Version 2.3 (Nov. 12, 2011 -- added links for optional Rose and Western readings)

Political Science 300: Contemporary Issues in American Politics
University of Michigan
Fall 2011

Gregory B. Markus
Professor of Political Science and Research Professor, Center for Political Studies
6735 Haven Hall
(734) 763-2222,
Office hours: Mondays 4:10 pm to 5:30 pm, or by appointment


The purpose of this course is to develop your capacities as "leaders and citizens who will challenge the present and enrich the future." That phrase is from the official mission statement of the University of Michigan.

During the semester we will consider public issues that affect our lives and engage our values. We will emphasize not only how these issues affect us but also how we affect them: politics is not just something we can watch or read about; it is something we can do.

This is a political course. That does not mean it is partisan or ideological. It means that it addresses matters of shared concern -- that is, public matters. Some of our readings will express political points of view, as will the lectures at times and as will you and your classmates in our discussions. Some people get uncomfortable about such things. They assert that a course about politics should stick to the "facts." Well, that assertion is itself a political point of view, not a fact. In any event, I suggest that trying to learn to "challenge the present" without actually expressing points of view is like trying to learn to swim without actually getting wet.

We strive to examine political issues critically. Your GSIs and I strive to be fair and accurate in our presentations and in our selection of readings. We do not strive to provide equal time to every conceivable point of view on an issue, however, and for two good reasons. First, as a practical matter it is an impossible task. Second, it can create the impression that all perspectives are more or less equally supported by evidence, even when they plainly are not -- what journalists refer to as imposing an "artificial balance." In any event, the last thing your GSIs and I want is for you to appropriate our political views as your own. Please figure out your own views.

How the Course Proceeds

If you want to get the most out of this course, you should do the readings and come to lecture (and discussion section, of course). Lectures are not merely a talking version of the readings. They provide information and commentary not found in the readings, and vice versa.

You don't purchase this course and "consume" it. The instructors don't deliver a product to you. Instead, students and instructors engage together in a semester of learning. Students' responsibilities in the learning process differ from instructors' responsibilities, but fulfilling both parts is necessary for the collective enterprise to work well.

Class discussions and lectures often move freely from assigned readings to the latest news. Because our subject matter includes issues and events that are unfolding as we discuss them, we typically update the syllabus somewhat as we go along.


Grading is on a standard, no-curve 100-point system. Because we do not grade on a curve, there is no competition among you for a pre-set number of "A" grades. To the contrary, we encourage cooperation, studying together, and learning from one another. Of course, all work that you turn in must be your own.

Papers. You will write five 1500-word papers during the semester, worth 15 points each (for a total of 75 pointsl). You will be given a specific assignment for each paper, although the assignments are sufficiently broad for you to choose how to develop your response. We grade on the degree to which each paper presents a logical, well-organized response to the assignment, one that demonstrates you have grappled with and reflected upon the ensemble of material presented in our readings, lectures, and discussions and what you may have learned from relevant events and activities outside of class.

Participation in active, collaborative learning. The other 25 points is based on your performance in your discussion section (15 points) and your participation in five relevant out-of-class learning activities, largely of your choice (two points each). Because this course is a collective enterprise, your grade in it will reflect not only how well you demonstrate your mastery of the material but also how conscientiously you contribute to the learning of your classmates, primarily through your active and informed participation in class discussions. An important part of developing your capacities as "leaders and citizens" is practicing public speaking and listening.

Course Readings

All required readings (and most supplementary ones) are available through the CTools site for our course. In the Course Outline below, readings marked with an asterisk are to be read by everyone. The supplementary readings are there for you to sample as you wish. I draw on them (and other sources) during lectures. From time to time your GSI may ask you to report briefly on some of the supplementary readings.

COURSE OUTLINE (Lecture dates in parentheses)

1. The Great Recession: Policy Failures, Human Consequences (Sept. 7, 12, 14, 19, 21)
    First paper assignment posted Sept. 19, due in lecture Sept. 26

A. The Present Situation
* Hilsenrath, Jon, and Conor Dougherty. 2011. “Inside the disappointing comeback.” Wall Street Journal (July 5).

* Schwenninger, Sherle R., and Samuel Sherraden. 2011. “The American middle class under stress.” New America Foundation.

* Rich, Motoko. 2011. “Economy faces a jolt as benefit checks run out.” New York Times (July 10).

* Lahart, Justin. 2011. “Four ways the economy could grow—or shrink.” Wall Street Journal (Aug. 1).

