University of 
Michigan Documents Center

Elections 2000

Advertising | Archive | Campaign Finances | Candidate Resources | Conventions | Congressional Candidates
Congressional Districts | Debates | Electoral College | Election Process | Lobby Groups | Lobby Group Ratings
Michigan | News Sources | Platforms | Political Parties | Presidential Candidates
Presidential Elections/Historical | Primaries | Public Opinion Polls | State Candidates
Voter Registration | Youth Involvement

Comprehensive | Abortion | Buddhist Temple Fundraiser | Children's Health
Death Penalty | Economics | Education | Energy | Environment | Gun Control
Health Insurance Coverage | Impeachment | Internet | Missile Defense
Patients Bill of Rights | Prescription Drugs | Social Security | Taxes


Bush v. Gore | Bush v. Palm Beach | Candidate Speeches | Civil Rights Probe | Electoral College
Federal Law | Florida Election Results | Florida Law | Gore v. Harris | Jacobs v. Seminole
Media Recount | News Media | Supreme Court Decision | Taylor v. Martin County | Voting Equipment

Bush Cabinet | Congressional Certification | Inauguration
Plum Book | Presidential Appointments | Prune Book

Directory Search

Last updated on July 8, 2009

Election Process

    • Ben's Guide to U.S. Government for Kids (GPO)
      • Describes federal government for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, and teachers/parents
      • Describes the nation, historic documents, branches of government, national v. state authority, how laws are made, elections, and citizenship
      • Pleasing graphics, a glossary, games and activities
      • Includes list of federal government web sites for children

    • Center for Voting and Democracy (Fair Vote)
      • Think tank providing background information on election issues
      • Redistricting, proportion representation, instant runoff issues, and voter turnout

    • Election Day Simulation (University of Washington)
      • Game to teach the electoral process; may take 10 minutes to 6 hours
      • Players choose candidate and campaign staff
      • React to circumstances, issues, crises and geography
      • Election results can be analyzed at the end of the game
      • Game must be downloaded from web site to a hard drive

    • This Nation
      • Online textbook on American government
      • Chapters on foundations (American Revolution, constitution, self-rule, federalism), the branches of government, legislative and budget processes, public opinion, voting
      • Glossary of political terms, teaching aids, and a library of full text documents (major Supreme Court decisions, declarations of war, etc.)

    • United States Electoral College (NARA)
      • Electoral college laws and procedures
      • Number of electoral votes per state for the 2000 elections
      • State-by-state electoral college votes, 1789-1996


  • Controlled vocabulary
  • Used for
    • Foreign material
    • When too many common keywords
  • Find through
    • LC Subject List (Library)
    • Record retrieved through keyword searching

    • Library of Congress Subject Headings: By Subject
      • Campaign funds--United States
      • Democratic Party (U.S.)
      • Electioneering--United States
      • Lobbying--United States
      • Political action committees--United States
      • Political participation--United States
      • Presidents--United States--Election--1972
      • Pressure groups--United States
      • Republican Party (U.S. : 1854-)
      • United States--Elections
      • Voting--United States
      • In MIRLYN Web Advanced Searching, you don't need to know exact order (e.g. voting and united states or united states and voting)

Boolean Logic

    • Keyword Searching

PHRASE k=campaign adj finance campaign w finance
AND k=campaign adj finance and reform campaign w finance and reform
OR k=elections or voting elections or voting
COMPLEX SEARCHING k=campaign adj finance and (PAC or political adj action) reads incorrectly as
(campaign and finance and PAC) or political and action
TRUNCATION k=election? election?

