son of Wilhelm VII; in Lüneburg

1595–1596

PHILIPP II

Son of Philipp I; in Herzberg and Osterode

1598–1636

JULIUS ERNST

Son of Heinrich X; in Dannenberg

1603–1642

WILHELM AUGUST

Son of Otto XII; in Harburg, also Blankenburg 1635

1603–1606

CHRISTOPH

Son of Otto XII; in Harburg

1606–1641

OTTO XIII

Son of Otto XII; in Harburg

1611–1633

CHRISTIAN

Son of Wilhelm VII; in Lüneburg, also Grubenhagen 1617

1613–1634

FRIEDRICH ULRICH

Son of Heinrich Julius; in Wolfenbüttel and (till1617) Grubenhagen

1633–1636

AUGUST I

Son of Wilhelm VII; in Lüneburg, also Calenburg 1635

1634–1666

AUGUST II

Son of Heinrich X; in Wolfenbüttel, also Dannenberg 1636

1636–1648

FRIEDRICH V

Son of Wilhelm VII; in Lüneburg, also Harburg 1643

1636–1641

GEORG

Son of Wilhelm VII; in Calenburg

1641–1665

CHRISTIAN LUDWIG

Son of Georg; in Calenburg, then Lüneburg-Celle 1648

1648–1705

GEORG WILHELM

Son of Georg; in Calenburg and Grubenhagen, then Lüneburg-Celle 1665

1665–1679

JOHANN FRIEDRICH

Son of Georg; in Calenburg and Grubenhagen

1666–1704

RUDOLF AUGUST

Son of August II; in Wolfenbüttel

1679–1692

ERNST AUGUST I

Son of Georg; in Calenburg and Grubenhagen; Elector of Hanover 1692, died 1698

1704–1714

ANTON ULRICH

Son of August II; in Wolfenbüttel

1714–1731

AUGUST WILHELM

Son of Anton Ulrich; in Wolfenbüttel

1731–1735

LUDWIG RUDOLF

Son of Anton Ulrich; in Wolfenbüttel; in Blankenburg 1707

1735–1735

FERDINAND ALBRECHT

Son of Ferdinand Albrecht of Bevern son of August II; in Wolfenbüttel

 

Electors of Hanover 1692–1814, Kings of Hanover 1814–1866, Dukes of Brunswick 1913–1918

1692–1698

ERNST AUGUST I

Son of Georg Dk of Brunswick-Lüneburg

1698–1727

GEORG I Ludwig

Son of Ernst August I

1727–1760

GEORG II

Son of Georg I

1760–1820

GEORG III

Son of Friedrich Ludwig son of Georg II

1820–1830

GEORG IV

Son of Georg III

1830–1837

WILHELM

Son of Georg III

1837–1851

ERNST AUGUST II

Son of Georg III

1851–1866

GEORG V

Son of Ernst August II; deposed, died 1878

1866–1913

 

To Germany (Prussia)

1913–1918

ERNST AUGUST IV

Son of Ernst August III son of Georg V; deposed, died 1953

1918–

 

To Germany

 

Dukes of Brunswick

1735–1780

CARL I

Son of Ferdinand Albrecht of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

1780–1806

CARL II

Son of Carl I; killed in battle

1806–1815

FRIEDRICH WILHELM

Son of Carl II; killed in battle

1815–1830

CARL III

Son of Carl son of Carl II; abdicated, died 1873

1830–1884

WILHELM

Brother of Carl III

 

RULERS OF SAXONY (SACHSEN)

 

 

Dukes of Saxony, Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, Electors of Saxony from 1356

850–866

Liudolf

Margrave of East Saxony

866–880

Bruno

Son of Liudolf; killed

880–912

Otto I the Illustrious

Son of Liudolf

912–936

Heinrich I the Fowler

Son of Otto I

936–961

Otto II the Great

Son of Heinrich I; resigned, died 973

961–973

Hermann Billung

Son of Billung; by royal appointment

973–1011

Bernhard I

Son of Hermann

1011–1059

Bernhard II

Son of Bernhard I

1059–1072

Orthulf

Son of Bernhard II

1072–1106

Magnus

Son of Orthulf

1106–1137

Lothar of Supplinburg

Son of Gebhard of Supplinburg; by royal appointment

(1112–1113)

Otto III the Rich

Son of Adalbert II of Ascania; married Eilika, daughter of Magnus; resigned, died 1123

1137–1138

Heinrich II the Proud

Son of Heinrich IX of Bavaria by Wulfhild, daughter of Magnus; married Gertrud, daughter of Lothar; deposed, died 1139