FDIC. 2011. Failed Bank List.

Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 2011. “Quarterly report on household debt and credit” (August).

RealtyTrac. 2011. “Foreclosure activity off 29 percent for first half of 2011” (July 14).

B. What Caused It
* Zandi, Mark. 2009. Financial Shock (Updated ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press. Ch. 1, “Subprime Précis”.

* Johnson, Simon, and James Kwak. 2010. 13 Bankers. New York: Pantheon. "Introduction".

* Solow, Robert M. 2009. "How to understand the disaster." New York Review of Books, 56 (May 14).

* Cassidy, John. 2009. “Rational irrationality.” The New Yorker (Oct. 5).

* Krugman, Paul, and Robin Wells. 2011. “The slump goes on: Why?” New York Review of Books (Sept. 30).

Andrews, Edmund L. 2008. "Greenspan concedes error on regulation." New York Times (Oct. 24).

Bernanke, Ben S. 2010. "Causes of the recent financial and economic crisis." (Sept. 2).

Bhutta, Neil, and Glenn B. Canner. 2009. “Did the CRA cause the mortgage market meltdown?” Minneapolis Federal Reserve.

Duhigg, Charles. 2008. "Pressured to take more risk, Fannie reached tipping point." New York Times (Oct. 4).

Krugman, Paul. 2009. “How did economists get it so wrong?” New York Times Magazine (Sept. 6).

Roubini, Nouriel, and Stephen Mihm. 2010. Crisis Economics. New York: Penguin.

C. Policy Responses
* Calmes, Jackie, and MIchael Cooper. 2009. "New consensus sees stimulus package as a worthy step." New York Times (Nov. 20).

* Elmendorf, Douglas W. 2010. “Fiscal policy choices.” Congressional Budget Office (November 15).

* Summers, Lawrence. 2011. “How to avoid our own lost decade.” Financial Times (June 12).

* Appelbaum, Binyamin, and Catherine Rampell. 2011. “From spending to cuts, while the economy stalls.” New York Times (July 31).

* Rattner, Steven. 2011. “Americans need more than small bore initiatives.” Financial Times (Aug. 9).

* Morrison & Foerster. 2011. “Dodd-Frank: One year later.”

Barro, Robert J. 2011. "How to really save the economy." New York Times (Sept. 11).

Carpenter, Daniel. 2010. "Institutional strangulation: Bureaucratic politics and financial reform in the Obama administration." Perspectives on Politics, 8 (3): 825-846.

Congressional Budget Office. 2011. ”Estimated impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on employment and economic output from January 2011 through March 2011" (May).

Eggertsson, Gauti B. 2009. “What fiscal policy is effective at zero interest rates?” Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Krugman, Paul, and Robin Wells. 2010. “The way out of the slump.” New York Review of Books (Oct. 14).

Leonhardt, David. 2010. "Tax cuts that make a difference." New York Times (Sept. 1).

New York Times. 2011. “Financial regulatory reform” (updated July 19).

Shiller, Robert. 2010. "What would Roosevelt do?" New York Times (July 31).

Volcker, Paul. 2010. “The time we have is growing short.” New York Review of Books (June 24).

Wall Street Journal. 2010. “The Fed's bailout files.” (Dec. 2).

Wessel, David. 2011. “Finding a prescription for the U.S.'s money trap.” Wall Street Journal (Aug. 6).

Data and Information Sources
Bureau of Economic Analysis

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Federal Reserve

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The Financial Crisis: A Timeline of Events and Policy Actions.

Federal Reserve Bank of New York.Current Economic Indicators., "the U.S. government’s official website that provides easy access to data related to Recovery Act spending"

2. The Federal Budget: Skeleton of the State (Sept. 26, 28, Oct. 3, 5, 10,12)

Second paper assignment posted Oct. 10, due in lecture Oct. 19

A. An Overview of the Federal Budget
* Congressional Budget Office. 2011. "The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update" (Aug. 24). Read Chapter 1.

* Kwak, James. 2011. “Our real deficit problem has nothing to do with traditional government.” The Atlantic (July 25). *

Pew Research Center. 2011. “Changing views of federal spending.” (Feb. 10).

B. Deficits and the National Debt
* Tritch, Teresa. 2011. “How the deficit got this big.” New York Times (July 23).

* Leonhardt, David. 2011. “The deficit we want.” Economix blog, New York Times (Jan. 20).

* New York Times. 2011. "How did the U.S. get $14.3 trillion in debt? And who are the creditors?" (chart) (July 28).

