DANGER AND DISORDER: AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF CRIME

Cultural Anthropology 298.202, #357, Summer Term 2001

NOTE: PRELIMINARY SYLLABUS: TO BE REVISED

The number of readings will be decreased /the schedule adjusted for biweekly meetings

Instructor: Ellen Moodie, Ph.D. Candidate in Cultural Anthropology (emoodie@umich.edu)

Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., Mason Hall 3444

 

Welcome to post-liberal Los Angeles, where the defense of luxury life-styles is translated into a proliferation of new repressions of space and movement … We live in "fortress cities" brutally divided between "fortified cells" of affluent society and "places of terror" where the police battle the criminalized poor.

-- Mike Davis in Davis 1990

 

The only thing that protected me was the hair clip. Just as he was speaking to me, the machete was already coming over my head. And zas! He says, to me, "You the daughter of who knows what mother, you went out, didn't you?"

-- "Esperanza" in Behar 1993

 

I got this kid next door, he calls me a "fag." I mean, there is no reason why he calls me a "fag" and my father said next time he does that "beat him up." My father says if I don't fight him, he'll [father] fight me. So I beat the kid up and my father was happy.

-- in Messerschmidt 2000

 

By the end of it the thief's face was completely wrecked. Everyone needs to get in a punch. In one neighborhood I lived, the treatment did not end there. The thief was then stripped and given a sign to wear that said "Saya maling" [I'm a thief] and paraded around the neighborhood for everyone to see.

-- "Ujog" describing an incident in Barker 1999

 

As night falls, the homeboys begin to make their rounds … to check out who is on their turf. "We protect the people here from enemy gangs and thieves who would rob them," Shy Boy says proudly. "We never steal from our own barrio."

-- in DeCesare 1998

 

Ooh, Felipe! You make us sound like such sensitive crack dealers.

-- "Caesar" commenting on manuscript in Bourgois 1995

 

See references at end of syllabus

 

 

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Who are the "bad guys"? We all have ideas about who to avoid – and where to be scared. Just about everyone could say something about why thieves and gangsters and killers do what they do. In this seminar we will take an anthropological perspective to challenge "common-sense" notions of criminality, comparing ideas about lawbreaking and violence through history and in different societies.

Through the term we'll move around the globe – among our stops communities in the Philippines, England, Brazil, the United States, South Africa, Mexico and the Trobriand Islands – as we explore how crime is conceptualized in various cultures. We will watch films, read newspapers, listen to popular music, study ethnographies, and analyze some criminological theory in order to grasp different cultural ways of seeing and knowing disorder and subversion.

This course will look at crime through anthropological lens, seeking new ways to understand a topic that quickly becomes sensationalized, stereotypified and simplified as it enters public debate.

I have several goals for this class. First, I want to interrupt everyday talk and accepted notions about lawbreakers, and encourage you to think about "crime"-- and punishment -- in a broad, anthropological sense, to understand it as a social construction carrying different meanings to different people and communities.

I hope to introduce you to the holistic discpline of anthropology, combining writings by early foundational thinkers with some of the most recent ethnographies relating to issues of crime and violence.

And I would like you to join me in the development of a program for an underexplored field of study.

There isn't an integral "anthropology of crime." But anthropologists were there at the start of criminology, measuring facial features in an effort determine propensities toward social deviance. This course acknowledges the history of the discipline and then incorporates various schools of anthropological thought, including the anthropology of law, the culture of poverty, urban anthropology, and more recent theoretical points of view, gender studies and the anthropology of mass media. Though the syllabus draws on research from other disciplines addressing crime, including sociology and psychology, as well as criminology itself, all the readings are culturally oriented , taking an ethnographic perspective.

