VERSION 2.51 (Oct 30, 2003; added link)

Proseminar in Political Participation
Political Science 685 - Fall 2003
Gregory B. Markus
4242 ISR   763-3284 (

This course surveys major themes in theory and research on political participation, with some emphasis on voting and elections.  Students will be expected to evaluate the readings critically in our class discussions and in their weekly papers.  Most of the time, specific students will be assigned responsibility for leading class discussion of the readings for the following week.  All students are responsible for reading all of the required pieces and participating in the discussions.  Half of your course grade will be based on your papers; the other half will be based on your contributions to our discussions.

It is likely that we will add or delete readings during the semester.  I may also make assignments that involve things other than readings, such as attending certain events on or off campus.

Papers are due in class each week.  They are to provide a brief overview of the main points of one or more key readings for that week and offer some critical commentary.  Maximum length, 800 words.  The length restriction is intended to motivate you to make tough decisions about what is absolutely essential to include (and remember) and what is not.  The papers are not expected to be literary masterpieces, although they are expected to be organized and coherent.  Don't agonize over these short papers.  Bang 'em out, and turn 'em in.


All of the required journal articles are available online, usually through JSTOR or ProQuest.  (I recommend starting by using MIRLYN to locate the journal title.)  Other required course readings (and a few optional ones) are available through links in the online syllabus:

Core readings are marked by an asterisk and are probably best read in the order in which they are listed.  Supplemental readings follow--first articles, then books, each collection listed alphabetically.

Required Books:

Rosenstone, Steven J., and John Mark Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.

Shepsle, Kenneth, and Mark Bonchek. 1997. Analyzing Politics. New York: Norton.

Schuessler, Alexander A. 2000. A Logic of Expressive Choice. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Optional Books:

Desai, Ashwin. 2002. We Are the Poors. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.




*Miller, Gary J. 1997. The impact of economics on contemporary political science. Journal of Economic Literature, 35 (3): 1173-1204.

*Leighley, Jan E. 1995. Attitudes, opportunities and incentives: a field essay on political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 48: 181-209.

*Shepsle, Kenneth, and Mark Bonchek. 1997. Analyzing Politics. ch. 1-7.

*Miller, Nicholas R. 1983. Pluralism and social choice. APSR, 77 (3): 734-747.

Plott, Charles R. Axiomatic social choice theory: an overview and interpretation. AJPS, 20 (3): 511-596.

Miller, Nicholas R. 1986. Public choice and the theory of voting: a survey. In Samuel Long, ed. Annual Review of Political Science. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing, pp. 1-36.

Green, Donald P., and Ian Shapiro. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press, ch. 7.


*Shepsle, Kenneth, and Mark Bonchek. 1997. Analyzing Politics. ch. 8-10.

*Oliver, Pamela E. 1993. Formal models of collective action. Annual Review of Sociology, 19: 271-300.

*Angier, Natalie. 2001. Of altruism, heroism and Nature's gifts in the face of terror. New York Times (Sept. 18).

Moore, Will H. 1995. Rational rebels: overcoming the free-rider problem. Political Research Quarterly, 48 (June): 417-454.

Axelrod, Robert. 1981. The emergence of cooperation among egoists. APSR, 75 (2): 306-318.

Schelling, Thomas C. 1973. Hockey helmets, concealed weapons, and daylight saving: a study of binary choices with externalities. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 17 (3): 381-428.

Granovetter, Mark. 1978. Threshold models of collective behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 83 (6): 1420-1443.

Heckathorn, Douglas D. 1996. The dynamics and dilemmas of collective action. American Sociological Review, 61 (April): 250-277.

Lohmann, Susanne. 1994. The dynamics of informational cascades: the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989-91. World Politics, 47 (1): 42-101.

Macy, Michael. 1990. Learning theory and the logic of critical mass. American Sociological Review, 55 (6): 809-826.

Schelling, Thomas C. 1969. Models of segregation. American Economic Review, 59 (2): 488-493.

Sugden, Robert. Spontaneous order. 1989. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3 (4): 85-97.

Sugden, Robert. 1984. Reciprocity: The supply of public goods through voluntary contributions. Economic Journal, 94 (Dec.): 772-787.

Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

Hardin, Russell. 1982. Collective Action. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


*Shepsle, Kenneth, and Mark Bonchek. 1997. Analyzing Politics. New York: Norton, ch. 11, 14.

*March, James, and Johan Olsen. 1984. The new institutionalism: Organizational factors in political life. APSR, 78 (3): 734-749.

*Immergut, Ellen M. 1998. The theoretical core of the new institutionalism. Politics and Society, 26 (1): 5-34.

*Ostrom, Elinor. 1998. A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action. APSR, 92 (1): 1-22.

Monroe, Kristen Renwick. 2001. Morality and a sense of self: the importance of identity and categorization for moral action. AJPS, 45 (3): 491-507.

Axelrod, Robert. 1986. An evolutionary approach to norms. APSR, 80 (4): 1095-1111.

Axelrod, Robert. 1997. The dissemination of culture: a model with local convergence and global polarization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41 (2): 203-226.

Bianco, William, and Robert Bates. 1990. Cooperation by design: leadership structure and collective dilemmas," APSR, 84 (1): 133-48.

Calvert, Randall. 1992. Leadership and its basis in problems of social coordination. International Political Science Review, 13 (1): 7-24.

Macy, Michael, and Andreas Flache. 1995. Beyond rationality in models of choice. Annual Review of Sociology, 21: 73-91.

Miller, Byron. 1992. Collective action and rational choice: place, community, and the limits to individual self-interest. Economic Geography, 68 (1): 22-42.

Oliver, Pamela. 1984. 'If you don't do it, nobody else will': active and token contributors to local collective action. American Sociological Review, 49 (Oct.): 601-610.

Pierson, Paul. 2000. Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. APSR, 94 (2): 251-267.

Walker, Jack L., Jr. 1983. The origins and maintenance of interest groups in America. APSR, 77 (2): 390-406.

Chong, Dennis. 1991. Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gladwell, Malcolm. 1999. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Lichbach, Mark I. 1996. The Cooperator's Dilemma. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

March, James, and Johan Olsen. 1995. Democratic Governance. New York: Free Press.


*Putnam, Robert D. 1995. Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6 (Jan.): 65-78.

*Berman, Sheri. 1997. Civil society and political institutionalization. American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (5): 562-574.

*Ryan, Alan. 2000. My way. New York Review of Books (Aug. 10).

*Foley, Michael W. and Bob Edwards. 1996. The paradox of civil society. Journal of Democracy. 7: 38-52.

Fuchs, Ester R., Lorraine C. Minnite, and Robert Y. Shapiro. 2000. Political capital and political participation. Paper presented at APSA annual meeting, Washington, DC. (.pdf)

Jackman, Robert W., and Ross A. Miller. 1996. A renaissance of political culture? AJPS, 40 (3): pp. 632-659.

Levi, Margaret. 1996. Social and unsocial capital: A review essay of Robert Putnam's Making Democracy Work. Politics and Society, 24 (1): 45-55.

Paxton, Pamela. 1999. Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 105 (1): 88-127.

Portes, Alejandro and Patricia Landolt. 1996. The downside of social capital. The American Prospect (May/June).

Skocpol, Theda, Marshall Ganz, and Ziad Munson. 2000. A nation of organizers: The institutional origins of civic voluntarism in the United States, APSR, 94: 527-546.

Varshney, Ashutosh. 2001. Ethnic conflict and civil society: India and beyond. World Politics, (April).

Walzer, Michael. 1991. The idea of civil society. Dissent (Spring).

Almond, Gabriel A., and Sidney Verba. 1963. The Civic Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ehrenberg, John. 1999. Civil Society: The Critical History of an Idea. New York New York Univesity Press.

Kim, Sunhyuk. 2000. The Politics of Democratization in Korea: The Role of Civil Society. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Skocpol, Theda, and Morris P. Fiorina, eds. 1999. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.


*Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, Henry E. Brady, and Norman H. Nie. 1993. Citizen activity: Who participates? What do they say? APSR, 87 (2): 303-318.

*Warren, Mark. 1992. Democratic theory and self-transformation. APSR, 86 (1): 8-23.

Desai, Ashwin. 2002. We Are the Poors. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1975. The democratic distemper. Public Interest, 41 (Fall): 9-38.