* Chinn, Menzie D., and Jeffry A. Frieden. 2011. “The downgrading of a debtor nation.” New York Times (Aug. 9).

* New York Times. 2010. “Budget puzzle: You fix the budget.” (Nov. 13).

Congressional Budget Office. 2011. “Reducing the deficit: Spending and revenue options.” (March).

Congressional Budget Office. 2010. "Federal debt and the risk of a fiscal crisis." (July 27).

Galbraith, James K. 2010. “Statement to the Commission on Deficit Reduction.” (June 30).

Trotta, Daniel. 2011. "Cost of war at least $3.7 trillion and counting." Reuters (June 29).

C. The Big Social Insurance Programs: Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid
* Edwards, Kathryn A, et al. 2011. Young Person’s Guide to Social Security. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

* Krugman, Paul. 2010. "Attacking Social Security." New York Times (Aug. 16).

* Kaiser Family Foundation. 2010. “Medicare: A primer.”

* Kaiser Family Foundation. 2010. “Medicaid: A primer.”

* Pew Research Center. 2011. “Public wants changes in entitlements, not benefits” (July 7).

OASDI Trustees. 2011. "A summary of the 2011 annual Social Security and Medicare trust fund reports.”

Congressional Budget Office. 2010. "Social Security policy options.” (July).

National Research Council and National Academy of Public Administration. 2010. Choosing the Nation's Fiscal Future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Ch. 6, “Options for Social Security.”

D. The Revenue Side of the Budget
* Leonhardt, David. 2007. "Plain truth about taxes and cuts." New York Times (Oct. 31).

* Citizens for Tax Justice. 2011. “America’s tax system is not as progressive as you think.” (April 15).

* Buffett, Warren E. 2011. “Stop coddling the super-rich.” New York Times (Aug. 15).

* Kwak, James. 2011. “Tax expenditures are a form of big government, and we should cut them.” The Atlantic (Aug 8).

* Editors. 2002. “The non-taxpaying class.” Wall Street Journal (Nov. 20).

* Leonhardt, David. 2010. “Yes, 47% of households owe no taxes. Look closer.” New York Times (April 13).

Furman, Jason, 2007. "The effect of the 2001-06 tax cuts on after-tax incomes." Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Gross, Daniel. 2006. "Raise the gasoline tax? Funny, it doesn’t sound Republican." New York Times (Oct. 8).

Holmes, Stephen, and Cass R. Sunstein. 1999. The Cost of Rights: Why Liberty Depends on Taxes. New York: Norton. Ch. 1. "All rights are positive."

Joint Committee on Taxation. 2010. "Estimates of federal tax expenditures for fiscal years 2009-2013." Washington, DC: US Congress.

Kocieniewski, David. 2011. “A closer look at taxes on the rich,” New York Times (Aug. 16).

Krugman, Paul. 2003. "The tax-cut con." New York Times Magazine (Sept. 14).

National Research Council and National Academy of Public Administration. 2010. Choosing the Nation's Fiscal Future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Ch. 8, “Revenue Options.”

Piketty, Thomas, and Emmanuel Saez. 2007. "How progressive is the U.S. federal tax system? A historical and international perspective." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (1): 3-24.

Slemrod, Joel and Jon Bakija. 2004. Taxing Ourselves: A Citizen's Guide to the Debate over Taxes. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bureau of the Public Debt. FAQ about the National Debt

Congressional Budget Office -- excellent, nonpartisan source of information on federal taxes and spending

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities -- nonprofit research center with emphasis on policies affecting low- to moderate-income people

Social Security Administration

Tax Policy Center -- a joint venture of the Urban Institute and the Brookings Institution The National Debt to the Penny

3. The Politics of Health Care (Oct. 19, 24, 26, 31, Nov. 2)
Third paper assignment posted Oct. 31, due in lecture Nov. 9

A. Health Care in America: The Lay of the Land
* Clement, Douglas. 2002. “Beyond supply and demand.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Gazette (May 2002).

* Krugman, Paul. 2009. “Health care realities.” New York Times (July 31).

* Pear, Robert. 2011. "Health spending rose in ’09, but at low rate." New York Times (Jan 5).

* U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Read pp. 23-29.

* Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. 2010. "The uninsured: A primer." Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation.

* Abelson, Reed. 2008. "Millions with chronic disease get little to no treatment." New York Times (Aug. 5).

Schoen, Cathy, et al. 2008. "How many are underinsured? Trends among U.S. adults, 2003 and 2007." Health Affairs, 27 (4): w298-w309.