1138–1142

Albrecht I the Bear

Son of Otto III; deposed, died 1170

1142–1180

Heinrich III the Lion

Son of Heinrich II; deposed, died of a fall from his horse 1195

1180–1212

Bernhard III

Son of Albrecht I

1212–1261

Albrecht II

Son of Bernhard III; Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg

1261–1298

Albrecht III

Son of Albrecht II

1298–1356

Rudolf I

Son of Albrecht III

1356–1370

Rudolf II

Son of Rudolf I; Elector 1356

1356–1388

Wenzel

Son of Rudolf I; Elector 1370

1388–1419

Rudolf III

Son of Wenzel; Elector 1388

1388–1422

Albrecht IV

Son of Wenzel; Elector 1419

 

Wettin Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg and Electors of Saxony

1423–1428

Friedrich I the Warlike

Son of Friedrich III of Meissen

1428–1464

Friedrich II the Gentle

Son of Friedrich I

1464–1486

Ernst

Son of Friedrich II; Elector of Saxony

1464–1500

Albrecht the Bold

Son of Friedrich II; Duke of Saxony

1486–1525

Friedrich III the Wise

Son of Ernst; Elector

1500–1539

Georg the Bearded

Son of Albrecht; Duke

1525–1532

Johann the Constant

Son of Ernst; Elector

1532–1547

Johann Friedrich Magnanimous

Son of Johann; Elector; deposed, died 1554

1539–1541

Heinrich the Pious

Son of Albrecht; Duke

1541–1553

Moritz Judas

Son of Heinrich; Duke; Elector 1547

1553–1586

August the Father

Son of Heinrich

1586–1591

Christian I

Son of August

1591–1611

Christian II the Beerking

Son of Christian I

1611–1656

Johann Georg I Bierjörg

Son of Christian I

1656–1680

Johann Georg II

Son of Johann Georg I

1680–1691

Johann Georg III the Fat

Son of Johann Georg II; murdered (?)

1691–1694

Johann Georg IV

Son of Johann Georg III

1694–1733

Friedrich August I the Strong

Son of Johann Georg III

1733–1763

Friedrich August II

Son of Friedrich August I

1763–1763

Friedrich Christian

Son of Friedrich August II

1763–1806

Friedrich August III the Righteous

Son of Friedrich Christian; King from 1806, died 1827

 

Kings of Saxony

1806–1827

Friedrich August I the Righteous

= Elector Friedrich August III

1827–1836

Anton

Son of Friedrich Christian

1836–1854

Friedrich August II

Son of Maximilian son of Friedrich Christian; co-regent 1830

1854–1873

Johann the Magister

Brother of Friedrich August II

1873–1902

Albrecht

Son of Johann

1902–1904

Georg

Son of Johann

1904–1918

Friedrich August III

Son of Georg; deposed, died 1932

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF WÜRTTEMBERG

 

 

Counts of Württemberg

/1110–1122/

konrad

Nephew of Konrad of Württemberg

/1134–1158/

ludwig i

Son of Konrad

/1166–1181/

ludwig ii

Son of Ludwig I

/1201–1228/

ludwig iii

Son of Ludwig II

1236–1243

EBERHARD I

Son of Ludwig III

1243–1265

ULRICH I dal Pollice

Son of Heinrich

1265–1279

ULRICH II

Son of Ulrich I

1279–1325

EBERHARD II the Illustrious

Son of Ulrich I

1325–1344

ULRICH III

Son of Eberhard II

1344–1392

EBERHARD III the Contender

Son of Ulrich II

1344–1366

ULRICH IV

Son of Ulrich II

1392–1417

EBERHARD IV the Meek

Son of Ulrich son of Eberhard III

1417–1419

EBERHARD V the Younger

Son of Eberhard IV

1419–1450

LUDWIG IV

Son of Eberhard V; in Urach 1442

1419–1480

ULRICH V the Well-Loved

Son of Eberhard V; in Stuttgard 1442

1450–1457

LUDWIG V

Son of Ludwig IV; in Urach

1450–1495

EBERHARD VI the Bearded

Son of Ludwig IV; in Urach; Duke from 1495, died 1496

1480–1496

EBERHARD VII the Younger

Son of Ulrich V; in Stuttgard; Duke from 1496

 

Dukes of Württemberg

1495–1496

EBERHARD I the Bearded

= Count Eberhard VI of Württemberg

1496–1498

EBERHARD II the Younger

= Count Eberhard VII of Württemberg; deposed, died 1504

1498–1519

ULRICH

Son of Heinrich of Mömpelgard son of Ulrich V; deposed

1519–1534

 