Kahn, Charlotte. 1994. Rebuilding Boston. Boston Review, 19 (3).

Boyte, Harry C., and Nancy N. Kari. 1996. Building America: The Democratic Promise of Public Work. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

DeSipio, Louis. 1996. Counting on the Latino Vote: Latinos as a New Electorate. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Garcia, F. Chris, ed. 1997. Pursuing Power: Latinos and the Political System. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Ginsberg, Benjamin, and Alan Stone, eds. 1996. Do Elections Matter? 3rd ed. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Pateman, Carole. 1970. Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.

Verba, Sidney, and Norman Nie 1972. Participation in America. New York: Harper & Row.


*Brady, Henry E., Sidney Verba, and Kay Lehman Schlozman. 1995. Beyond SES: a resource model of political participation. APSR, 89 (2): 271-294.

*Rosenstone, Steven J. and John Mark Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America.  New York: Macmillan.

*Warren, Mark R. 1998. Community building and political power: a community organizing approach to democratic renewal. American Behavioral Scientist, 42: 78-92.

Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, Henry Brady, and Norman H. Nie. 1993. Race, ethnicity and political resources: participation in the United States. British Journal of Political Science, 23 (4): 453-497.

Burns, Nancy, Kay Lane Schlozman, and Sidney Verba. 1997. The public consequences of private inequality: family life and citizen participation, APSR, 91 (2): 373-389.

Markus, Gregory B.  2002. Civic participation in American cities. Revised version of paper presented at 2001 APSA meetings, San Francisco. (.pdf file)

Various authors. 1997. Symposium on Voice and Equality. APSR, 91 (2): 421-430.

Harris, Fredrick C. 1994. Something within: Religion as a mobilizer of African-American activism. Journal of Politics, 56 (1): 42-68.

Huckfeldt, Robert, and John D. Sprague. 1992. Political parties and electoral mobilization: Political structure, social structure and the party canvass. APSR, 86 (1): 70-86.

Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Patrick J. Kenney. 1999. Do negative campaigns mobilize or suppress turnout?  Clarifying the relationship between negativity and participation. APSR, 99: 877-890.

McAdam, Doug. 1986. Recruitment to high-risk activism: the case of Freedom Summer. American Journal of Sociology, 92 (1): 64-90.

Reed, Adolph, Jr. 1997. Why is there no black political movement? Village Voice (Nov. 18): 35-37. (Available through LexisNexis. Enter "US News" and "NY sources".)

Schlozman, Kay Lane, Nancy Burns, Sidney Verba, and Jesse Donahue. 1995. Gender and citizen participation: Is there a different voice? AJPS, 39 (2): 267-293.

Burns, Nancy, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Sidney Verba. 2001. The Private Roots of Public Action: Gender, Equality, and Political Participation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gaventa, John. 1980. Power and Powerlessness:  Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Goldstein, Kenneth. 1999. Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, Aldon. 1984. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press.

Schattschneider, E. E.  1960. The Semi-Sovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Walton, Hanes, Jr. 1985. Invisible Politics. New York: SUNY Press.

Warren, Mark R. 2001. Dry Bones Rattling: Community Building to Revitalize American Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Steven J. Rosenstone. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.


*Fung, Archon. 2003. Recipes for public spheres: Eight institutional design choices and their consequences. Journal of Political Philosophy, 11 (3): 338-367.  (You can download the article in .pdf form at this Blackwell-Synergy website.)

*Sanders, Lynn M. 1997. Against deliberation. Political Theory, 25 (3): 347-376. (Acrobat document)

*Sunstein, Cass R. 2002. On a danger of deliberative democracy, Daedalus, 131 (4): 120-124.  (Acrobat document)

*Boyte, Harry C. 1995. Beyond deliberation: Citizenship as public work. Paper delivered at the PEGS Conference, Feb. 11-12, 1995.

Fishkin, James S. 1995. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.  Chapter 1.  See also the review by Robert Y. Shapiro in APSR, Sept 1996, vol. 90 (3): 625-626.

Eliasoph, Nina. 1997. "Close to home": The work of avoiding politics, Theory and Society, 26 (5): 605-647.