Wilper, Andrew P., et al. 2008. "A national study of chronic disease prevalence and access to care in uninsured U.S. adults." Annals of Internal Medicine, 149 (3): 171-177.

Cutler, David M. 2004. Your Money or Your Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

Starr, Paul. 1983. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books.

B. What Are the Policy Options?
* Krugman, Paul, and Robin Wells. 2006. "The health care crisis and what to do about it." New York Review of Books, 53 (March 23).

* Brownlee, Shannon. 2003. "The overtreated American." The Atlantic (Jan/Feb.) See also the interactive map of health care costs compiled by the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care.

* Emanuel, Ezekiel J., and Jeffrey B.Liebman. 2011. "Cut Medicare, help patients." New York Times (Aug. 22).

* Gawande, Atul. 2011. “Cowboys and pit crews.” The New Yorker (May 26).

* Reid, T. R."Frontline: Sick around the world." PBS. (View the 60-min. documentary online.)

* Reid, T. R. 2009. "5 myths about health care around the world." Washington Post (Aug. 23).

* Kenworthy, Lane. 2011. Chart plotting trends in life expectancy relative to per-capita health expenditures for OECD countries. (From:

* Center for Economic and Policy Research. Health Care Budget Deficit Calculator.

Agrisano, Carlos, et al. 2007. Accounting for the Cost of Health Care in the United States. San Francisco: McKinsey Global Institute. (Synthesis)

Arrow, Kenneth J. 1963. "Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care." American Economic Review, 53 (5): 941-973.

Blumenthal, David. 2001. "Controlling health care expenditures." New England Journal of Medicine, 344 (10): 766-769.

Cohn, Jonathan. 2007. "What's the one thing big business and the left have in common?" New York Times Magazine (April 1).

Davis, Karen. 2006. "Consumer-directed health care: A panacea or the wrong prescription?" Physician Executive, 32, 5: 12-16.

Institute of Medicine Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. 2004. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Krugman, Paul 2007. "A socialist plot." New York Times (Aug. 27).

Mello, Michelle M., et al. 2010. “National costs of the medical liability system.” Health Affairs, 29 (9): 1569-1577.

Relman, Arnold. 2010. "Health care: The disquieting truth." New York Review of Books (Sept. 10).

Squires, David A. 2011. “The U.S. health system in perspective: A comparison of twelve industrialized nations.” Issues in International Health Policy, 18 (July).

C. The Affordable Care Act
* Commonwealth Fund. 2010. "Major Provisions of the Affordable Care Act."

* Newhouse, Joseph P. 2010. "Assessing health reform’s impact on four key groups of Americans." Health Affairs, 29 (9).

Cutler, David M. et al. 2010. “The impact of health reform on health system spending.” Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief, 88 (May 21).

Hacker, Jacob S. 2010. "The road to somewhere: Why health reform happened." Perspectives on Politics, 8 (3): 861-876.

Haveman, Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. 2010."U.S. health care reform: A primer and an assessment." La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Kaiser Family Foundation. “Summary of the New Health Reform Law.”

Koppelman, Andrew. 2011. “Bad news for mail robbers: The obvious constitutionality of health care reform.” Yale Law Journal Online, 121: 1-24.

Pear, Robert. 2010. "Health care cost increase is projected for new law." New York Times (April 23).

Rabin, Roni Caryn. 2010. "Big gains for young people in health law." New York Times (May 24).

Reinhardt, Uwe E. 2010. "Pitfalls of the health mandate." New York Times (June18).

Surowiecki, James. 2011. “Bitter pills.” The New Yorker (May 2).

OECD 2010 Health Data

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Kaiser Family Foundation

4. Income, Inequality, and Injustice (Nov. 7, 9, 14, 16, 21. NOTE: No class Nov. 23)
Fourth paper assignment posted Nov. 16, due in lecture Nov. 28)

A. Incomes and Assets in America: The Rich and the Rest
* U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Read pp. 4-13.

* Pew Research Center. 2011. “Wealth gaps rise to record highs between whites, blacks and Hispanics” (July 26). Read the Executive Summary.

* Noah, Timothy. 2010. "The Great Divergence." Slate (Sept. 14).

* Chart showing the disconnect between worker productivity and wages

* Stille, Alexander. 2001. "Grounded by an income gap." New York Times (Dec. 15).

Congressional Budget Office. 2011. "Trends in the distribution of household income between 1979 and 2007" (Oct.).