To Germany

1534–1550

ULRICH

Restored

1550–1568

CHRISTOPH the Pacific

Son of Ulrich

1568–1593

LUDWIG

Son of Christoph

1593–1608

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Georg of Mömpelgard son of Heinrich

1608–1628

JOHANN FRIEDRICH

Son of Friedrich I

1628–1674

EBERHARD III

Son of Johann Friedrich

1674–1677

WILHELM LUDWIG

Son of Eberhard III

1677–1733

EBERHARD LUDWIG

Son of Wilhelm Ludwig

1733–1737

KARL Alexander

Son of Friedrich Karl son of Eberhard III

1737–1793

KARL Eugen

Son of Karl Alexander

1793–1795

LUDWIG EUGEN

Son of Karl Alexander

1795–1797

FRIEDRICH EUGEN

Son of Karl Alexander

1797–1805

FREIDRICH II

Son of Friedrich Eugen; Elector from 1803, King from 1805, died 1816

 

Kings of Württemberg

1805–1816

FRIEDRICH

= Duke Friedrich II of Württemberg

1816–1864

WILHELM I

Son of Friedrich

1864–1891

KARL

Son of Wilhelm I

1891–1918

WILHELM II

Son of Friedrich son of Paul son of Friedrich; deposed, died 1921

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF BADE (BADEN)

 

 

Margraves of Bade

1100–1130

HERMANN I

Son of Hermann of Verona

1130–1160

HERMANN II

Son of Hermann I

1160–1190

HERMANN III

Son of Hermann II; killed in battle

1190–1243

HERMANN IV

Son of Hermann III

1243–1250

HERMANN V

Son of Hermann IV

1250–1268

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Hermann V; executed after battle at Tagliacozzo

1268–1288

RUDOLF I

Son of Hermann IV

1288–1291

HERMANN VI

Son of Rudolf I

1288–1295

RUDOLF II

Son of Rudolf I

1288–1297

HESSO

Son of Rudolf I

1288–1333

RUDOLF III

Son of Rudolf I

1291–1333

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Hermann VI

1291–1348

RUDOLF IV

Son of Hermann VI

1297–1335

RUDOLF HESSO

Son of Hesso

1333–1353

HERMANN VII

Son of Friedrich II

1348–1353

FRIEDRICH III

Son of Rudolf IV

1348–1361

RUDOLF V

Son of Rudolf IV; in Pforzheim

1353–1372

RUDOLF VI

Son of Friedrich III

1372–1431

BERNHARD I

Son of Rudolf VI

1372–1391

RUDOLF VII

Son of Rudolf VI

1431–1453

JAKOB I

Son of Bernhard I

1453–1475

KARL I

Son of Jakob I

1453–1458

BERNHARD II

Son of Jakob I; in Pforzheim; abdicated, died 1458

1475–1527

CHRISTOPH I

Son of Karl I

1475–1488

ALBRECHT

Son of Karl I; in Hachberg 1482; killed in battle

 

Dukes of Bade-Bade

1527–1536

BERNHARD III

Son of Christoph I; in Bade

1527–1533

PHILIPP I

Son of Christoph I; in Spanheim

1536–1569

PHILIBERT

Son of Bernhard III; in Bade; killed in battle

1536–1575

CHRISTOPH II

Son of Bernhard III; in Rodemachern

1569–1588

PHILIPP II

Son of Philibert; in Bade

1575–1596

EDUARD Fortunatus

Son of Christoph II; in Rodemachern, also Bade 1588; deposed, died 1600

1596–1622

 

To Germany

1622–1677

WILHELM

Son of Eduard; in exile till 1622; in Bade, also Rodemachern 1666

1622–1665

HERMANN Fortunatus

Son of Eduard; in Rodemachern

1665–1666

KARL Wilhelm Eugen

Son of Hermann; Rodemachern

1677–1707

LUDWIG WILHELM

Son of Ferdinand Maximilian son of Wilhelm; in Bade

1707–1761

LUDWIG GEORG Simpert

Son of Ludwig Wilhelm; in Bade

1761–1771

AUGUST GEORG

Son of Ludwig Wilhelm; in Bade

 

