RULERS OF AUSTRIA (ึSTERREICH): HISTORICAL NOTE

 

                Established by Charlemagne in the 790s, the Ostmark (Eastern March) was destroyed by the Magyars in 907.  Otto I reconquered the area in 955 and Otto II recreated the Ostmark in 976 as a buffer against Hungary.  The founder of the Babenberg family, Leopold I, was a son or grandson of the Bavarian duke Arnulf.  In the 12th century, the margraves of the Ostmark became increasingly important due to their family ties to the Hohenstaufen.  Leopold IV and Heinrich II were both made dukes of troublesome Bavaria by their half-brother Konrad III of Germany.  When Bavaria was returned to the Welfs, Heinrich II was compensated with the title of Duke of Austria in 1156.  Leopold V added Styria to the holdings of the Austrian dukes in 1192.  With the death of Friedrich II in battle, the male line of the Babenbergs died out and a number of in-laws claimed Austria and Styria, as did the German king.  In this last capacity, Rudolf I of Habsburg drove out Ottokar of Bohemia and made Austria and Styria a domain of his own family in 1276, abdicating in favor of his sons in 1282.  Rudolf I’s son Albrecht I eventually obtained his father’s royal crown in 1298 and imposed his son Rudolf III on Bohemia.  But neither arrangement lasted.  The Habsburgs, who had been picked as kings precisely because they were not powerful, now seemed too dangerous to be given the throne.  Albrecht I’s son Friedrich I became anti-king in opposition to Ludwig V, but was captured and eventually co-opted as co-ruler, dying in 1330.  The next Habsburg king would appear more than a century later.  Albrecht II added Carinthia to the family holdings in 1335, and his son Rudolf IV added Tyrol in 1363.  Rudolf IV’s surviving brothers Albrecht III and Leopold III divided the family lands between them, the former keeping Austria, and the latter Carinthia, Styria, and Tyrol.  This division continued under their descendants, although the members of both lines continued to style themselves Duke of Austria.  Albrecht V of Austria married Elisabeth daughter of Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, and, largely through this connection, became king of Bohemia, Hungary, and Germany shortly before his death in 1439.  His posthumous son Ladislaus could not hope to retain Germany, and had enough problems asserting himself in Bohemia and Hungary.  However, a descendant of Leopold III was elected German king as Friedrich III in 1440 (crowned emperor 1452), and with him began the continuous Habsburg ascendancy.  First regent and then heir of young Ladislaus, a brother, and another cousin, Friedrich III reunited the Habsburg domains under his own rule, having taken the title of Archduke in 1453.  At the same time, Friedrich III married his son Maximilian I to Marie, the heiress of Burgundy and the Netherlands, establishing a sizable Habsburg enclave on the opposite side of the empire.  Maximilian I married his son Philipp to the heiress of Castile and Arag๓n, making him, as Felipe I, king of Castile.  Eventually, Felipe’s son and Maximilian’s grandson Karl I (Karl V as emperor, Carlos I as king of Spain) found himself emperor and master of the Netherlands, Naples, Sicily and Spain, not to mention the transatlantic possessions of the Spanish crown.  Karl I soon resigned his Austrian lands to his younger brother Ferdinand I, who became by marriage the king of Bohemia and Hungary in 1526.  In 1531 Ferdinand I was crowned German king, and in 1558 he succeeded his older brother as emperor.  Ferdinand I’s branch of the Habsburgs continued to rule Germany until 1806 and Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and their crown lands until the end of the First World War.  In 1804, Archduke Franz II added Emperor of Austria to his title of Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1806 abandoned the latter title entirely, becoming Franz I as Emperor of Austria.

 

RULERS OF AUSTRIA (ึSTERREICH): LIST

 

 

Babenberg Margraves of Ostmark, Dukes of Austria from 1156

976–994

Leopold I the Illustrious

Son of Arnulf duke of Bavaria; Margrave of the Bavarian Ostmark

994–1018

Heinrich I the Rebel

Son of Leopold I

1018–1053

Adalbert the Victorious

Son of Leopold I

 

Leopold the Strong

Son of Adalbert; co-ruler till 1043; killed in battle against Hungary

1053–1075

Ernst the Brave

Son of Adalbert; killed against Saxony

1075–1095

Leopold II the Handsome

Son of Ernst (or died 1102)

1095–1136

Leopold III the Saint

Son of Leopold II (or succeeded 1102)

1136–1141

Leopold IV the Generous

Son of Leopold III

1141–1177

Heinrich II Jasomirgott

Son of Leopold III; (Duke of Austria 1156)

1177–1195

Leopold V the Able

Son of Heinrich II

1195–1199

Friedrich I the Catholic

Son of Leopold V

1199–1230

Leopold VI the Glorious

Son of Leopold V

1230–1246

Friedrich II the Warlike

Son of Leopold VI; killed in battle against Hungary

1246–1247

LADISLAUS of Moravia

Son of Vแclav II of Bohemia; married Gertrud daughter of Heinrich son of Leopold VI

