[Caption:] Dependence of key cosmological observables on dark
energy. The top left and right panels show, respectively, the
comoving distance and growth suppression (relative to the
matter-only case). The bottom left and right panels show,
respectively, the CMB angular power spectrum
$\mathcal{C}_\ell$ as a function of multipole $\ell$ and the
matter power spectrum $P(k)$ as a function of wavenumber
$k$. For each observable, we indicate the prediction for a
fiducial $\Lambda$CDM model ($\Omega_m = 0.3$, $w = -1$) and
then illustrate the effect of varying the indicated
parameter. In each case, we assume a flat universe and hold
the combination $\Omega_m h^2$ fixed.
Current constraints in the $f$-$\sigma_8$ plane:
[Caption:] Constraints on the quantity $f\sigma_8$ at different
redshifts from RSD and peculiar velocity surveys. At the lowest
redshifts $z \approx 0$, peculiar velocities from galaxies and SNe
Ia (leftmost \cite{Johnson:2014kaa} and rightmost
\cite{Huterer:2016uyq} red points) and SNe Ia alone (purple data
point; \cite{Turnbull:2011ty}) constrain the velocity power
spectrum and effectively the quantity $f\sigma_8$. At higher
redshifts, constraints on $f\sigma_8$ come from the RSD analyses
from 6dFGS (maroon at $z = 0.067$; \cite{Beutler:2012px}), GAMA
(pink points; \cite{Blake:2013nif}), WiggleZ (dark green;
\cite{Blake:2011rj}), BOSS (dark blue; \cite{Beutler:2016arn}),
and VIPERS (orange; \cite{delaTorre:2013rpa}). The solid line
shows the prediction corresponding to the currently favored flat
$\Lambda$CDM cosmology.
Cluster counts:
[Caption:] Predicted cluster counts for a survey covering 5,000~deg$^2$ that is
sensitive to halos more massive than $10^{14} \, h^{-1} M_\odot$,
shown for a fiducial $\Lambda$CDM model as well as three variations as
in Figure ( "Effect of DE on observables" above ).