Hacker, Jacob S., and Paul Pierson. 2010. "Winner-take-all politics: Public policy, political organization, and the precipitous rise of top incomes in the United States." Politics & Society, 38 (2): 152-204.

Krugman, Paul 2002. "For richer." New York Times Magazine (Oct. 20).

Leonhardt, David. 2008. "For many, a boom that wasn't." New York Times (April 9).

Peck, Don. 2011. “Can the middle class be saved?” The Atlantic (September).

Piketty, Thomas, and Emmanuel Saez. 2006. "Income inequality in the United States, 1913-2002." In A. B. Atkinson and Thomas Piketty, eds. Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Saez, Emmanuel. 2009. "Striking it richer: The evolution of top incomes in the United States (Update with 2007 estimates)."

Warren, Elizabeth. 2007. “The coming collapse of the middle class.” Jefferson Memorial Lecture (March 8), UC Berkeley. (Lecture begins 6 minutes into the video.)

Tritch, Teresa. 2006. "The rise of the super-rich." New York Times (July 19).

Bartels, Larry M. 2008. Unequal Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Frank, Robert. 2007. How Rising Inequality Harms the Middle Class. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hacker, Jacob S., and Paul Pierson. 2010. Winner-Take-All Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster.

B. Poverty in America: Causes, Consequences
* U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Read pp. 14-22.

* Rector, Robert E. 2007. "How poor are America's poor? Examining the 'plague' of poverty in America." Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation.

* Small, Mario Luis, David J. Harding, and Michèle Lamont. 2010. "Reconsidering culture and poverty." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (629: 1): 6-27.

* California Newsreel. 2003. "Race - The Power of Illusion." View this 6 minute excerpt from Part 3 of the documentary.

* Hout, Michael. 2004. Review of The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality, by Thomas M. Shapiro. Washington Post (Feb. 15).

* Morin, Richard. 2001. "Misperceptions cloud whites' view of blacks." Washington Post (July 11), p. A1.

Economist. 2002. "A stigma that never fades." Economist (Aug. 10).

Dickerson, Debra. 1999. "Pennies from hell." Village Voice (May 4). (Review of No Shame in My Game, by Katherine Newman.)

Kotz, Nick. 2005. "Review of When Affirmative Action Was White, by Ira Katznelson." New York Times (Aug. 28).

Krueger, Alan B. 2002. "Sticks and stones can break bones, but the wrong name can make a job hard to find." New York Times (Dec. 12).

DeParle, Jason. 2004. American Dream. New York: Viking.

Kozol, Jonathan. 2005. The Shame of the Nation. New York: Crown Books.

Lang, Kevin. 2007. Poverty and Discrimination. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rose, Stephen J., and Heidi I. Hartmann. 2004. Still a Man's Labor Market. Washington, DC: IWPR. Executive summary.

Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage. Introduction.

C. Anti-Poverty Policy
* Blank, Rebecca M. 2003. "Selecting among anti-poverty policies: Can an economist be both critical and caring?" Review of Social Economy, 61 (4): 447-470.

* Parrott, Sharon, and Arloc Sherman. 2006. "TANF at 10: Program results are more mixed than often understood." Washington, DC: CBPP.

* Traub, James 2000. "What no school can do." New York Times Magazine (Jan. 26).

Blank, Rebecca, and Brian Kovak. 2008. "Helping disconnected single mothers." Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Dobbie, Will, and Roland G. Fryer, Jr. 2009."Are high-quality schools enough to close the achievement gap? Evidence from a bold social experiment in Harlem" (unpublished manuscript, Harvard University).

Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ch. 5, “The News Media and the Racialization of Poverty,” pp. 102-132.

Heckman, James J., and Dimitriy V. Masterov. 2007."The productivity argument for investing in young children." Review of Agricultural Economics, 29 (3): 446-493.

Holzer, Harry J., et al. 2004. "Declining employment among young black less-educated men: The role of incarceration and child support." Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty.

Mink, Gwendolyn. 2001. "Violating women: Rights abuses in the welfare police state." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (577: Sept.): 79-93.

Rothstein, Richard 2001. "Reducing poverty could increase school achievement." New York Times (March 7).

Zedlewski, Sheila R. 2003. "Work and barriers to work among welfare recipients in 2002." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Rank, Mark Robert. 2005. One Nation, Underprivileged: Why American Poverty Affects Us All. New York: Oxford University Press.

U.S. Census Bureau -- latest information on poverty in the U. S.