1248–1250

HERMANN of Bade

Son of Hermann IV of Bade; married Gertrud of Austria widow of Ladislaus

1250–1251

Friedrich III

Son of Hermann; deposed, executed after battle at Tagliacozzo 1268

1251–1276

Ottokar of Bohemia

Brother of Ladislaus; married Margarete, daughter of Leopold VI; deposed, killed 1278

 

Habsburg Dukes of Austria, Archdukes of Austria from 1453

1276–1282

Rudolf I of Habsburg

Son of Albrecht IV of Habsburg; abdicated, died 1291

1282–1298

Albrecht I

Son of Rudolf I; abdicated, murdered 1308 by Johann son of Rudolf II

1282–1283

Rudolf II

Son of Rudolf I; abdicated, died 1290

1298–1307

Rudolf III

Son of Albrecht I

1307–1330

Friedrich I the Handsome

Son of Albrecht I

1307–1326

Leopold I the Glorious

Son of Albrecht I

1307–1358

Albrecht II the Wise

Son of Albrecht I

1307–1327

Heinrich the Friendly

Son of Albrecht I

1307–1339

Otto the Beloved

Son of Albrecht I

1339–1344

Friedrich II

Son of Otto

1339–1344

Leopold II

Son of Otto

1358–1365

Rudolf IV the Founder

Son of Albrecht II; (supposedly Archduke 1356–1365)

1358–1362

Friedrich III

Son of Albrecht II

1358–1395

Albrecht III with the Braid

Son of Albrecht II; in Austria

1358–1386

Leopold III the Able

Son of Albrecht II; in Styria, Carinthia, and Tyrol; killed in battle against the Swiss

1386–1406

Wilhelm the Ambitious

Son of Leopold III; in Styria

1386–1411

Leopold IV the Fat

Son of Leopold III; in Tyrol and Carinthia

1386–1424

Ernst I the Iron

Son of Leopold III; in Styria and Carinthia

1386–1439

Friedrich IV the Rich

Son of Leopold III; in Tyrol

1395–1404

Albrecht IV

Son of Albrecht III; in Austria

1404–1439

Albrecht V

Son of Albrecht IV; in Austria (Archduke 1453)

1424–1493

Friedrich V the Peaceful

Son of Ernst; in Styria and Carinthia; Austria 1457 and Tyrol 1490 (Archduke 1453)

1424–1463

Albrecht VI the Spendthrift

Son of Ernst; in Styria and Carinthia (Archduke 1453)

1439–1490

Siegmund

Son of Friedrich IV; in Tyrol; (Archduke 1453) abdicated, died 1496

1440–1457

Ladislaus the Posthumous

Posthumous son of Albrecht V; in Austria

1493–1519

Maximilian I the Last Knight

Son of Friedrich V

1519–1522

Karl I

Son of Felipe I of Castile son of Maximilian I; abdicated, died 1558

1522–1564

Ferdinand I

Brother of Karl I

1564–1576

Maximilian II

Son of Ferdinand I; in Austria

1564–1595

Ferdinand II

Son of Ferdinand I; in Tyrol

1564–1590

Karl II

Son of Ferdinand I; in Styria and Carinthia

1576–1612

Rudolf V

Son of Maximilian II; in Austria (abdicated 1608); in Tyrol 1595

1576–1595

Ernst II

Son of Maximilian II

1576–1619

Matthias

Son of Maximilian II; in Austria 1608

1576–1618

Maximilian III

Son of Maximilian II; in Tyrol 1612

1576–1621

Albrecht VII

Son of Maximilian II; in Tyrol 1620

1590–1637

Ferdinand III

Son of Karl II; in Styria and Carinthia

1625–1632

Leopold V

Son of Karl II; in Tyrol

1632–1662

Ferdinand Karl

Son of Leopold V; in Tyrol

1662–1665

Siegmund Franz

Son of Leopold V; in Tyrol; murdered

1637–1657

Ferdinand IV Franz

Son of Ferdinand III

1657–1705

Leopold VI

Son of Ferdinand IV

1705–1711

Josef I

Son of Leopold VI

1711–1740

Karl III

Son of Leopold VI

1740–1765

Franz I Stefan

Son of L้opold-Joseph of Lorraine; husband of Maria Theresia daughter of Karl III

1765–1790

Josef II

Son of Franz I

1790–1792

Leopold VII

Son of Franz I

1792–1806

Franz II the Good

Son of Leopold VII; died 1835

 

Emperors of Austria

1804–1835

FRANZ I the Good

= Archduke Franz II of Austria

1835–1848

FERDINAND I the Goodly

Son of Franz I; abdicated, died 1875

1848–1916

FRANZ-JOSEF I

Son of Franz son of Franz I

1916–1918

KARL I

Son of Otto son of Karl Ludwig brother of Franz-Josef I; deposed, died 1922

1918–

 

Division of Empire between Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Italy