Version 1.5 (Nov. 19 - fixed broken link)

Political Science 327: The Politics of the Metropolis
University of Michigan
Fall 2012

Gregory B. Markus
Professor of Political Science and Research Professor, Center for Political Studies
6735 Haven Hall
(734) 763-2222,
Office hours: Mondays, 4:10 to 5:30 pm, or by appt.

Marie Puccio, GSI (

7th floor Haven Hall
Office hours: TBA


This is a course about urban politics, primarily but not exclusively in the U.S. context. The Detroit metropolitan area offers enormous opportunities to observe and experience the interplay of government, economic, and social institutions in shaping the course of urban politics and urban life. I urge you to take advantage of those opportunities as part of this course. Expect to attend relevant presentations, films, or workshops outside of class as part of this course. You may also choose to participate in a field trip or do research in the Detroit metro area.

This is not a particularly difficult course in terms of its subject matter, but doing well in it will require a fair measure of your time, energy, and initiative. In addition, by registering for this course you agree to assume a share of responsibility for making it a learning experience for your classmates as well as for yourself. Accomplishing that will require you to participate thoughtfully and consistently in our discussions in class.


Course grading is on a no-curve 100-point system. There is no competition among you for a pre-set number of "A" grades. To the contrary, I encourage cooperation, studying together, and learning from one another. Of course, all work you submit must be your own.

1. Papers (60 points). You will write FIVE papers of 1200 words each over the course of the semester on assigned topics. Each paper is worth 12 points. Because this course satisfies LSA's upper-level writing requirement (ULWR), expect to revise and resubmit at least one paper. We grade on the degree to which each paper presents a logical, well-organized response to the assignment, one that demonstrates you have grappled with and reflected upon the ensemble of material presented in our readings, lectures, and discussions and what you may have learned from relevant events and activities outside of class. Two points will be deducted from the score of any paper submitted late but within one week of when it is due; three points will be deducted from any paper submitted after that.

2. Semester Project (24 points). You will develop and complete a semester project that involves integrating scholarly literature and your own original research on a topic that relates to our course. Collaborative projects are permitted, even encouraged.

By no later than Oct. 1, submit by email ( a 200-word proposal that includes: (1) a summary of the topic you propose to study and how you plan to do your research, (2) a list of collaborators (if any), and (3) a list of three key scholarly books or articles that will inform your research project.

Your project must extend existing knowledge, not merely summarize what is already known, and it must have an explicit action implication: it should offer recommendations for policies or practices that address an important metropolitan issue. The suggested length of the final project report is 2000 words (per collaborator) plus any accompanying material, such as charts or graphs, (i.e., two collaborators equals 4000 words). Your project report is due no later than 4 PM Monday, Dec. 17.

3. Participation in collaborative learning (10 points). Attending class consistently is necessary but not sufficient. Because this course is a collective enterprise, your grade in it will reflect not only how well you demonstrate your mastery of the material but also how conscientiously you contribute to the learning of your classmates, primarily through your active and informed participation in class discussions.

4. OLO reports (6 points). You are expected to participate in THREE out-of-class learning opportunities (OLOs), such as relevant events on campus, city or county government meetings, and community events. Within three days of your participation in an OLO, please submit by email ( a brief (couple of paragraphs) report on what you did and how it served to deepen your understanding of some aspect of urban politics. These reports, worth 2 points each, are intended to take no more than 15 minutes each to compose. You must have at least one of these reports submitted by 6 PM, Oct. 12.

Course Readings

All required course readings (marked with an asterisk) will be available through the course CTools Website. The supplementary readings (no asterisk) are useful as sources for the semester projects, and I also draw on them for lectures.


1. City Power: Sources, Limits, Uses, and Abuses
First assignment posted Sept. 19, due in class Sept. 26

Sept. 5. Introduction to the Course

* Glaeser, Edward. 2011. Triumph of the City. New York: Penguin. Read the Introduction.

Avent, Ryan. 2011. "One path to better jobs: More density in cities." New York Times (Sept. 3).

Kotkin, Joel. 2009. "The luxury city vs. the middle class," The American (May 13).

Sept. 10. City Government: Structure, Power, and Limits, Part 1

* Lukes, Steven. 2005. Power: A Radical View. New York: Palgrave. Read: Introduction and Chapter 1.