The Urban Institute -- extensive research on poverty, income, welfare, and work

5. The U.S. in a Global Context: Trade, Immigration, and Development (Nov. 28, 30, Dec. 5, 7, 12)
Fifth paper assignment posted Dec. 7, due Friday, Dec 16, 4:45 pm

A. Global Trade
* Summers, Lawrence. 2008. "A strategy to promote healthy globalisation." Financial Times (May 4).

* Chang, Ha-Joon. 2007. Bad Samaritans. New York: Bloomsbury. Chapter 1 and Chapter 3.

* Rodrik, Dani. 2002. "Globalization for whom?" Harvard Magazine, 104 (6): 29.

Blinder, Alan S. 2006. "Offshoring: The next Industrial Revolution?" Foreign Affairs, 85 (2): 113+.

Berger, Suzanne. 2000. "Globalization and politics." Annual Review of Political Science, 3: 43-62.

Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2011. "Annual revision of the U.S. international transactions accounts" (July).

Deardorff, Alan V., and Robert M. Stern. 2002. "What you should know about globalization and the World Trade Organization." Review of International Economics, 10 (August): 404-423.

DeLong, Brad, and Stephen Cohen. 2009. “The end of influence.” Foreign Policy (Dec. 23).

Krugman, Paul. 2007. "Trouble with trade." New York Times (Dec. 28).

Rosenberg, Tina. 2007."Reverse foreign aid." New York Times (March 25).

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2006. Making Globalization Work. New York: W. W. Norton.

B. Immigration
* Congressional Budget Office. 2011. "A description of the immigrant population: An update.”

* Lowenstein, Roger. 2006. "The immigration equation." New York Times Magazine (July 9).

* DeParle, Jason. 2007. "Should we globalize labor too?" New York Times (June 10).

Borjas, George J. 1995. "Know the flow; nine immigration myths." National Review (April 17): 44-50.

Card, David. 2005. "Is the new immigration really so bad?" Economic Journal, 115 (507): F300-F323.

Citrin, Jack, et al. 2009. “Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic immigration a threat to American identity?” Perspectives on Politics, 5 (March): 31-48.

Congressional Budget Office. 2011. "Migrants' remittances and related economic flows" (Feb.).

Congressional Budget Office. 2007. "The impact of unauthorized immigrants on the budgets of state and local governments" (Dec.)

DeParle, Jason. 2010. "Global migration: a world ever more on the move." New York Times (June 27).

Economist. 2006. "Sticks, carrots and fences." The Economist (March 29).

Freeman, Richard B. 2006. "People flows in globalization." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20 (2): 145-170.

Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. "The Hispanic challenge." Foreign Policy (March/April).

Pew Research Center. 2011. “Unauthorized immigrant population: National and state trends, 2010.”

Smith, James P. and Barry Edmonston, eds. 1997. The New Americans. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Press.

Pritchett, Lant. 2006. Let Their People Come. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. (Introduction)

Pew Hispanic Center -- High-quality research on the American Latino population

C. Global Poverty and Development
* World Bank. 2008. "World Bank updates poverty estimates for the developing world."

* “Hans Rosling's 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes - The Joy of Stats.” BBC Four.

* Eviatar, Daphne. 2004. "Spend $150 billion per year to cure world poverty." New York Times Magazine (Nov. 7).

* Easterly, William. 2005. "A modest proposal." Washington Post (March 13). [Review of The End of Poverty, by Jeffrey Sachs]

* Collier, Paul. 2007. The Bottom Billion. New York: Oxford University Press. Read Chapter 11, "An agenda for action."

Birdsall, Nancy, Dani Rodrik, and Arvind Subramanian. 2005. "How to help poor countries." Foreign Affairs (July/Aug.).

Easterly, William. 2003. "Can foreign aid buy growth?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17 (3): 23-48.

Kidder, Tracy. 2000."The good doctor," The New Yorker (July 10).

Kristof, Nicholas D. 2005. "Land of penny pinchers." New York Times (Jan. 5).

Kristof, Nicholas D. 2006. "Aid: Can it work?" New York Review of Books, 53 (Oct. 5).

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2001."The strategic significance of global inequality," Washington Quarterly, 24 (3): 187-198. von Braun,

von Braun, et al. 2010. "The poorest and the hungry: A synthesis of analyses and actions." In Joachim von Braun et al., eds. The Poorest and the Hungry. Washington, DC: IFPRI.

Easterly, William. 2006. White Man's Burden. New York: Penguin.

Farmer, Paul. 2003. Pathologies of power. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2008. Common Wealth. New York: Penguin.

Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Penguin.

Partners in Health

United Nations Development Programme

World Bank