Periodicals - Full Text [Web]

Comprehensive Sources

    • JSTOR (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • Project to convert the full text of historical and economics journals to digital format
      • Keyword indexing may be limited to text, abstract, author, article title or journal title

    • Political Information
      • Mega web index to public policy concerns
      • Indexes news, political parties, policy papers and interest group web sites

    • ProQuest (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • Research Library indexes some 2300 journals in all fields since the 1980s and provides the full text of many since the 1990s (marked by a full-page symbol)
      • Includes popular and scholarly titles, such as the American Political Science Review and American Politics Quarterly
      • Journals indexed by author, title, keyword, periodical, and date
      • Sample searches
          "campaign finance reform"
          campaign finance and reform
          campaign finance and (reform or bills or legislation)
          campaign finance and (reform or bill? Or legislation)
      • Articles may be marked for downloading
      • Text in HTML and image formats
      • Replaces the Core Journals Project, which printed articles from MIRLYN on request

Individual Titles

    • Ballot Access News
      • Non-partisan newsletter on voting issues within the states
      • Archived since 1994

    • Campaigns and Elections (Congressional Quarterly)
      • Election news, political odds on the candidates
      • Rate Your Rep for comparing voter views against those of a Congressperson
      • Political services and buyer's guide
      • Some sections require password
      • Full text of periodical available to University of Michigan affiliates through Proquest

    • Congressional Quarterly (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • Weekly publication with non-partisan political analysis of Congress
      • Identifies major legislation, the issues, and players
      • Political party and election analysis
      • Web coverage begins in 1983 and is searchable
      • Separate index for roll call votes beginning 1995
      • Prior to 1983, use Congressional Quarterly Almanac, (Doc.Cen. JK 1 .C756--Ref.)

    • National Journal (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • National Journal focuses on the politics of the Executive Branch with some reference to current legislation
      • Full text since 1977 available through the University of Michigan's campus license to Congressional Universe
      • Follow the Inside Washington logo on the main Congressional Universe screen

    • Presidential Studies Quarterly (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • Full text available since 1994 on Proquest


    • AdWatch (Washington Post)
      • Video and transcripts of Presidential candidate ads, including those aired during the primary
      • Searchable by candidate or keyword in transcript
    • All Politics
      • Election 2000 web page has links to VIDEOS of candidate and issue ads
    • Livingroom Candidate
      • Major presidential campaign ads, 1952-2004
      • Uses Windows Media Player or RealPlayer
    • RATS
      • Campaign ad on George Bush's prescription drug plan
      • Included a flashing "Rats," considered by some to be subliminal
      • Advertisement was ultimately pulled
      • AllPolitics includes the news story and various video versions of the ad

Campaign Finances

    • Campaign 2000 (George Washington University)
      • List of state campaign finance databases, arranged by state
      • Also includes state election offices

    • Campaign Finance Reform - Or Not?
      • Academic guide to the campaign finance reform debate
      • Identifies interest groups and current bills before Congress

    • Center for Responsive Politics
      • Non-partisan research group monitoring campaign reform
      • Congressional campaign finance filings
      • Personal Finance Disclosure Reports on Congress and presidential candidates are in pdf format and may be over 3 MB
      • Open Secrets
        • Lobby group campaign contributions to Members of Congress arranged by industry and separately by member
        • Web version in Adobe Acrobat format corresponds to paper version in Documents Center (JK 1991 .M261)

    • FECInfo (Tony Raymond) via Congressional Quarterly Online
      • Congressional and Presidential campaign contributions searchable by name, state, Political Action Committee, or individual
      • Special analyses include contributors by occupation or zip code and candidates receiving the most out-of-state money
      • User-friendly interface

    • Federal Election Commission
      • Summary receipts and disbursements of Presidential and all Congressional candidates
      • Image files of individual campaign committee reports beginning with the 1997/98 cycle
      • Detailed files with individual contributors for 1993/94 and 1995/96 must be downloaded

    • Project Vote Smart
      • Biographies, lobby group ratings, campaign receipts by Political Action Committee subject groupings
      • Candidate answers to the National Political Awareness Test, a questionnaire on issues in the election
      • Congress, Governors, President, and State Legislatures

Candidate Resources

    • Campaigns and Elections (Politics Magazine)
      • Election news, political odds on the candidates
      • Rate Your Rep for comparing voter views against those of a Congressperson
      • Political services and buyer's guide
      • Some sections require password
      • Full text of periodical available to University of Michigan affiliates through Proquest

