Version 1.4 (Jan. 21, 2010)

Political Science 623: Politics of the Metropolis
Winter 2010

Gregory B. Markus
Professor of Political Science and Research Professor, Center for Political Studies
6735 Haven Hall
(734) 763-2222,

Class meets: Tuesdays, 2:10 pm to 4:00 pm, 5769 Haven Hall (Dept. Pre-function Room)
Office hours: Tuesdays, 4:00 pm to 5:30 pm, or by appointment


An understanding of urban politics is relevant to the work of political scientists of all specialties. Indeed, the study of politics originated as the study of cities. As for the present day, within a decade or so the majority of humankind will reside in cities for the first time in history. In the United States, even as older industrial cities decline, the broader process of urbanization continues apace. In the rest of the world-and particularly in developing countries-urbanization is occurring even more rapidly. As this is happening, certain aspects of government and governance are centralizing while other aspects are decentralizing, everywhere. The concepts, theories, and empirical analyses that help us understand urban politics and its consequences, primarily but not exclusively within the United States, constitute the subject matter of this course.

Each class meeting will consist primarily of group discussion of the week's assigned readings. Your course grade will be based equally upon your participation in class discussions and your weekly written reports. Each report should summarize, integrate, and evaluate (much of) the week's readings: maximum length, 800 words. Bring your report to class. You may delay submitting your report to me until the day after class if you wish, but you should nevertheless bring a draft report to class with you. These reports are not expected to be literary masterpieces, although they are expected to be organized and coherent. Do not agonize over these reports: bang 'em out, turn 'em in.

I recommend that you purchase: Thomas J. Sugrue. 1996 (or updated version). The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton University Press. The other primary readings (denoted by an asterisk) are available in the Resources area of our CTools site, or on the Web. The supplementary readings are there for you to sample as you wish, or as I may assign to individual students from time to time for them to present in class.

Jan 12. Cities: The Big Picture

* Glaeser, Edward L. 1998. "Are cities dying?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12 (2): 139-160.

* Glaeser, Edward L. 2000. "The future of urban research: non-market interactions." In William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack, eds. Brookings-Wharton: Papers on Urban Affairs 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

* Katz, Bruce 2000. "Enough of the small stuff! Toward a new urban agenda," Brookings Review, 18 (3): 4-9.

Kotkin, Joel. 2009. "The luxury city vs. the middle class," The American (May 13).

Davis, Diane. 2005. "Cities in global context: A brief intellectual history," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29 (1): 92-109.

Henderson, Vernon. 2002. "Urbanization in developing countries," World Bank Research Observer, 17 (1): 89-112.

Nivola, Pietro S. 1999. "Are Europe's cities better?" Public Interest, 137 (Fall): 73-85.

Sellers, Jefferey M. 2005. "Re-placing the nation: An agenda for comparative urban politics," Urban Affairs Review, 40 (4): 419-445.

Jan 19. Urban Politics: Structure, Power, and Limits (Part 1)

* Bridges, Amy, and Richard Kronick. 1999. "Writing the rules to win the game: The middle-class regimes of municipal reformers," Urban Affairs Review, 34 (5): 691-706.

* Briffault, Richard. 1990. "Our localism: Part I -- The structure of local government law," Columbia Law Review, 90 (January): 1-115.

Frederickson, H. George, and Gary Alan Johnson. 2001. "The adapted American city: A study of institutional dynamics," Urban Affairs Review, 36 (6): 872-884.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. 2002 Census of Governments, Vol. 1 (1): Government Organization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Read pp. v-xii.

DiGaetano, Alan. 1991. "Urban political reform: Did it kill the machine?" Journal of Urban History, 18 (1): 37-67.

Morgan, David R., and John P. Pelissero. 1980. "Urban policy: Does political structure matter?" American Political Science Review, 74 (4): 999-1006.

Dahl, Robert A. 1959. Who Governs? New Haven: Yale University Press.

Crenson, Matthew A. 1971. The Un-Politics of Air Pollution: A Study of Non-Decisionmaking in the Cities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Burns, Nancy. 1994. The Formation of American Local Governments: Private Values in Public Institutions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jan 26. Urban Politics: Structure, Power, and Limits (Part 2)

* Mollenkopf, John. 1989. "Who (or what) runs cities, and how?" Sociological Forum, 4 (1): 119-137.

* Logan, John R., et al. 1997. "The character and consequences of growth regimes: An assessment of 20 years of research," Urban Affairs Review, 32 (5): 603-630.