Dukes of Bade-Durlach

1527–1553

ERNST

Son of Christoph I; in Durlach

1552–1553

BERNHARD

Son of Ernst; in Durlach

1552–1577

KARL II

Son of Ernst; in Durlach

1577–1604

ERNST FRIEDRICH

Son of Karl II; in Durlach

1577–1590

JAKOB II

Son of Karl II; in Hachberg 1584

1577–1622

GEORG FRIEDRICH

Son of Karl II; in Sausenberg, in Durlach 1604; deposed, died 1636

1622–1634

FRIEDRICH IV

Son of Georg Friedrich; in Durlach; deposed

1634–1648

 

To Germany

1648–1659

FRIEDRICH IV Magnus

Restored; in Durlach

1659–1677

FRIEDRICH V Magnus

Son of Friedrich IV; in Durlach

1677–1709

FRIEDRICH VI Magnus

Son of Friedrich V; in Durlach

1709–1738

KARL III Wilhelm

Son of Friedrich VI; in Durlach

1738–1806

KARL FRIEDRICH

Son of Friedrich son of Karl III; in Durlach; also Bade 1771; Grand Duke from 1806, died 1811

 

Grand-Dukes of Bade

1806–1811

KARL FRIEDRICH

= Duke Karl Friedrich of Bade

1811–1818

KARL I

Son of Karl Ludwig son of Karl Friedrich

1818–1830

LUDWIG I

Son of Karl Friedrich

1830–1852

LEOPOLD I

Son of Karl Friedrich

1852–1856

LUDWIG II

Son of Leopold I; deposed, died 1858

1856–1907

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Leopold I

1907–1918

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Friedrich I; deposed, died 1928

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF HESSE (HESSEN)

 

 

Landgraves of Hesse

1265–1308

HEINRICH I the Child

Son of Hendrik II of Brabant

1308–1328

OTTO I

Son of Heinrich I; in Upper Hesse

1308–1311

JOHANN

Son of Heinrich I; in Lower Hesse

1328–1376

HEINRICH II

Son of Otto

 

OTTO II

Son of Heinrich II; co-ruler 1340–1366

1376–1413

HERMANN the Learned

Son of Ludwig son of Otto

1413–1458

LUDWIG I

Son of Hermann

1458–1471

LUDWIG II

Son of Ludwig I; in Cassel

1458–1483

HEINRICH III

Son of Ludwig I; in Marburg

1471–1493

WILHELM I

Son of Ludwig II; in Cassel; abdicated, died 1515

 

LUDWIG III

Son of Heinrich III; co-ruler in Marburg 1474–1478

1483–1509

WILHELM II

Son of Ludwig II; in Cassel

1483–1500

WILHELM III

Son of Heinrich III; in Marburg

1509–1567

PHILIPP I the Magnanimous

Son of Wilhelm II

 

Landgraves of Hesse-Cassel

1567–1592

WILHELM IV

Son of Philipp I; in Cassel

1567–1604

LUDWIG IV

Son of Philipp I; in Marburg

1567–1583

PHILIPP II

Son of Philipp I; in Rheinfels

1592–1627

MORITZ

Son of Wilhelm IV; abdicated, died 1632

1627–1637

WILHELM V

Son of Moritz

1637–1663

WILHELM VI

Son of Wilhelm V

1663–1670

WILHELM VII

Son of Wilhelm VI

1670–1730

KARL

Son of Wilhelm VI

1730–1751

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Karl

1751–1760

WILHELM VIII

Son of Karl; regent since 1730

1760–1785

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Wilhelm VIII

1785–1803

WILHELM IX

Son of Friedrich II; Elector from 1803, died 1821

 

Electors of Hesse (-Cassel)

1803–1821

WILHELM I

= Landgrave Wilhelm IX

1821–1831

WILHELM II

Son of Wilhelm I; abdicated, died 1847

1831–1866

FRIEDRICH WILHELM I

Son of Wilhelm II; deposed, died 1875

1866–

 

To Germany (Prussia)

 

Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt

1567–1596

GEORG I the Pious

Son of Philipp I of Hesse

1596–1626

LUDWIG V

Son of Georg I

1626–1661

GEORG II

Son of Ludwig V

1661–1678

LUDWIG VI

Son of Georg II

1678–1678

LUDWIG VII

Son of Ludwig VI

1678–1739

ERNST LUDWIG

Son of Ludwig VI

1739–1768

LUDWIG VIII

Son of Ernst Ludwig

1768–1790

LUDWIG IX

Son of Ludwig VIII

1790–1806

LUDWIG X

Son of Ludwig IX; Grand Duke from 1806, died 1830

 

Grand Dukes of Hesse (-Darmstadt)