After examining early "criminal anthropology" and relating it to a concurrent phenomenon, "social bandits," we will look at theories of social order, including early ethnographies of law in non-Western communities and scholarship on space and built environments that help us to see how crime is "constructed" and conceptualized by the state and powerful public institutions. Then we turn to gender studies, reviewing some current work on masculinity and boys as well as reading parts of a feminist ethnography that theorizes gender and violence. Next we consider some works on the mass media, the powerful force-space in which most of us encounter "crime." Finally, we explore a series of ethnographies that aim to shed light on problems of "criminality" as they occur in specific times and spaces within particular communities.

Course Structure and Assignments:

This is an undergraduate seminar, focused on interactive learning. During our meetings, you will hear short orienting lectures, participate in discussions, watch a number of films, listen to guest speakers, do short assignments and class activities and carry out project presentations. Throughout the term, you will be encouraged to read and watch crime news -- generally to explore all representations of things "criminal."

Everyone will participate in an e-mail group, responding to courspack readings and proposing discussion questions. You will lead one discussion (as part of a group) and then write a final 6-8-page paper expanding on a topic related to your project and presentation. At the end of the term, you will present the conclusions to the class. You will be evaluated on your short assignments/class activities, your final paper and presentation, and your participation in the class and e-mail discussions.

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Part I: SOCIAL DEFECTIVES AND HERO-BANDITS

In this unit we look at two late19th- century phenomena, the biologically determined criminal and the heroic outlaw. They are not linked concepts, but rather, parallel notions, rubbing up against each other apparently unawares. On one hand, nascent "criminal anthropologists" prompted by the Italian Cesare Lombroso's 1876 Criminal Man and other work, suggested criminals were evolutionary throwbacks and thus less civilized thantheir non-criminal neighbors. On the other hand, at the very same time in the United States (as well as in other areas), a series of bandits were becoming heroes: Jesse James in the Reconstruction South, and Billy the Kid in the New Mexico borderlands. This unit starts us thinking about how different societies imagine, or theorize about, criminals and criminality.

Week 1

Class 1: Introduction

We will begin with a slide show of "head shots" of familiar and unfamiliar criminals and an introductory lecture.

Film

Is Criminal Behavior Genetic? 1996. BBC Education and Training.

Week 1

Class 2: Born criminals and bad genes

Reading

Gould, Stephen Jay. 1981. "Measuring Bodies: Two Case Studies on the Apishness of Undesirables." In Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton. Pages 113-145.

Rafter, Nicole Hahn. 1996. "Criminal Anthropology in the United States." In Cordella, Peter and Larry Siegel, eds. Readings in Contemporary Criminological Theory. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Pages 51-63.

Weeks 1-2

Classes 3-4: Robin Hoods

Reading

Kooistra, Paul. 1989. Criminals as Heroes. Bowling Green: The Popular Press. (Selections).

Sidel, James. 1999. "The Usual Suspects: Nardong Putik, Don Pepe Oyson, and Robin Hood." In Rafael, Vicente L., ed. Figures of Criminality in Indonesia, the Philippines and Colonial Vietnam. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. Pages 70-94.

Film

Confessions of Bernhard Goetz. 1987. MPI Home Video.

ASSIGNMENT:

Write a 1-page description of an experience with crime, or imagine an experience with crime. Then think about who the criminal was; what he or she looked like, what background he or she might have had. Write another page describing that. Draw a picture to illustrate it (or find a magazine or newspaper photograph).

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Part II: THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL ORDER: LAW, SOCIETY, SPACE

Here we step back from the individual criminal and his or her "traits" and consider relationships between different kinds of environments and conceptions of criminality. In the first section, we'll briefly consider social theories of criminality taken up by the anthropology of law. We'll consider -- and critique -- two early ethnographic cases, in the Trobriand Islands and among the "Eskimos." Then we'll move on to consider how built environments may link to criminality. The study of space and crime is a growing interest in urban anthropology as well as other related fields. Early theorists of slums proposed that these marginal spaces "harbored" or "bred" criminals (in their words). In the late 20th century, Mike Davis, discussing "Fortress L.A.," contrasts "'fortified cells' of affluent society and 'places of terror' where the police battle the criminalized poor."