* Nolan, Jenny. 2000. "Auto plant vs. neighborhood: The Poletown battle," Detroit News (Jan. 27).

* Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. "Justices rule cities can take property for private development," New York Times (June 23).

Davies, Jonathan S. 2002. "Urban regime theory: A normative-empirical critique," Journal of Urban Affairs, 24 (1): 1-17.

Molotch, Harvey. 1976. "The city as a growth machine: toward a political economy of place," American Journal of Sociology, 82 (2): 309-332.

Stone, Clarence N. 2005. "Looking back to look forward: Reflections on urban regime analysis" Urban Affairs Review, 40 (3): 309-341.

Stone, Clarence N. 1980. "Systemic power in community decision making," American Political Science Review, 74 (4): 978-990.

Logan, John R., and Harvey L. Molotch. 1987. Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Peterson, Paul E. 1981. City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rae, Douglas W. 2003. City: Urbanism and Its End. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Stone, Clarence N. 1989. Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta 1946-1988. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Feb 2. Civil Society, Democracy, and Place

* Mayer, Margit. 2003. "The onward sweep of social capital: Causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities, and urban movements," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(1): 110-132.

* Sampson, Robert J., et al. 2005. "Civil society reconsidered: The durable nature and community structure of collective civic action," American Journal of Sociology, 111 (3): 673-715.

* Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. "The Hispanic challenge," Foreign Policy (March/April).

* Putnam, Robert D. 2007. "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century," Scandinavian Political Studies, 30 (2): 137-174.

DeFilippis, James 2001. "The myth of social capital in community development," Housing Policy Debate, 12 (4): 781-806.

James, Franklin J., Jeff A. Romine, and Peter E. Zwanzig. 1998. "The effects of immigration on urban communities," Cityscape 3 (3): 171-192.

Lowenstein, Roger. 2006. "The immigration equation," New York Times Magazine (July 9).

Oliver, J. Eric. 2000. "City size and civic involvement in metropolitan America," American Political Science Review, 94 (2): 361-373.

Castells, Manuel. 1983. The City and the Grassroots. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Waldinger, Roger. 1996. Still the Promised City? African Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Feb 9. Mediating Institutions, Leadership, and Participation

* Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35 (July): 216-224.

* Kretzmann, John P. 1995. "Building communities from the inside out," Shelterforce (Sept./Oct.)

* Ganz, Marshall.   2004. "Organizing." In George R. Goethals, Georgia J. Sorenson, and James MacGregor Burns, eds. Encyclopedia of Leadership. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

* Speer, Paul W., et al. 2003. "The intentional exercise of power: Community organizing in Camden, New Jersey," Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 13: 399-408.

* To be shown in class: Mahan, Leah and Mark Lipman. 1996. "Holding Ground: The Rebirth of Dudley Street." Documentary video available at U-M Film and Video Library.

Walljasper, Jay 1997. "When activists win: the renaissance of Dudley St." The Nation, March 3. See also the DSNI Website.

Stoecker, Randy. 2003. "Understanding the development-organizing dialectic," Journal of Urban Affairs, 25 (4): 493-512.

Berry, Jeffrey M., Kent E. Portney, and Ken Thomson. 1993. The Rebirth of Urban Democracy Washington: Brookings Institution.

Sklar, Holly, and Peter Medoff. 1994. Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.

Feb 16. Public Education: Equal Opportunities or Savage Inequalities?

* Macedo, Stephen. 2003. "School reform and equal opportunity in America's geography of inequality," Perspectives on Politics, 1 (4): 743-755.

* Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1998. "Unequal opportunity: Race and education," Brookings Review, 16 (2), pp. 28-32.

* Sunderman, Gail L., et al. 2005. NCLB Meets School Realities: Lessons From the Field. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Chapter 1.

* Traub, James. 2000. "What no school can do," New York Times Magazine (Jan. 26).

* Tough, Paul. 2006. "What it takes to make a student," New York Times Magazine (Nov. 26).

Center on Education Policy. 2007. "Answering the question that matters most: Has student achievement increased since No Child Left Behind?" Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.

Lee, Valerie E., and David T. Burkam. 2002. Inequality at the Starting Gate. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. (Executive summary)

Rothstein, Richard, et al. 2008. "Broader, bolder approach to education; Background papers." Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

Rothstein, Richard. 2001. "Reducing poverty could increase school achievement," New York Times (March 7).

Shirley, Dennis. 2001. "Patience and politics: Alliance Schools develop parental leadership," Shelterforce (July/Aug.)