1806–1830

LUDWIG I

= Landgrave Ludwig X of Hesse-Darmstadt

1830–1848

LUDWIG II

Son of Ludwig I

1848–1877

LUDWIG III

Son of Ludwig II

1877–1892

LUDWIG IV

Son of Karl son of Ludwig II

1892–1918

ERNST LUDWIG

Son of Ludwig IV; deposed

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF MECKLENBURG

 

 

Princes, Dukes, Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1815

1179–1227

HEINRICH BURWIN I

Son of Prisbislaw of the Obodrites

1189–1200

NIKOLAUS I

Son of Wartislaw brother of Heinrich Burwin I; in Rostock; killed in battle

 

HEINRICH BURWIN II

Son of Heinrich Burwin I; co-ruler 1217–1226 in Werle and Rostock

 

NIKOLAUS II

Son of Heinrich Burwin I; co-ruler 1217–1225 in Gadebusch

1227–1264

JOHANN I

Son of Heinrich Burwin II; co-ruler 1226

1227–1278

HEINRICH BURWIN III

Son of Heinrich Burwin II; in Rostock 1236

1227–1280

PRIBISLAW I

Son of Heinrich Burwin II; in Parchim

 

JOHANN

Son of Heinrich Burwin III; co-ruler 1262–1266 in Rostock

1264–1302

HEINRICH I

Son of Johann I

1264–1265

ALBRECHT I

Son of Johann I

1264–1290

NIKOLAUS III

Son of Johann I

1273–1299

JOHANN II

Son of Johann I; in Gadebusch

1278–1282

WALDEMAR

Son of Heinrich Burwin III; co-ruler 1266; in Rostock

1280–1316

PRIBISLAW II

Son of Pribislaw I; in Belgard

1280–/1289

PRIBISLAW III

Son of Pribislaw I; in Wollin

1282–1314

NIKOLAUS IV

Son of Waldemar; in Rostock

1302–1329

HEINRICH II the Lion

Son of Heinrich I; co-ruler 1287

 

JOHANN III

Son of Heinrich I; co-ruler 1287–1289

1329–1379

ALBRECHT II

Son of Heinrich II; in Schwerin 1358

1379–1383

HEINRICH III

Son of Albrecht II

1379–1412

ALBRECHT III

Son of Albrecht II

1379–1384

MAGNUS I

Son of Albrecht II

1384–1422

JOHANN IV

Son of Magnus I

1412–1423

ALBRECHT IV

Son of Albrecht III

1422–1477

HEINRICH IV the Younger

Son of Johann IV; also Werle 1436 and Stargard 1441

1422–1442/3

JOHANN V

Son of Johann IV

1464–1483

ALBRECHT V

Son of Heinrich IV; in Güstrow

1464–1474

JOHANN VI

Son of Heinrich IV; in Güstrow

1477–1503

MAGNUS II

Son of Heinrich IV; in Schwerin; also Güstrow 1483

1480–1507

BALTHASAR

Son of Heinrich IV

1503–1552

HEINRICH V

Son of Magnus II; in Schwerin

1503–1547

ALBRECHT VI

Son of Magnus II; in Güstrow

1547–1576

JOHANN ALBRECHT I

Son of Albrecht VI; in Güstrow till 1555, also in Schwerin 1552

1555–1603

ULRICH

Son of Albrecht VI; in Güstrow till 1585, also in Schwerin 1592

1570–1592

CHRISTOPH

Son of Albrecht VI; in Gadebusch

1585–1592

JOHANN VII

Son of Johann Albrecht I; in Schwerin

1592–1610

KARL I

Son of Albrecht VI; in Schwerin till 1608, also in Güstrow 1603

1592–1658

ADOLF FRIEDRICH I

Son of Johann VII; in Schwerin, also Güstrow 1636–1654

1592–1636

JOHANN ALBRECHT II

Son of Johann VII; in Güstrow 1610

1654–1695

GUSTAV ADOLF

Son of Johann Albrecht II; in Güstrow

1658–1692

CHRISTIAN LUDWIG I

Son of Adolf Friedrich I; in Schwerin

1658–1670

KARL II

Son of Adolf Friedrich I; in Mirow

1658–1675

JOHANN GEORG

Son of Adolf Friedrich I; in Mirow 1670

1658–1688

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Adolf Friedrich I; in Grabow