    • Political Resources Online
      • Searchable list of over 3000 political products and services (e.g. pollsters, posters)
        • Approach by specialty, geography, party, and name
      • Calendar of upcoming events, including conventions, state primaries
      • Web sites of federal, state, and local candidates

Congressional Candidates

    • Clerk of the House
      • Historical data includes national electoral college results since the 1st Congress, Presidential and Senatorial election results by state and House by district since 1920
      • Data on the political divisions in Congress since the 34th Congress

    • Congressional District Boundaries
      • American Factfinder
        • Draw Congressional District boundary maps by first going to Reference Maps
        • Then search or browse for name of state
        • Under Boundaries choose Boundaries and Labels for STATE, COUNTIES, CITIES, PLACES, and 105th CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS

    • Election 2000 Archive (Library of Congress)
      • Archive of over 1000 campaign web sites, August 2000-January 2001
      • Includes political parties, candidates, news sources, and humor

    • Google Web Directory: U.S. Elections
      • Annotated links to quality web sites on U.S. elections, campaign finance, former candidates, political humor

      • Web links to Congressional and state-wide candidates
      • No links to state legislative candidates

    • Project Vote Smart
      • Biographies, lobby group ratings, campaign receipts by Political Action Committee subject groupings
      • Candidate answers to the National Political Awareness Test, a questionnaire on issues in the election
      • Congress, Governors, President, and State Legislatures

    • Roll Call Politics
      • Likely candidates for 2000 Congressional elections and a rating of the incumbent's chances
      • Likely winners in the Senate races

    • Incumbents
      • Almanac of American Politics [Library]
        • Biennial biographical directory of Members of Congress
        • Lengthy information about the politics of the Congressional District
        • Brief campaign finances, lobby group ratings, and key roll call votes
        • Documents Center JK 1012 .A44 with current in Graduate Library Stacks

      • Almanac of American Politics
        • Arranged by state and Congressional District
        • Detailed political profile of each district as well as demographic statistics
        • Political profiles of individual Members of Congress with brief election data, lobby group ratings, key votes in the 105th Congress, and campaign finances
        • Paper copy in Documents Center (JK 1012 .A44) with older issues in Graduate Library stacks

      • Politics in America [Library]
        • Profile section includes biographical, campaign finance, district, and election information; bills introduced, current speeches, roll call votes for members of the 106th Congress
        • Doc.Cen. JK 1012 .A44

Lobby Group Web Sites

Lobby Group Ratings

    • League of Conservation Voters
      • Floor votes and LCV ratings on environmental issues beginning 1993

    • Politics in America
      • Printed directory located in the Documents Center (JK 1010.P76-Ref.)
      • Arranged by state and district
      • Political biography, lobby group ratings, major roll call votes

    • Project Vote Smart
      • Votes by Members of Congress on major issues by subject with corresponding lobby group ratings

    • Voter Information Service
      • Ratings of House and Senate members by 25 lobby groups, 1989 to present
      • Arranged by State and District; listings can be confusing when redistricting has occurred

    • Women's Voting Guide
      • Compare the voting record of any member of Congress to user's personal opinion
      • Over 300 issues, including children, crime, defense, environment


    • Election 2000 (Michigan Electronic Library)
      • Primary and caucus results
      • County election web sites with sample ballots and election results
      • Michigan political parties

    • Live posting of election results from the State of Michigan on November 7, 2000
    • Links to clerk web sites for Berrien, Clinton, Genesee, Ingham, Kent, Macomb, Muskegon, Oakland, Washtenaw, and Wayne counties

  • Michigan Elections (Michigan Department of State)
    • State-wide general and primary election results by district beginning with the 1994 primaries; registered voters
    • Election, campaign, and lobby registration laws
    • Filing deadlines, ballot proposals
    • Election districts for the various state offices arranged by county
    • Campaign finances of individual candidates
    • Voter registration instructions

  • Washtenaw County Clerk
    • Ballot proposals and candidates throughout all county jurisdictions
    • Primary results
    • Campaign finances
    • Voter registration information

News Sources

Comprehensive News Sources

    • Academic Universe (UMich and Subscribing Libraries Only)
      • Full text of newspapers around the world for past 10 years
      • Use General News Topics
      • The Major Newspapers has the full text of about 30 U.S. newspapers
      • Use the Regional Subfiles for local newspapers