* Mollenkopf, John. 1989. "Who (or what) runs cities, and how?" Sociological Forum, 4 (1): 119-137.

* Table: Local government revenues and expenditures, 2008. Source: US Census, April 2011.

Frederickson, H. George, and Gary Alan Johnson. 2001. "The adapted American city: A study of institutional dynamics," Urban Affairs Review, 36 (6): 872-884.

Congressional Budget Office. 2010. "Fiscal Stress Faced by Local Governments" (Dec.).

DiGaetano, Alan. 1991. "Urban political reform: Did it kill the machine?" Journal of Urban History, 18 (1): 37-67.

Sept. 12. City Government: Structure, Power, and Limits, Part 2

* Briffault, Richard. 1990. "Our localism: Part I -- The structure of local government law," Columbia Law Review, 90 (January): 1-115.

* Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. "Justices rule cities can take property for private development," New York Times (June 23).

* Nolan, Jenny. 2000. "Auto plant vs. neighborhood: The Poletown battle," Detroit News (Jan. 27).

Burns, Nancy. 1994. The Formation of American Local Governments. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rae, Douglas W. 2003. City. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Sept. 17. Racism, Deindustrialization, and the Urban Crisis, Part 1

* Sugrue, Thomas J. 1996. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Read: Introduction, Chapters 1-6.

Massey, Douglas S. 1990. "American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass," American Journal of Sociology, 96 (2): 329-357.

Sept. 19. Racism, Deindustrialization, and the Urban Crisis, Part 2

* Sugrue, Thomas J. 1996. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Read: Chapters 7-9, Conclusion.

Farley, Reynolds, Sheldon Danziger, and Harry J. Holzer. 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

2. Key Responsibilities of Local Government: Public Education, Safety, and Health
Second assignment posted Oct 8, due in class Oct. 17

Sept. 24. Public Education, Part 1: Equal Opportunities or Savage Inequalities?

* Kozol, Jonathan. 1991. Savage Inequalities. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Read excerpts from Chapter 2, "Other People's Children: North Lawndale and the South Side of Chicago."

* Macedo, Stephen. 2003. "School reform and equal opportunity in America's geography of inequality," Perspectives on Politics, 1 (4): 743-755.

* Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1998. "Unequal opportunity: Race and education," Brookings Review, 16 (2), pp. 28-32.

Moses, Robert P. 2009. "An earned insurgency: Quality education as a Constitutional right," Harvard Educational Review, 79(2): 370-381. (Excerpts)

Lee, Valerie E., and David T. Burkam. 2002. Inequality at the Starting Gate. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. (Executive summary and Introduction)

Payne, Charles M. 2008. So Much Reform, So Little Change. Cambridge: Harvard Educational.

Reed, Douglas S. 2001. On Equal Terms. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sept. 26. Public Education, Part 2: What No School Can Do … Alone

* Traub, James. 2000. "What no school can do," New York Times Magazine (Jan. 26).

* Tough, Paul. 2006. "What it takes to make a student," New York Times Magazine (Nov. 26).

* Ravitch, Diane. 2010. "Why I changed my mind," The Nation (May 27).

Ravitch, Diane. 2010. "The myth of charter schools," New York Review of Books (Nov. 11).

Tough, Paul. 2011."No, seriously: No excuses," New York Times (July 7).

Sunderman, Gail L., et al. 2005. NCLB Meets School Realities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Ch. 1, "When Federal Power is Expanded: The Politics of Implementing the No Child Left Behind Act."

Wilkinson, Mike. 2011. "Charter high schools in Detroit not making grade," Detroit News (July 7).

Oct. 1. Public Safety and Justice, Part 1: Making Neighborhoods Safe

* Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling. 1989. "Making neighborhoods safe," Atlantic Monthly, 263 (2), pp. 46-52.

* Zimring, Franklin E. 2011. "How New York beat crime," Scientific American (Aug.): 75-79.

* Peart, Nicholas K. 2011. "Why is the N.Y.P.D. after me?" New York Times (Dec. 17).

* Sampson, Robert J., and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 1999. "Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods," American Journal of Sociology, 105 (3): 603-651.

Gopnik, Adam. 2012. "The caging of America," New Yorker (Jan.30).