1688–1713

FRIEDRICH WILHELM

Son of Friedrich I; in Grabow, also Schwerin 1692

1713–1747

KARL LEOPOLD

Son of Friedrich I

1747–1756

CHRISTIAN LUDWIG II

Son of Friedrich I

1756–1785

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Christian Ludwig II

1785–1837

FRIEDRICH FRANZ I

Son of Ludwig son of Christian Ludwig II; Grand Duke 1815

1837–1842

PAUL FRIEDRICH

Son of Friedrich Ludwig son of Friedrich Franz I

1842–1883

FRIEDRICH FRANZ II

Son of Paul Friedrich

1883–1897

FRIEDRICH FRANZ III

Son of Friedrich Franz II

1897–1918

FRIEDRICH FRANZ IV

Son of Friedrich Franz III; deposed, died 1945

1918–

 

To Germany

 

Princes of Werle and Princes of the Wends 1418

1235–1277

NIKOLAUS I

Son of Heinrich Burwin II; in Rostock 1229, Werle 1235

1277–1291

HEINRICH I

Son of Nikolaus I; in Güstrow

1277–1286

BERNHARD I

Son of Nikolaus I; in Prisannewitz 1281

1277–1283

JOHANN I

Son of Nikolaus I; in Parchim 1281

1283–1316

NIKOLAUS II

Son of Johann I; in Parchim; also Güstrow 1292 and Penzlin 1307

1283–1337

JOHANN II

Son of Johann I; in Parchim; also Güstrow 1316

1316–1352

JOHANN III

Son of Nikolaus II; in Goldberg

1337–1360/1

NIKOLAUS III

Son of Johann II; in Güstrow

1337–1382

BERNHARD II

Son of Johann II; in Waren

1352–1354

NIKOLAUS IV

Son of Johann III

1354–1374

JOHANN IV

Son of Nikolaus IV

1360/1–1393

LORENZ

Son of Nikolaus III; in Goldberg 1374

1360/1–1377/8

JOHANN V

Son of Nikolaus III

1374–/1395

JOHANN VI

Son of Bernhard II; in Goldberg 1374, also Waren 1382

1393–1421

BALTHASAR

Son of Lorenz; in Güstrow

1393–1414

JOHANN VII

Son of Lorenz

1393–1436

WILHELM

Son of Lorenz; in Güstrow 1421, also Waren 1426

/1395–1404

NIKOLAUS V

Son of Johann VI

/1395–1426

CHRISTOPH

Son of Johann VI; killed in battle

 

Dukes of Mecklenburg-Stargard

1329–1392/3

JOHANN I

Son of Heinrich II of Mecklenburg; in Stargard 1352

1392/3–1416

JOHANN II

Son of Johann I

1392/3–1417

ULRICH I

Son of Johann I

1392/3–1397

ALBRECHT I

Son of Johann I

1416–1438

JOHANN III

Son of Johann II; also Werle 1436

1417–/1423

ALBRECHT II

Son of Ulrich I

1417–1466

HEINRICH the Elder

Son of Ulrich I; also Werle 1436

1466–1471

ULRICH II

Son of Heinrich

 

Dukes, from 1815 Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

1701–1708

ADOLF FRIEDRICH II

Posthumous son of Adolf Friedrich I; in Strelitz and Werle

1708–1752

ADOLF FRIEDRICH III

Son of Adolf Friedrich II

1752–1794

ADOLF FRIEDRICH IV

Son of Karl son of Adolf Friedrich II

1794–1816

KARL

Brother of Adolf Friedrich IV; Grand Duke 1815

1816–1860

GEORG

Son of Karl

1860–1904

FRIEDRICH WILHELM

Son of Georg

1904–1914

ADOLF FRIEDRICH V

Son of Friedrich Wilhelm

1914–1918

ADOLF FRIEDRICH VI

Son of Adolf Friedrich V; committed suicide 1918

1918–

 

To Germany

 

RULERS OF OLDENBURG, SCHLESWIG, AND HOLSTEIN

 

 