    • Election 2000 Archive (Library of Congress)
      • Archive of over 1000 campaign web sites, August 2000-January 2001
      • Includes political parties, candidates, news sources, and humor

Individual Titles

    • AllPolitics (Time/CNN)
      • Daily news coverage of U.S. politics
      • Issues matrix includes Time/CNN public opinion polls
      • Expected to have exit poll information and final results

    • Campaign 2000 (C-Span)
      • Video clips of Presidential candidate speeches and interviews
      • Links to campaign web sites

    • Capitol Watch On-Line
      • Daily stories on U.S. politics
      • Links to major political magazines, news magazines and newspapers

    • Christian Science Monitor
      • Daily newspaper with the full text of lead articles (U.S., international, cultural, crossword)
      • Archive back to 1980 searchable by subject


    • U.S. News Online (U.S. News and World Report)
      • Articles on current United States politics and elections
      • "News You Can Use"

    • Web White and Blue
      • Especially good for news media coverage

Policy Issues

Comprehensive | Abortion | Buddhist Temple Fundraiser | Death Penalty | Economics | Education
Environment | Gun Control | Health Insurance Coverage | Impeachment | Internet
Missile Defense | Patients Bill of Rights | Prescription Drugs | Social Security | Taxes

Comprehensive Sites

    • See also Political Party Platforms

    • Council on Foreign Relations
      • Briefing papers on over 25 foreign policy issues, including China, Russia, United Nations, global warming, oil, and border control
      • Separate section provides Bush and Gore statements on the same issues
      • Public opinion data on foreign relations through the Clinton Administration

    • Electronic Policy Network
      • Articles on public policy issues, including civic participation, economics, education, health, and medical care
      • Host server for American Prospect, Idea Central, and Political Science Quarterly

    • Foreign Policy Association
      • Membership organization geared toward debate and education on foreign policy
      • Briefing papers on foreign policy issues from its own sources and those of other think tanks

    • Intellectual Capital
      • Non-partisan weekly periodical on public policy issues
      • Sample topics include education, welfare reform, chemical weapons, Internet policy, and America's cities
      • Interactive cyberpoll with results and selected comments

    • Political Information
      • Mega web index to public policy concerns
      • Indexes news, political parties, policy papers and interest group web sites
      • Sample search: +michigan +concealed-weapons

    • Presidential Candidates on the Issues

    • Townhall
      • Conservative position on elections and public policy issues, such as missile defense, taxes, government reform

Individual Issues

    • Abortion
      • Abortion (Policy.Com)
        • Excerpts from articles, interest groups, and candidates on abortion opinions
        • Includes key court decisions, partial birth abortion, and RU-486
      • Abortion Statistics (Statistical Abstract of the United States
        • Annual publication with data compiled from various government and non-government sources
        • Section 2, includes abortion statistics
        • The 1998 edition, tables 124-126, has abortions by race, 1975-95; abortions by age; and abortions by state
      • State Homicide Laws (National Right to Life)
        • State homicide laws recognizing an unborn's right to life
        • Divided into three categories and subarranged by state
        • Includes citation to the law
      • U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics (Alan Guttmacher Institute)
        • Teen pregnancies by outcome (births, abortions, miscarriages), 1972-96
        • Birth, abortion, and pregnancy rates per 1000 women
        • Age distributions are 14 and under, 15-17, 18-19, and all under 20
        • PDF format

    • Buddhist Temple Fundraiser
      • Federal Election Commission Record, July 1999 (pdf)
        • Status of the Maria Hsia indictment on pages 9-10
        • Audit of Clinton and Dole campaigns and requirement to return funds on pages 10-11
      • Indictment of Maria Hsia (Justice Department)
        • Charges that she defrauded the Federal Election Commission
        • The International Buddhist Progress Society was her client
        • Dated February 18, 1998
      • In Re: Albert Gore, Jr.
        • Statement by the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
        • Reasons why an independent counsel should not be appointed to investigated Al Gore's fund-raising activities at a Buddhist Temple in 1996
        • Discusses the allegations and a summary of the interviews
        • Applicable law
        • Dated November 1998