Harcourt, Bernard E. 2002. "Policing disorder," Boston Review (April/May).

Oct. 3. Public Safety and Justice, Part 2: The Incarceration Explosion

Stevenson, Bryan. 2012. "We need to talk about an injustice." TED Talk (March).

* Butler, Paul. 2009. Let's Get Free. New York: New Press. Read Chapters 2 and 3.

* Anonymous. 2002. "A stigma that never fades," Economist (Aug. 10).

* Krugman, Paul. 2012. "Prisons, privatization, patronage," New York Times (June 21).

Staples, Brent. 2012. "The human cost of 'zero tolerance,'" New York Times (Apr. 28).

Pager, Devah. 2003. "The mark of a criminal record," American Journal of Sociology, 108 (5): 937-975.

Eckholm, Erik. 2008. "Courts give addicts a chance to straighten out," New York Times (Oct. 14).

Butterfield, Fox. 2003. "With cash tight, states reassess long jail terms," New York Times (Nov. 10).

Correctional Association of New York. 2001. "Effective Alternatives to the Drug Laws: What Works Best for Nonviolent Drug Offenders." New York: Correctional Association of New York.

Western, Bruce, and Becky Pettit. 2010. "Collateral Costs: Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility." Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Alexander, Michelle. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Oct. 8. Public Services: Health and Environmental Protection

* Epstein, Helen. 2003. "Enough to make you sick?" New York Times Magazine (Oct. 12).

* Lam, Tina. 2010. "48217: Life in Michigan's most polluted ZIP code," Detroit Free Press (June 20).

* McKnight, John. 1995. "Politicizing health care." In John McKnight, The Careless Society. New York: Basic Books.

Brulle, Robert J., and David N. Pellow. 2006. "Environmental justice: Human health and environmental inequalities," Annual Review of Public Health, 27:103-124.

Bornstein, David. 2011. "Treating the cause, not the illness," New York Times (July 28).

Noble, Holcomb B. 1999. "Far more poor children are hospitalized for asthma, study shows," New York Times (July 27).

Cole, Luke W., and Sheila R. Foster. 2000. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press.

Pellow, David N. 2002. Garbage Wars. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

3. E Pluribus Unum? The Possibility of Community
Third assignment posted Oct. 29 due in class Nov. 5

Oct 10. Understanding and Overcoming the Racial Divide

* Obama, Barack. 2008. "A more perfect union." Speech delivered in Philadelphia, PA (March 18). (Video of the speech is available here.)

* Morin, Richard. 2001. "Misperceptions cloud whites' view of blacks," Washington Post (July 11), p. A1.

* Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ch. 5, "The news media and the racialization of poverty," pp. 102-132.

* Hout, Michael. 2004. "Review of The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality, by Thomas M. Shapiro," Washington Post (Feb. 15).

Kotz, Nick. 2005. "Review of When Affirmative Action Was White, by Ira Katznelson," New York Times (Aug. 28).

Krueger, Alan B. 2002. "Sticks and stones can break bones, but the wrong name can make a job hard to find," New York Times (Dec. 12).

Smith, Joel J. 2007. "26,000 apply for 1,000 casino jobs," Detroit News (March 28).

Oct. 15 NO CLASS (Mid-semester study break)

Oct. 17. Ethno-Cultural Transformation of the Metropolis

* Fix, Michael E. and Jeffrey S. Passel. 2001. U.S. Immigration at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

* Lowenstein, Roger. 2006. "The immigration equation," New York Times Magazine (July 9).

* Tobocman, Steve. 2010. "Global Detroit." Detroit: New Economy Initiative for Southeast Michigan.

Semple, Kirk. 2011. "Asian New Yorkers seek power to match numbers," New York (June 24).

Belson, Ken, and Jill P. Capuzzo. 2007. "Towns rethink laws against illegal immigrants," New York Times (Sept. 26).

Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. "The Hispanic challenge," Foreign Policy (March/April).

Citrin, Jack, et al. 2007. "Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic immigration a threat to American identity?" Perspectives on Politics, 5 (1): 31-48.

Larsen, Luke 2004. "The foreign-born population in the United States: March 2003." Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Putnam, Robert D. 2007. "E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century," Scandinavian Political Studies, 30 (2): 137-174.