Counts, Dukes of Oldenburg from 1777, Grand Dukes of Oldenburg from 1829

/1091–1108

EGILMAR I

Count in Lerigau

1108–1142/

EGILMAR II

Son of Egilmar I

/1148–1167

CHRISTIAN I

Son of Egilmar II

1167–1212

MORITZ I

Son of Christian I

1212–1233

CHRISTIAN II

Son of Moritz

1212–1251

OTTO I

Son of Moritz; in Berne 1233

1233–1270

JOHANN I

Son of Christian II

1270–1285

CHRISTIAN III

Son of Johann I

1285–1316

JOHANN II

Son of Christian III

1316–1324

CHRISTIAN IV

Son of Johann II

1316–1344

JOHANN III

Son of Johann II

1316–1346

KONRAD I

Son of Johann II

1344–1356

JOHANN IV

Son of Johann III

1347–1401

KONRAD II

Son of Konrad I

1347–1399

CHRISTIAN V

Son of Konrad I

1356–1357

OTTO II

Son of Johann IV

1399–1440

DIETRICH

Son of Christian V

1401–1420

MORITZ II

Son of Konrad II

1440–1454

CHRISTIAN VI

Son of Dietrich

1454–1483

GERHARD VI

Son of Dietrich; in Delmenhorst from 1440

1483–1526

JOHANN V

Son of Gerhard VI

1526–1529

JOHANN VI

Son of Johann V; abdicated, died 1548

1526–1529

GEORG

Son of Johann V; abdicated, died 1551

1526–1529

CHRISTOF

Son of Johann V; abdicated, died 1566

1526–1573

ANTON I

Son of Johann VI

1573–1603

JOHANN VII

Son of Anton I

1603–1667

ANTON GÜNTHER

Son of Johann VII; also Delmenhorst 1647

1667–1773

 

To Denmark

1773–1785

FRIEDRICH AUGUST I

Son of Christian August son of Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp; Duke of Oldenburg 1777

1785–1823

WILHELM

Son of Friedrich August I; in exile 1810–1815

1823–1829

PETER I

Son of Georg brother of Friedrich August I

1829–1853

AUGUST

Son of Peter I; Grand Duke of Oldenburg 1829

1853–1900

PETER II

Son of August

1900–1918

FRIEDRICH AUGUST II

Son of Peter II; deposed, died 1931

1918–

 

To Germany

 

Counts of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst

1259–1270

JOHANN I

 

1270–1304

OTTO I

Son of Johann I

1304–1347

JOHANN II

Son of Otto I

1304–1355

CHRISTIAN I the Elder

Son of Otto I

1347–1367

CHRISTIAN II the Younger

Son of Johann II

1355–1374

OTTO II

Son of Christian I

1367–1418

OTTO III

Son of Christian II

1418–1421

NIKOLAUS

Son of Otto IV; abdicated, died 1434

1421–1440

DIETRICH

Son of Christian V of Oldenburg

1440–1483

GERHARD

Son of Dietrich; abdicated, died 1500

1463–1464

MORITZ

Son of Dietrich; in Delmenhorst

1464–1483

JAKOB

Son of Moritz; in Delmenhorst

1483–1526

JOHANN III

Son of Gerhard

1526–1529

JOHANN IV

Son of Johann III; abdicated, died 1548

1526–1529

GEORG

Son of Johann III; abdicated, died 1551

1526–1529

CHRISTOF

Son of Johann III; abdicated, died 1566

1526–1573

ANTON I

Son of Johann III

1573–1577

JOHANN V

Son of Anton I; abdicated, died 1603

1573–1619

ANTON II

Son of Anton I

1619–1622

ANTON HEINRICH

Son of Anton II

1619–1647

CHRISTIAN

Son of Anton II; to Oldenburg

 

Princes of Southern Jutland, Dukes of Schleswig

1115–1131

KNUD I Lavard

Son of Erik I of Denmark; murdered

1131–1157

WALDEMAR I

Son of Knud I; abdicated, died 1182

1157–1173

CHRISTOFFER

Son of Waldemar I

1173–1202

KNUD II

Son of Waldemar I

1202–1231

WALDEMAR II the Great

Son of Waldemar I; abdicated, died 1241

1231–1252

ABEL

Son of Waldemar II; killed in battle

1253–1257

VALDERMAR III

Son of Abel

1259–1272

ERICH I

Son of Abel

1272–1312

VALDEMAR IV

Son of Erich I

1312–1325

ERICH II

Son of Valdemar IV

1325–1364

VALDEMAR V

Son of Erich II

1364–1375

HEINRICH

Son of Valdemar V

1375–

 

To Denmark, then to Holstein 1386

 