Payne, Charles M. 2008. So Much Reform, So Little Change: The Persistence of Failure in Urban Schools. Cambridge: Harvard Educational.

Reed, Douglas S. 2001. On Equal Terms: The Constitutional Politics of Educational Opportunity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Feb 23. Public Safety and Justice

* Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling. 1989. "Making neighborhoods safe," Atlantic Monthly, 263 (2), pp. 46-52.

* Harcourt, Bernard E. 2002. "Policing disorder," Boston Review (April/May).

* Ceraso, Karen. 1997. "Partners in policing," Shelterforce, 2 (March/April).

* Sampson, Robert J., Stephen Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. "Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multi-level study of collective efficacy," Science, 277: 918-924.

* Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Introduction.

* Anonymous. 2002. "A stigma that never fades," Economist (Aug. 10).

Correctional Association of New York. 2001. "Effective Alternatives to the Drug Laws: What Works Best for Nonviolent Drug Offenders." New York: CANY.

Butterfield, Fox. 2003. "With cash tight, states reassess long jail terms," New York Times (Nov. 10).

Eckholm, Erik. 2008. "Courts give addicts a chance to straighten out," New York Times (Oct. 14).

Currie, Elliott. 1998. Crime and Punishment in America. New York: Metropolitan Books. Chapter 1.

Harcourt, Bernard E. 2001. Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tonry, Michael. 1995. Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America. New York: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Mar 2.  BREAK

Mar 9. Deindustrialization, Racism, and the Urban Crisis

* Sugrue, Thomas J. 1996. The Origins of Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Massey, Douglas S.  1990. "American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass," American Journal of Sociology, 96 (2): 329-357.

Farley, Reynolds, Sheldon Danziger, and Harry J. Holzer. 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Massey, Douglas S. and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Pattillo-McCoy, Mary. 1999. Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Introduction.

Self, Robert O. 2003. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Introduction.

Mar 16. Urban Poverty: Causes, Consequences, Injustices

* Teitz, Michael B., and Karen Chapple. 1998. "The causes of inner-city poverty: Eight hypotheses in search of reality," Cityscape, 3 (3): 33-70.

* Wilson, William Julius. 1996. "Work," New York Times Magazine (Aug. 18): 27+.

* Reed, Adolph Jr. 1988. "The liberal technocrat," The Nation, 246 (Feb. 6): 167+.

* Dickerson, Debra. 1999. "Pennies from hell," Village Voice (May 5-11). (Review of No Shame in My Game, by Katherine Newman.)

* Wilson, William J. 2009. "More than just race: Being black and poor in the inner city," Poverty & Race Research Action Council, 18 (May/June).

Edin, Kathryn. 2000. "Few good men: Why poor women don't remarry," The American Prospect, 11(4).

Holzer, Harry J., et al. 2004. "Declining employment among young black less-educated men: The role of incarceration and child support." Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty.

Montemurri, Patricia, Kathleen Gray, and Cecil Angel. 2005. "Detroit tops nation in poverty census," Detroit Free Press (Aug. 31).

Pattillo-McCoy, Mary. 2000. "The limits of out-migration for the Black middle class," Journal of Urban Affairs, 22 (3): 225-241.

Small, Mario Luis and Katherine Newman. 2001. "Urban poverty after The Truly Disadvantaged: the rediscovery of the family, the neighborhood, and culture," Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 23-45.

Smith, Joel J. 2007. "26,000 apply for 1,000 casino jobs," Detroit News (March 28).

Steinberg, Stephen. 1997. "The role of racism in the inequality studies of William Julius Wilson," Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 15 (Spring): 109-117.

Wilson, William J. 1996. When Work Disappears. New York: Vintage.

U.S. Census Bureau -- latest information on poverty in the U.S.

Mar 23. Urban Transformation in a Post-Industrial Age

* Glaeser, Edward L. 2005. "Smart growth: education, skilled workers, and the future of cold-weather cities." Cambridge, MA: J. F. Kennedy School of Government.

* Porter, Michael E. 1995. "The competitive advantage of the inner city," Harvard Business Review, 73 (May-June): 55-71.

* Goozner, Merrill. 1998. "The Porter prescription," The American Prospect, 38, May-June.

* Eisinger, Peter. 2000. "The politics of bread and circuses: Building the city for the visitor class," Urban Affairs Review, 35 (3): 316-333.

* Ehrenhalt, Alan, 2008. "Trading places; The demographic inversion of the American city," The New Republic (Aug. 13).