Week 2

Classes 5-6: Anthropology of law vs. criminology

Reading: choose

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1926. Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Part I, Chapter XI, "An Anthropological Definition of Law," pages 55-59; Part II, Chapter III, "Systems of Laws in Conflict," pages 71-111; Chapter IV, "Factors of Social Cohesion in a Primitive Tribe." Page 112-129.

Hoebel, E. Adamson. 1976 (1954). "The Eskimo: Rudimentary Law in a Primitive Anarchy." In The Law of Primitive Man: A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics. New York: Atheneum. Pages 67-99.

Caulfield, Susan L. 1991. "The Perpetuation of Violence through Criminological Theory." In Pepinsky, Harold and Richard Quinner, eds. Criminology as Peacemaking. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 228-238.

Moore, Sally Falk. 1999. "From Lawyer's Law into the Academic Zoo." In Political and Legal Anthropology Review 22 (1): 101-105.

Film

Quiet Rage Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment

Week 3

Classes 7-8: Space, society and state.

Reading: choose

Caldeira, Teresa P.R. 1996. "Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation." In Public Culture 8: 303-328.

Davis, Mike. 1990. "Fortress L.A." In Davis, Mike. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New York: Verso Press. Pages 223-263.

Barker, Joshua. 1999. "Surveillance and Territoriality in Bandung." In Rafael, Vicente L., ed. Figures of Criminality in Indonesia, the Philippines and Colonial Vietnam. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. Pages 95-127.

Pain, Rachel. 1991. "Space, sexual violence and social control: integrating geographical and feminist analyses of women's fear of crime." In Progress in Human Geography 15 (4): 415-431.

Film

Writing on the Wall. 1978. BBC TV.

Speaker

A police officer who has worked the "beat" in more and less crime-ridden area will be invited to discuss his or her work with us.

ASSIGNMENT:

Describe a place in which you feel fearful, in danger; then contrast this with place where you feel safe. Then draw a map of your daily trajectory, signalling which spacetimes (places) "feel" more dangerous. Consider what it is about the environment, or your experience, stimulates these feelings. (2 pages).

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Part III: GENDER AND CRIME: MASCULINITIES AND FEMINIST QUESTIONS

Fear of crime often translates to a fear of men. Scholarship today is only just beginning to fully address issues of gender and criminality and crime. Though feminist criminologists and other social scientists studying crime began by making female offenders visible, their work tended to reinforce the concept of the male as the "universal" criminal and of women as "gendered." In addition, studies into gender and crime would portray "victimization," particularly in rape and domestic assault, as a woman's issue. Further, gender was not complicated with other identifying vectors of "race," class and age. In this unit we will explore these issues of identity, focusing on gender, in the experience of and discourse on crime in Mexico and the United States.

Weeks 3-4

Classes 9-10-11: Gender and crime.

Reading

Gutmann, Matthew C. 1996. The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley: University of California Press. (selections).

Messerschmidt, James W. 2000. "Introduction" and "Hugh, Perry and Lenny." In Nine Lives: Adolescent Masculinities, the Body, and Violence. Boulder: Westview Press. Pages 1-23 and 51-79.

Behar, Ruth. 1993. "The Cross of the White Wedding Dress" and "Translated Woman." In Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story. Boston: Beacon Press. Pages 53-86 and 275-302.

Lancaster, Roger. 1992. "Murdering One's Husband's Lover." In Life Is Hard. Berkeley: University of California Press. 48-5.

Harris, M. Kay. 1991. "Moving into the New Millenium: Toward Feminist Vision of Justice." In Pepinsky, Harold and Richard Quinner, eds. Criminology as Peacemaking. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 83-97.

Films:

Battered Women: Violence Behind Closed Doors. 1976. Mitchell, J. Gary. (23 minutes).

Mi Vida Loca. 1994. HBO Video. (100 minutes).