    • Death Penalty
      • Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases
        • Report issued by the Columbia University Justice Project on June 12
        • Known as the Liebman Study
        • Shows that 68% of death penalty verdicts were thrown out when appealed
        • 7% of cases were let go
        • Predominant cause is poor defense lawyers
        • Rates states on death penalty errors
      • Capital Punishment Statistics (BJS)
        • National data on executions since 1930 and current prisoners on death row
        • State by state executions for last 30 years and state law
        • Race and sex data, reasons for execution
        • Various formats: text, pdf, and spreadsheet
      • Survey of the Federal Death Penalty System (Dept. of Justice)
        • Review decision to seek the death penalty in federal courts, 1988-2000
        • Statistics on Justice Dept. attorneys to seek death penalty by race of defendant and U.S. Attorney District
      • Texas Death Row Statistics
        • Official web site of the Texas Dept. of Criminal Justice
        • Names of persons on death row, birthdates and race
        • Those no longer on death row and reason
        • Scheduled executions
        • Last meal requests, media witness lists
        • Death row facts, including execution process

    • Economics
      • Dismal Scientist
        • Most current leading economic indicators, date of next release, analysis, and monthly figures for previous year
          • Includes consumer credit and confidence, prices, savings, housing starts, durable goods orders
          • Links to original government sources of the indicators
        • Forecasts of economic indicators for next two years (e.g. expected consumer price index)
        • 130 business, demographic, labor, income, real estate, and vital statistics variables for states
          • Examples are gross state product and health insurance coverage
          • May be viewed or states may be ranked
        • 60 demographic, labor, income, and real estate variables for 257 metropolian areas, which may be viewed or ranked
        • Extensive list of links to economic data
      • Economic Indicators: Historical (FRB-St.Louis)
        • Gross Domestic Product, price, employment and monetary data
        • Most time series begin in the 1940s
        • ASCII or various spreadsheet formats
        • See also Ted Bos' Economic Time Series
      • Household Economics (Census Bureau)
        • Historical and current data on personal income and poverty
      • Prosperity for America's Families
        • Gore-Lieberman economic plan, released September 6, 2000
        • Economic goals and specific means for achieving them
        • The complete report is no longer available online, but a partial is available.

    • Education
      • Improving Student Achievement: What NAEP State Test Scores Tell Us (Rand Corporation)
        • Results of state scores in the National Assessment of Educational Progress
        • States showing the highest improvement: North Carolina, Texas and Michigan
        • Differences in test scores in Texas and California given the same type of families and the differences in public policy
        • Released July 2000
      • National Assessment of Educational Progress [Nation's Report Card/NCES]
        • Extensive reports on national and state test scores of 4th, 8th, and 12th grade students by various demographic characteristics
        • Separate surveys on science, mathematics, history, geography
        • All publications in Adobe Acrobat
        • A bibliography lists published NAEP documents since 1970
      • What Do Texas Test Scores Tell Us? (Rand Corporation)
        • Compares results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress with the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills
        • Concludes that two results don't match; the former shows a slightly widening gap in the races; the latter shows them narrowing
        • Released in October 2000

    • Environment
      • Chemical Scorecard
        • Ranks states, counties, and zip codes by toxic chemical air pollution and cancer risks posed by air pollution
      • Global Warming (EPA)
        • Scientific reports and fact sheets on the causes and effects of global warming
        • Statistics embedded in text and as separate tables
        • Annotated links to related global warming web sites