Oct. 22. Civil Society, Democracy, and Place, Part 1

* Ganz, Marshall. 2002. "What is organizing?" Social Policy, 33 (1): 16-17.

* Alinsky, Saul. 1971. "The process of power." Excerpted from: Rules for Radicals (New York: Random House), pp 113-125.

* Keddy, Jim. 2002. "Powerful thoughts." PICO National Network.

* Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35 (July): 216-224.

Oct. 24. Civil Society, Democracy, and Place, Part 2

* Sampson, Robert J., et al. 2005. "Civil society reconsidered: The durable nature and community structure of collective civic action," American Journal of Sociology, 111 (3): 673-715.

* To be shown in class: Mahan, Leah, and Mark Lipman. 1996. "Holding Ground: The Rebirth of Dudley Street." See also the DSNI Website.

Walljasper, Jay 1997. "When activists win: The renaissance of Dudley St." The Nation, March 3.

Oct. 29. Civil Society, Democracy, and Place: Examples of Community Organizing

* Speer, Paul W., et al. 2003. "The intentional exercise of power: Community organizing in Camden, New Jersey," Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 13: 399-408.

* Winerip, Michael. 1992. "On Sunday; some people taking back their power," New York Times (Sept. 27).

* Kretzmann, John P. 1995. "Building communities from the inside out," Shelterforce (Sept./Oct.)

Ganz, Marshall. 2004. "Organizing." In George R. Goethals, Georgia J. Sorenson, and James MacGregor Burns, eds. Encyclopedia of Leadership. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Warren, Mark R. 1998. "Community building and political power: A community organizing approach to democratic renewal," American Behavioral Scientist, 42 (1): 78-92.

4. Urban Poverty: Origins, Solutions
Fourth assignment posted Nov. 12, due in class Nov. 19

Oct. 31. Urban Poverty

* Wilson, William Julius. 1996. "Work," New York Times Magazine (Aug. 18): 27+.

* Wilson, William Julius. 2012. "The great disparity," The Nation (July 10).

* Teitz, Michael B., and Karen Chapple. 1998. "The causes of inner-city poverty: Eight hypotheses in search of reality," Cityscape, 3 (3): 33-70.

Parry, Marc. 2012. "The neighborhood effect." Chronicle of Higher Education (Nov. 5).

Tough, Paul. 2012. "Obama vs. poverty." New York Times Magazine (Aug. 15).

Small, Mario Luis and Katherine Newman. 2001. "Urban poverty after The Truly Disadvantaged: The rediscovery of the family, the neighborhood, and culture," Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 23-45.

Montemurri, Patricia, et al. 2005. "Detroit tops nation in poverty census," Detroit Free Press (Aug. 31).

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. "Unemployment rates for the 50 largest cities" (April 19).

U.S. Census Bureau -- latest information on poverty in the U.S.

Nov. 5. The Housing Bubble

* Brooks, Rick, and Constance Mitchell Ford. 2007. "The United States of Subprime," Wall Street Journal (Oct. 11), p. A1.

* French, Ron. 2007. "How home loan boom went bust," Detroit News (Nov. 27).

* Bajaj, Vikas, and Ford Fessenden. 2007. "What's behind the race gap?" New York Times (Nov. 4).

* Bajaj, Vikas. 2008. "Communities become home buyers to fight decay," New York Times (Aug. 26).

Bhutta, Neil, and Glenn B. Canner. 2009. "Did the CRA cause the mortgage market meltdown?" Minneapolis Federal Reserve.

Calem, Paul S. 2004. "Neighborhood patterns of subprime lending: Evidence from disparate cities," Housing Policy Debate, 15 (3): 603-622.

Immergluck, Dan. 2011. "The local wreckage of global capital: The subprime crisis, federal policy and high-foreclosure neighborhoods in the US," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35 (1): 130-146.

Renuart, Elizabeth. 2004. "An overview of the predatory lending process," Housing Policy Debate, 15 (3): 467-502.

Savage, Charlie. 2012. "Wells Fargo to settle mortgage discrimination charges," New York Times (July 12).

Nov. 7. Community and Economic Development, Part 1

* Glaeser, Edward L. 2005. "Smart growth: education, skilled workers, and the future of cold-weather cities." Cambridge, MA: J. F. Kennedy School of Government.