* Weyrich, Paul M., and William S. Lind. 1996. "Conservatives and Mass Transit: Is it Time for a New Look?" Washington, DC: Free Congress Foundation.

Franklin, Rachel S. 2003. "Migration of the young, single, and college-educated, 1995-2000." Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Jackson, Kenneth T. 2001. "Once again, the city beckons," New York Times (March 30).

Sanchez, Thomas W., Rich Stolz, and Jacinta S. Ma. 2003. Moving to Equity: Addressing Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies on Minorities. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. (Read the Executive Summary.)

Mar 30. Housing

* Brooks, Rick, and Constance Mitchell Ford. 2007. "The United States of Subprime," Wall Street Journal (Oct. 11), p. A1.

* French, Ron. 2007. "How home loan boom went bust," Detroit News (Nov. 27).

* Bajaj, Vikas, and Michael M. Grynbaum. 2008. "About 1 in 11 mortgageholders face loan problems," New York Times (June 6).

* Bajaj, Vikas, and Ford Fessenden. 2007. "What's behind the race gap?" New York Times (Nov. 4).

* Dreier, Peter, and David Moberg. 1996. "Moving from the 'hood: the mixed success of integrating suburbia," The American Prospect, 7 (24).

* Uchitelle, Louis. 2001. "By listening, 3 economists show slums hurt the poor," New York Times, Feb. 18. (A full report of the study by Lawrence Katz et al. is available in the Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2001 (2).)

* Popkin, Susan J., et al. 2004. "The HOPE VI Program: What about the residents?" Housing Policy Debate, 15 (2): 385-414.

* Kennedy, Maureen, and Paul Leonard. 2001. "Dealing with neighborhood change: a primer on gentrification and policy choices." Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

* Von Hoffman, Alexander. 1997. "Good news! From Boston to San Francisco the community-based housing movement is transforming bad neighborhoods," Atlantic Monthly, 279 (Jan.): 31-35.

Bajaj, Vikas. 2008. "Communities become home buyers to fight decay," New York Times (Aug. 26).

Calem, Paul S. 2004. "Neighborhood patterns of subprime lending: Evidence from disparate cities," Housing Policy Debate, 15 (3): 603-622.

Popkin, Susan J. 2008. "New Findings on the Benefits and Limitations of Assisted Housing Mobility," Urban Institute (April 14).

Renuart, Elizabeth. 2004. "An overview of the predatory lending process," Housing Policy Debate, 15 (3): 467-502.

Saulny, Susan. 2007. "At housing project, both fear and renewal," New York Times (March 18).

Swope, Christopher. 2003. "Section 8 is broken," ShelterForce, 123 (Jan./Feb.).

Grigsby, William G., and Steven C. Bourassa. 2004. "Section 8: Time for a change?" Housing Policy Debate, 15 (4): 805-834.

Joseph, Mark L. 2006. "Is mixed-income development an antidote to urban poverty?" Housing Policy Debate, 17 (2): 209-234.

Seliga, Joseph. 2000. "Gautreaux a generation later: The second ghetto or creating the third?" Northwestern University Law Review, 94 (3): 1049-1098.

Freeman, Lance. 2005. "Displacement or succession? Residential mobility in gentrifying neighborhoods," Urban Affairs Review, 40 (4): 463-491.

Stoecker, Randy. 1997. "The CDC Model of urban redevelopment: A critique and an alternative," Journal of Urban Affairs, 19 (1): 1-22.

Venkatesh, Sudhir. 2000, American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Von Hoffman, Alexander. 2003. House by House, Block by Block: The Rebirth of America's Urban Neighborhoods. New York: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1 is available online.

Apr 6. Public Services: Health and Environmental Protection

* Epstein, Helen. 2003. "Enough to make you sick?" New York Times Magazine (Oct. 12).

* Perez-Pena, Richard. 2003. "An everyday struggle for breath; Childhood asthma project reaches out in Harlem," New York Times (May 1), p. B1.

* Little, Amanda Griscom. 2007. "Not in whose backyard?" New York Times (Sept. 2).

* Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2009. "Greening the ghetto," New Yorker (Jan. 12).

* McKnight, John. 1995. "Politicizing health care." In John McKnight, The Careless Society. New York: Basic Books.

* Corburn, Jason. 2004. "Confronting the challenges in reconnecting urban planning and public health," American Journal of Public Health, 94 (4): 541-546.

Pace, David. 2006. "More blacks live with pollution," Associated Press.

Pace, David. 2006. "Neighborhoods with unhealthy air are fighting back against tough odds," Associated Press.