Mansbridge, Jane J. Does participation make better citizens? Paper delivered at the PEGS Conference, Feb. 11-12, 1995. (Revised version published in Stephen L. Elkin nd Karol E. Soltan, eds. (1999) Citizen Competence and Democratic Institutions. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Maidenberg, Micah. 2002. What if citizens got to decide the city budget?  Brazil's Workers Party tries "participatory budgeting. Labor Notes (October).

Sunstein, Cass R. 2000. Deliberative trouble? Why groups go to extremes. Yale Law Journal, 110 (1): 71-120.

Warren, Mark E. 1996. Deliberative democracy and authority. American Political Science Review, 90 (1): 46-60.

Eliasoph, Nina. 1998. Avoiding Politics: How Everyday Americans Produce Apathy in Everyday Life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Elster, Jon, ed. 1998. Deliberative Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischer, Frank. 2000. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Hibbing, John R., and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. 2002. Stealth Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kinder, Donald R., and Donald Herzog. 1993. Democratic discussion.  In George E. Marcus and Russell L. Hanson, eds. Reconsidering the Democratic Public. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 348-377. See also James Farr's commentary, which follows the Kinder & Herzog piece.

Mansbridge, Jane J. 1983. Beyond Adversary Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


*Riker, William H., and Peter C. Ordeshook. 1969. A theory of the calculus of voting. APSR, 63 (1): 11-30.

*Aldrich, John A. 1993. Rational choice and turnout. AJPS, 37 (1): 246-278.

*Meehl, Paul. 1977. The selfish voter and the thrown away vote argument. APSR, 71 (1): 11-31.

*Verba, Sidney, Kay L. Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady. 2000. Rational action and political activity. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 12 (3): 243-268. (This is available online through a U-M connection.  Go to the Ingenta homepage and do a search.)

Cohn, Jonathan. 1999. Revenge of the nerds: irrational exuberance. The New Republic (Oct. 25).

Whiteley, Paul F. 1995. Rational choice and political participation--evaluating the debate. Political Research Quarterly, 48: 211-233.

Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Sidney Verba, and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Participation's not a paradox: the view from American activists. British Journal of Political Science, 25 (1): 1-36.

Blais, Andre. 2000. To Vote or Not to Vote. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.

Barber, Benjamin. 1993. Reductionist political science and democracy. In George E. Marcus and Russell L. Hanson, eds. Reconsidering the Democratic Public. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 65-72.

Green, Donald P., and Ian Shapiro. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory. New Haven: Yale University press, ch. 4, 5.

Mansbridge, Jane J. 1990. The rise and fall of self-interest in the explanation of political life. In Jane J. Mansbridge, ed. Beyond Self-Interest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ch. 1.

Petracca, Mark P. 1991. The rational actor approach to politics: science, self-interest, and normative democratic theory. In Kristen R. Monroe, ed. The Economic Approach to Politics. New York: HarperCollins, ch. 7.

Hirschman, A. O. 1982. Shifting Involvements: Private Interest and Public Action. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


*Schuessler, Alexander A. 2000. A Logic of Expressive Choice. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Jasper, James M. 1997. The Art of Moral Protest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Schuessler, Alexander A. 2000. Expressive voting. Rationality and Society, 12 (1): 87-119.


*Powell, G. Bingham, Jr. 1986. American voter turnout in comparative perspective. APSR, 80 (1): 17-43.

*Lijphart, Arend. 1997. Unequal participation: democracy's unresolved dilemma. APSR, 91 (1): 1-14.

*Timpone, Richard J. 1998. Structure, behavior, and voter turnout in the United States. APSR, 92 (1): 145-158.

*McDonald, Michael P., and Samuel L. Popkin. 2001. The myth of the vanishing voter. APSR, 95 (4): 963-974.

Bennett, Stephen Earl, and David Resnick. 1990. The implications of nonvoting for democracy in the United States. AJPS, 34: 771-802.

Jackman, Robert W. 1987. Political institutions and voter turnout in the industrial democracies. APSR, 81 (2): 405-424.

Wattenberg, Martin P. 1998. Turnout decline in the U.S. and other advanced industrial democracies. Paper presented at the APSA annual meeting, Boston.

Miller, Warren, and J. Merrill Shanks. 1996. The New American Voter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ch. 3-5.

Cox, Gary. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.