* Gallagher, John, and Jeff Seidel. 2012. "Detroit's work force lacking job skills; it's called a 'huge problem,'" Detroit Free Press (April 8).

* Eisinger, Peter. 2000. "The politics of bread and circuses: Building the city for the visitor class," Urban Affairs Review, 35 (3): 316-333.

Linebaugh, Kate. 2011. "Detroit's population crashes," Wall Street Journal (March 23).

Siegfried, John, and Andrew Zimbalist. 2000. "The economics of sports facilities and their communities," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (3): 95-114.

DeFilippis, James 2001. "The myth of social capital in community development," Housing Policy Debate, 12 (4): 781-806.

Franklin, Rachel S. 2003. "Migration of the young, single, and college-educated, 1995-2000." Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Nov. 12. Community and Economic Development, Part 2

* Porter, Michael E. 1995. "The competitive advantage of the inner city," Harvard Business Review, 73 (May-June): 55-71.

* Harrison, Bennett, and Amy K. Glasmeier. 1997. "Why business alone won't redevelop the inner city: A friendly critique of Michael Porter's approach to urban revitalization," Economic Development Quarterly, 11 (1): 28-38.

* Anonymous. 2009. "The revival of Pittsburgh," The Economist (Sept. 19).

* Carter, Majora. 2006. "Greening the ghetto." TED Talk (Feb.). (18:30 minutes)

Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2009. "Greening the ghetto," New Yorker (Jan. 12).

Guyette, Curt. 2001. "Down a green path: An alternative vision for a section of east Detroit takes shape," Metrotimes, Oct. 31.

Lohr, Steve. 2010. "To create jobs, nurture start-ups," New York Times (Sept. 11).

Terek, Donna. 2011. "Russell Industrial Center becomes haven for artists," Detroit News (May 08).

Saulny, Susan. 2010. "Detroit entrepreneurs opt to look up," New York Times (Jan. 10).

Sittenfeld, Curtis. 1999. "Hope is a weapon," Fast Company, 22 (Feb.).

Model D Media -- lots of stories about community and economic development in Detroit

Nov. 14. Affordable Housing

* Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 2009. "The housing choice voucher program." Washington, DC: CBPP.

* Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 2008. "Introduction to public housing." Washington, DC: CBPP.

* Schneider, Craig, and Tammy Joyner. 2010. "Housing crisis reaches full boil in East Point; 62 injured," Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Aug. 11).

* Markee, Patrick. 2011. "The unfathomable cuts in housing aid," The Nation (Dec. 11).

* Freeman, Lance. 2005. "Displacement or succession? Residential mobility in gentrifying neighborhoods," Urban Affairs Review, 40 (4): 463-491.

* Rose, Kalima. 2001. "Beyond gentrification: Tools for equitable development," Shelterforce. (May/June).

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. 2011. "A hard look at gentrification," (July 21).

Tavernise, Sabrina, and Robert Gebeloff. 2010. "Economic boom in Washington leaves gaping income disparities," New York Times (Dec. 17).

Seliga, Joseph. 2000. "Gautreaux a generation later: The second ghetto or creating the third?" Northwestern University Law Review, 94 (3): 1049-1098.

Von Hoffman, Alexander. 1997. "Good news! From Boston to San Francisco the community-based housing movement is transforming bad neighborhoods," Atlantic Monthly, 279 (Jan.): 31-35.

Popkin, Susan J. 2008. "New findings on the benefits and limitations of assisted housing mobility," Urban Institute (April 14).

Von Hoffman, Alexander. 2003. House by House, Block by Block. New York: Oxford University Press.

Venkatesh, Sudhir. 2000, American Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hyra, Derek S. 2008. The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

5. What's a Metropolis, and Why Should We Care?
Fifth assignment posted Dec. 3, due in class Dec. 10

Nov 19. Regional Transportation

* Downs, Anthony. 2004. "Traffic: Why it's getting worse, what government can do." Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

* Meredith, Robyn. 1998. "Job-seeking Detroiters cannot get to where the jobs are," New York Times (May 26).

* Marketplace. 2011. "Home buyers are moving closer to public transit." (Feb. 17). (Listen to the radio program.)