Higgins, Jessica. 2008. "Evaluating the Chicago brownfields initiative: The effects of city-initiated brownfield redevelopment on surrounding communities," Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, 3 (2): 240-262.

Bryant, Bunyan, ed. 1995. Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solution. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Bullard, Robert D., Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. 2000. Race, Equity, and Smart Growth. Atlanta: Environmental Justice Resource Center.

Pellow, David Naguib. 2002. Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Apr 13. What's a Metropolis, and Why Should We Care?

* Downs, Anthony. 1998. "How America's cities are growing: The big picture," Brookings Review (Fall): 8-11.

* Gallagher, John. 1999. "Government choices sped Detroit's blight," Detroit Free Press. April 10.

* Grant, Peter. 2001. "Sprawl thins populations of older suburbs; Rapid development at fringes is leaving hollowed-out cores," Wall Street Journal (July 9), p. A2.

* Katz, Bruce and Jennifer Bradley. 1999. "Divided we sprawl," Atlantic Monthly, 284 (December): 26-42.

* Patterson, L. Brooks. "Sprawl, Schmall... Give Me More Development."

Barringer, Felicity. 2008. "California moves on bill to curb sprawl and emissions," New York Times (Aug. 29).

Baum, Howell S. 2004. "Smart growth and school reform: What if we talked about race and took community seriously?" Journal of the American Planning Association, 70 (1): 14-26.

Danielson, Michael N. and Paul G. Lewis. 1996. "City bound: Political science and the American Metropolis," Political Research Quarterly, 49 (1): 203-220.

Galster, George, et al. 2001. "Wrestling sprawl to the ground: Defining and measuring an elusive concept," Housing Policy Debate, 12 (4): 681-717,

Kurth, Joel, et al. 2001. "Region is diverse, not mixed: Metro Detroit is most segregated area in nation, census shows," Detroit News (April 1).

LeRoy, Greg, Allison Lack, and Karla Walter. 2006. The Geography of Incentives: Economic Development and Land Use in Michigan. Washington, DC: Good Jobs First.

Nechyba, Thomas J. and Randall P. Walsh, 2004. "Urban sprawl," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18 (4): 177-200.

Garreau, Joel. 1991. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, New York: Doubleday.

Gillham, Oliver. 2002. The Limitless City: A Primer on the Urban Sprawl Debate. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Jackson, Kenneth T. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

Puentes, Robert and David Warren. 2006. One-Fifth of America: A Comprehensive Guide to America's First Suburbs. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Apr 20. Metropolitics: A Market of Places?

* Briffault, Richard. 2000. "Localism and regionalism," Buffalo Law Review, 48 (Winter): 1-30.

* Swanstrom, Todd. 2001. "What we argue about when we argue about regionalism," Journal of Urban Affairs, 23 (5): 479-496.

* Gurwitt, Rob. 1998. "The quest for common ground," Governing (June), pp. 16+.

Haughwout, Andrew F. 2000. "The paradox of infrastructure investment: can a productive good reduce productivity?" Brookings Review, 18 (3): 38-41.

King, Loren A. 2004. "Democratic hopes in the polycentric city," Journal of Politics, 66 (1): 203-223.

Kollman, Ken, John H. Miller and Scott E. Page. 1997. "Political institutions and sorting in a Tiebout model," American Economic Review, 87 (5): 977-992.

Lambert, Bruce. 2006. "'First' suburbs growing older and poorer, report warns," New York Times (Feb. 16).

Lowery, David. 2000. "A transactions cost model of metropolitan governance: Allocation versus redistribution in urban America," Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10 (1): 49-78.

Oliver, J. Eric. 1999. "The effects of metropolitan economic segregation on local civic participation," American Journal of Political Science, 43 (1): 186-212.

Orfield, Myron. 1998. "Conflict or consensus: Forty years of Minnesota metropolitan politics," Brookings Review, 16 (4).

Ostrom, Vincent, Charles M. Tiebout, and Robert Warren. 1961. "The organization of government in metropolitan areas: a theoretical inquiry," American Political Science Review, 55 (4): 831-842.

Voith, Richard. 1998. "Do suburbs need cities?" Journal of Regional Science, 38 (3): 445-464.

Beito, David T., et al., eds. 2002. The Voluntary City: Choice, Community and Civil Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Dreier, Peter J., John H. Mollenkopf, and Todd Swanstrom. 2004. Place Matters: Metropolitics for the Twenty-first Century, 2nd ed. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.