*Jennings, M. Kent, and Gregory B. Markus. 1984. Partisanship over the long haul:  results from the three-wave political socialization panel study. APSR, 78: 1000-1018.

*Bartels, Larry M. 2000. Partisanship and voting behavior, 1952-1996. AJPS, 44 (1): 35-50.

*Converse, Philip E., and Markus, Gregory B. 1979. Plus ca change ...:  the new CPS election study panel. APSR, 73: 32-49.

*Feldman, Stanley, and Pamela J. Conover. 1981. The origins and meanings of liberal/conservative self-identifications. AJPS, 25: 617-645.

*Lupia, Arthur. 1994. Shortcuts versus encyclopedias: information and voting behavior in California insurance reform elections. APSR, 88 (1): 63-76.

Converse, Philip E. 1964. The nature of belief systems in a mass public. In David Apter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent. New York: Free Press.

Converse, Philip E. 1969. Of time and partisan stability. Comparative Politics, 2: 139-171.

Kuklinski, James H., Luskin, Robert C., and Bolland, John. 1991. Where's the schema? Going beyond the 'S' word in political psychology. APSR, 85: 1341-1355.

Levison, Andrew. 2001. Who lost the working class? The Nation, 272 (May 14): 25-32.

Luskin, Robert C. 1987. Measuring political sophistication. AJPS, 31: 856-899.

Markus, Gregory B. 2001. American individualism reconsidered. In James H. Kuklinski, ed. Citizens and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 401-432.

Markus, Gregory B. 1983. Dynamic modelling of cohort change: the case of political partisanship. AJPS, 27: 717-739.

Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.

Key, V. O., Jr. 1966. The Responsible Electorate. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lane, Robert E. 1962. Political Ideology. New York: Free Press.

Neuman, W. Russell. 1986. The Paradox of Mass Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Miller, Warren, and J. Merrill Shanks. 1996. The New American Voter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Ch. 6, 7.


*Conover, Pamela J., and Stanley Feldman. 1989. Candidate perception in an ambiguous world: campaigns, cues, and inference processes. AJPS, 33: 912-940.

*Markus, Gregory B., and Philip E. Converse. 1979. A dynamic simultaneous equation model of electoral choice. APSR, 73: 1055-1070.

*Markus, Gregory B. 1982. Political attitudes during an election year: a report on the 1980 NES panel study. APSR, 76: 538-560.

Bartels, Larry M. 1987. Candidate choice and the dynamics of the presidential nominating process. AJPS, 31: 1-30.

Marcus, George E., and Michael MacKuen. 1993. Anxiety, enthusiasm, and the vote:  the emotional underpinnings of learning and involvement during presidential campaigns. APSR, 87: 672-685.

Miller, Arthur H., Martin P. Wattenberg, and Oksana Malanchuk. 1986. Schematic assessments of presidential candidates. APSR, 80: 521-540.

Fiorina, Morris. 1981. Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven: Yale University Press. Ch. 1, 10.

Flanigan, William and Nancy H. Zingale. 1998. Political Behavior of the American Electorate, 9th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Page, Benjamin I. 1978. Choices and Echoes in Presidential Elections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Popkin, Samuel L. 1991. The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Reeves, Keith. 1997. Voting Hopes or Fears?  New York: Oxford University Press.

Wattenberg, Martin. 1991. The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


*Kramer, Gerald H. 1977. Short-term fluctuations in U.S. voting behavior, 1896-1964, APSR, 65: 131-143.

*Kramer, Gerald H. 1983. The ecological fallacy revisited:  aggregate- versus individual-level findings on economics and elections and sociotropic voting. APSR, 77: 92-111.

*Markus, Gregory B. 1988. The impact of personal and national economic conditions on the presidential vote:  a pooled cross-sectional analysis. AJPS, 32: 137-154.

Markus, Gregory B. 1992. The impact of personal and national economic conditions on presidential voting, 1956-1988. AJPS, 36: 829-834.

Tufte, Edward. 1975. Determinants of the outcomes of midterm Congressional elections. APSR, 69: 812-826.

Kinder, Donald R., and D. Roderick Kiewiet. 1981. Sociotropic voting: the American case. British Journal of Political Science, 11: 129-161.

Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and Douglas Rivers. 1984. A retrospective on retrospective voting. Political Behavior, 6: 369-393.