    • Gun Control
      • Center for the Prevention of Handgun Violence
        • Advocacy group headed by Sarah Brady
        • State gun control laws, including child access laws and waiting periods
        • National gun law loopholes and proposed legislation
        • Firearm facts
      • Gun Control v. Gun Rights (Open Secrets)
        • This 1999 article analyzes the campaign contributions of the gun rights v. gun control groups
        • Table of gun rights votes arranged by name of Congressman with the campaign contributions received from gun rights groups and his/her vote with the guns rights position
      • Homicide and Suicide Rates Associated with the Implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
        • Article appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association (August 2, 2000)
        • Compares the 32 states which implemented a waiting period to purchase a gun versus those who had implemented a waiting period prior to 1994
        • Authors conclude that the Brady Law had no effect in curbing homicide or suicide, except for the suicide of people 55+
      • National Rifle Association
        • Federal and state laws and firearms
        • Proposed federal legislation on guns
        • Statements on Smith and Wesson agreement

    • Health Insurance Coverage
      • Alpha Center
        • Health insurance coverage by state for various public and private plans
        • Data extracted from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey
      • Census Bureau
        • Longitudinal and cross-sectional health insurance statistics by state and various socioeconomic characteristics
        • Data covers 1987-95
      • Children's Health Insurance Program
        • Frew v. Gilbert
          • Court ruling not on District Court web site
          • University of Michigan affiliated can search for decision using Academic Universe
            • Go to Federal Case Law; conduct an advanced search (more options); search by a combination of judge and date (August 2000) or case name and date (August 2000)
        • State Children's Health Insurance Plans (HCFA)
          • State plans for covering uninsured children in a medicaid-based insurance program
          • State's annual report on coverage, submitted in 2000
      • President's Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry
        • Recommendations include clear goals, improved measurement of health quality, public-private partnerships, group purchases
        • Consumer strength, accountability, health care workers, focusing on vulnerable populations
        • Issued July 1998
      • Uninsured in America (PBS News Hour)
        • National survey results (pdf format) of public perceptions of the numbers and causes for people without health insurance coverage
        • Surveys of the uninsured about the effects and problems they encounter
        • Pop-up menus with a chronology of health insurance in America, individual state requirements for child health coverage, and the percent of non-elderly who are uninsured

    • Impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton (UMich)
      • Extensive news coverage and primary documents on President Clinton's impeachment
      • Includes Starr Report, House Judiciary documents, and floor debates
      • Senator Lieberman's statement in September 1998

    • Internet
      • Al Gore's Web Site
        • Testimonials on Gore's leadership
        • List of bills he sponsored
        • Plans for the future of the internet
      • THOMAS
        • Search bills by Congress with "computer" as keyword and "Senator Gore" as author
        • The High Speed Computing Act is PL 102-194 (S.272)
      • Hobbes Internet Timeline
        • Brief "bullet history" of the internet since 1969
        • Includes domain host statistics
        • Does not focus on federal legislation but includes information about NSFNet

    • Patients' Bill of Rights
      • Patients Bill of Rights (S.1344, 106th Congress)
        • Thomas provides text of bill, amendments and debates
        • Debated on Senate floor the week of July 12 with roll call vote on July 15
        • Indefinitely postponed by Senate after provisions incorporated into H.R. 2990
      • Patients Bill of Rights (H.R. 2723,106th Congress)
      • Patients Bill of Rights H.R. 2990, 106th Congress)
        • Replaces earlier Senate and House bills
        • Laid on table as of February 2000
      • Pending Patient Protection Legislation (Kaiser Family Foundation)
        • Chart with detailed comparison of the provisions in conference version of H.R. 2990, the Patients Bill of Rights
        • Covers access to emergency services, hospital stays for mastectomies, etc.
      • Senator Ted Kennedy
        • See press releases for July 1999 for floor statements on the Patients Bill of Rights

    • Taxes and Budget
      • Bureau of Public Debt
        • Annual public debt to the penny beginning 1791
        • Monthly figures for past year and daily figures for last month
      • Citizens for Tax Justice
        • Reports analyze the effects of the Bush and McCain tax cut plans
        • Differences between Republic and Democratic marriage penalty revokation plans
      • Congressional Budget Office
        • Text of selected reports, beginning 1995, on the federal budget, budget issues (e.g. cost of army helicopters), and five-year economic projections
        • Bibliography of printed publications not available on the web
      • Joint Committee on Taxation
        • Short reports and studies on the impact of various tax law changes
        • Includes assessment of the marriage penalty tax

Political Parties