McKenzie, Brian, and Melanie Rapino. 2011."Commuting in the United States: 2009." Washington, DC: U.S. Census.

Grengs, Joe. 2005. "Fighting for balanced transportation in the Motor City," Progressive Planning (Spring).

Murray, Mark. 2000. "Seeking justice in roads and runways," National Journal, 32 (March 4): 712.

Walker, Jarrett. 2012. Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking about Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives. Washington, DC: Island Press. See also his blog:

Weyrich, Paul M., and William S. Li. 1996. "Conservatives and mass transit: Is it time for a new look?" Washington, DC: Free Congress Foundation.

Woolf, Aaron. 2010. "Blueprint America: Beyond the Motor City." (86 min documentary.)

Nov. 21. NO CLASS (Day before Thanksgiving)

Nov. 26. Regional Sprawl, Part 1

* Downs, Anthony. 1998. "How America's cities are growing: The big picture," Brookings Review (Fall): 8-11.

* Patterson, L. Brooks. "Sprawl, Schmall... Give Me More Development."

* Grant, Peter. 2001. "Sprawl thins populations of older suburbs; Rapid development at fringes is leaving hollowed-out cores," Wall Street Journal (July 9), p. A2.

* Lambert, Bruce. 2006. "'First' suburbs growing older and poorer, report warns," New York Times (Feb. 16).

Galster, George, et al. 2001. "Wrestling sprawl to the ground: Defining and measuring an elusive concept," Housing Policy Debate, 12 (4): 681-717.

Nechyba, Thomas J. and Randall P. Walsh, 2004."Urban sprawl," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18 (4): 177-200.

Garreau, Joel. 1991. Edge City. New York: Doubleday.

Gillham, Oliver. 2002. The Limitless City. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Nov. 28. Regional Sprawl, Part 2

* Kurth, Joel, et al. 2001. "Region is diverse, not mixed: Metro Detroit is most segregated area in nation, census shows," Detroit News (April 1).

* Gallagher, John. 1999. "Government choices sped Detroit's blight," Detroit Free Press. April 10.

* Rast, Joel. "Environmental justice and the new regionalism," Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25: 249-263.

* Leinberger, Christopher B. 2011. "The death of the fringe suburb," New York Times (Nov. 25).

Arieff, Allison. 2012. "The American dream: Phase II," New York Times (June 18).

Squires, Gregory D., and Charis E. Kubrin. 2005. "Privileged places: Race, uneven development and the geography of opportunity in urban America," Urban Studies, 42 (1): 47-68.

Jackson, Kenneth T. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dec. 3. Metropolitics: A Market of Places?

* Swanstrom, Todd. 2001. "What we argue about when we argue about regionalism," Journal of Urban Affairs, 23 (5): 479-496.

Voith, Richard. 1998."Do suburbs need cities?" Journal of Regional Science, 38 (3): 445-464.

Briffault, Richard. 2000. "Localism and regionalism," Buffalo Law Review, 48 (Winter): 1-30.

Haughwout, Andrew F. 2000. "The paradox of infrastructure investment: can a productive good reduce productivity?" Brookings Review, 18 (3): 38-41.

Ostrom, Vincent, Charles M. Tiebout, and Robert Warren. 1961. "The organization of government in metropolitan areas: a theoretical inquiry," American Political Science Review, 55 (4): 831-842.

Dreier, Peter J., John H. Mollenkopf, and Todd Swanstrom. 2004. Place Matters, 2nd ed. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.

Dec. 5. Metropolitics: Regional Governance

* Voith, Richard. 1996. "Central city decline: Regional or neighborhood solutions?" Business Review (March/April).

* Orfield, Myron. 1998. "Conflict or consensus: Forty years of Minnesota metropolitan politics," Brookings Review, Fall, 16 (4).

Imbroscio, David L. 2006. "Shaming the inside game: A critique of the liberal expansionist approach to addressing urban problems," Urban Affairs Review, 42 (2): 224-248.

Frug, Gerald E. 2002. "Beyond regional government," Harvard Law Review, 115 (7): 1763-1836.

Gurwitt, Rob. 1998. "The quest for common ground," Governing (June), pp. 16+.

Dec. 10. Wrap-up and Student Presentations