Counts of Holstein and Schauenburg

1106–1110

GOTTFRIED of Hamburg

Count of Holstein

1110–1129

ADOLF I of Schauenburg

Count of Schauenburg; abdicated, died 1331

1129–1138

ADOLF II

Son of Adolf I; deposed

1138–1139

HEINRICH of Badewide

Usurper

1139–1164

ADOLF II

Restored; killed in battle

1164–1225

ADOLF III

Son of Adolf II

1225–1238

ADOLF IV

Son of Adolf III; abdicated, died 1261

1238–1263

JOHANN I

Son of Adolf IV; in Kiel

1238–1290

GERHARD I

Son of Adolf IV; in Itzehoe

1263–1308

ADOLF V

Son of Johann I; in Kiel till 1273, then in Segeberg

1263–1316

JOHANN II the One-Eyed

Son of Johann I; abdicated, died 1321; in Kiel

1290–1312

GERHARD II the Blind

Son of Gerhard I; in Plön

1290–1315

ADOLF VI

Son of Gerhard I; in Pinneberg

1290–1304

HEINRICH I

Son of Gerhard I; in Rendsburg

1304–1340

GERHARD III the Great

Son of Heinrich I; in Rendsburg; murdered

1312–1323

GERHARD IV

Son of Gerhard II; in Kiel

1312–1359

JOHANN III the Mild

Son of Gerhard II; in Plön; also Kiel 1316

1315–1354

ADOLF VII

Son of Adolf VI; in Pinneberg

1323–1350

GERHARD V

Son of Gerhard IV; in Kiel

1340–1384

HEINRICH II

Son of Gerhard III; in Rendsburg; also Duke of Schleswig 1375

1340–1397

NIKOLAUS

Son of Gerhard III; in Plön and Kiel 1390

1354–1370

ADOLF VIII

Son of Adolf VII; in Pinneberg

1359–1390

ADOLF IX

Son of Johann III; in Plön and Kiel

1370–1405

OTTO I

Son of Adolf VII; in Pinneberg

1384–1404

GERHARD VI

Son of Heinrich II; in Rendsburg and Schleswig; Plön and Kiel 1397; murdered

1384–1403

ALBRECHT

Son of Heinrich II, in Segeberg, also Plön and Kiel 1397

1381–1421

HEINRICH III

Son of Heinrich II; abdicated 1402–1403, resumed rule in Holstein

1404–1427

HEINRICH IV

Son of Gerhard VI; in Rendsburg and Schleswig; killed in battle

1404–1426

ADOLF X

Son of Otto I; in Pinneberg

1426–1464

OTTO II

Son of Adolf X; in Pinneberg (for successors see Schauenburg-Pinneberg)

1427–1459

ADOLF XI

Son of Gerhard VI; in Rendsburg and Schleswig

1427–1433

GERHARD VII

Son of Gerhard VI; in Rendsburg and Schleswig

1459–1481

CHRISTIAN I

Son of Dietrich of Oldenburg son of Christian V by Hedwig daughter of Gerhard VI

1481–1513

JOHANN

Son of Christian I; ceded Holstein-Gottorp to brother Friedrich I 1490

1513–1559

CHRISTIAN II

Son of Johann; died in prison

 

Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp

1490–1533

FRIEDRICH I

Son of Christian I of Holstein and Denmark

1533–1586

ADOLF

Son of Friedrich I

1586–1587

FRIEDRICH II

Son of Adolf

1587–1590

PHILIPP

Son of Adolf

1590–1616

JOHANN ADOLF

Son of Adolf

1616–1650

FRIEDRICH III

Son of Johan Adolf

1650–1695

CHRISTIAN ALBRECHT

Son of Friedrich III

1695–1702

FRIEDRICH IV

Son of Christian Albrecht; killed in battle

1702–1739

KARL FRIEDRICH

Son of Friedrich IV

1739–1762

KARL PETER ULRICH

Son of Karl Friedrich; murdered

1762–1773

PAUL

Son of Karl Peter Ulrich; abdicated, murdered 1801; to Oldenburg

 

Counts of Schauenburg-Pinneberg after 1464, Princes of Schauenburg-Pinneberg from 1619

1464–1474

ADOLF XII

Son of Otto II of Schauenburg-Pinneberg

1474–1492

ERICH

Son of Otto II of Schauenburg-Pinneberg

1492–1510

OTTO III

Son of Otto II of Schauenburg-Pinneberg

1510–1527

JOHANN IV

Son of Otto II of Schauenburg-Pinneberg

1527–1531

JOBST I

Son of Johann IV

1531–1576

OTTO IV

Son of Jobst I

1531–1544

ADOLF XIII

Son of Jobst I; abdicated, died 1556

1531–1560

JOHANN V

Son of Jobst I

1531–1581

JOBST II

Son of Jobst I

1576–1601

ADOLF XIV

Son of Otto IV

1581–1607

HEINRICH V

Son of Jobst II

1601–1622

ERNST

Son of Otto IV; Prince 1619

1607–1635

JOBST HERMANN

Son of Heinrich V

1635–1640

OTTO VI

Son of Georg Hermann son of Jobst II

1640–1681

PHILIPP of Lippe

Son of Simon of Lippe by Elisabeth daughter of Otto IV