ASSIGNMENT:

Write a brief summary of the arguments and approaches in one of the readings, paying particular attention to how "gender" is conceptualized. (1-2 pages).

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Part IV: MORAL PANICS AND OTHER SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS: MASS MEDIA AND CRIME

The study of crime cannot be separated from the study of its representations in the mass media. Most ideas (whether potential criminals' or victims') about legality, about criminals, about deviance, are channeled through the widely disseminated representations of crime in newspapers and television and film, non-fiction and fiction. In this unit we will study media as an institutional actor in society, and as a intimate presence in homes. We will begin by considering how the mass media are constantly seeking to "discover" new phenomena in order to make news. We will examine the concept of "moral panics," periodic waves of fear and outrage often about poor and racially distinct young men. We will ask what is at stake in disseminating certain representations of crime through the powerful consent-building forces of the mass media. Finally, we will look at an ethnographic account of a South African reporter digging beyond media "construction."

Week 4-5

Classes 12-13-14: Mass media and crime.

Reading

Hall, Stuart, Chas Crichter, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke and Brian Roberts. 1978. "The Social History of a 'Moral Panic'" and "The Social Production of News." In Hall, Stuart, et al., Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order. New York: The MacMillan Press. Pages 3-28 and 53-77.

Murji, Karim. 1999. "Wild Life: Constructions and Representations of Yardies." In Ferrell, Jeff and Neil Websdale, eds. Making Trouble: Cultural Constructions of Crime, Deviance and Control. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Pages 179-201.

González-Cueva, Eduardo. 1998. "Heroes or Hooligans: Media Portrayals of Peruvian Youth." In "Latin American Youth: Anger and Disenchantment on the Margins," a special issue of NACLA: Report on the Americas XXXII (1) July/August 1998. Pages 30-35.

Fordred, Leslie. 1997. "Natal Cockroaches Fly: Khaba Mkhize and Communitarian Journalism in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa." In Cultural Producers in Perilous States: Editing Events, Documenting Change. Marcus, George E., ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 23-5.

Films

Natural Born Killers. 1994. Warner Home Video.

The Boston Hoax: The Police, The Press and the Public. 1990. Media & Society Seminars.

Speaker

A newspaper reporter covering the "police beat" will be invited to speak to the class.

ASSIGNMENT:

Bring in a news article or series of articles about a crime or crimes. Be prepared for a brief (5-minute) presentation about how the crime was "reconstructed"; whether the article perpetuates any kind of stereotypes (gender, race, ethnicity, age); and what kind of "world" is assumed and "created" in the text.

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Part V: ETHNOGRAPHIES OF CRIME AND EVERYDAY VIOLENCE

A small group of criminologists and sociologists have begun to seek the "culture" behind the statistical and correlational charts of their positivist sciences. The new orientation seeks to follow "the lived contours of crime," to feel the "distinctive sensual dynamics" of criminal experience. While some of these new cultural criminologists exclusively examine mass media and popular culture, others have discovered something anthropologists have been doing, for better or worse, for a century or more: ethnography. In this unit, we explore how anthropologists have approached communities that experience danger and crime, and how the discipline has "constructed" criminality as it represents different phenomena in ethnographies. We will consider a number of ethnographies, including important but problematic works that place crime within "the culture of poverty," or, despite all intentions, tend to "other" people in "criminal subcultures" (issues that the field of cultural criminology has not yet addressed).

Week 5

Class 15: Doing ethnography: "Other" risks.

Reading

Bourgois, Philippe. 1995. "Introduction." In In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pages 1-18.

Ferrell, Jeff. 1998. "Criminological Verstehen: Inside the Immediacy of Crime." In Ferrell, Jeff and Mark S. Hamm, eds. Ethnography at the Edge: Crime, Deviance and Field Research. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Pages 20-42 (38).

Fleisher, Mark S. 1998. "Street Ethnography: Methods, Ethics and Politics." In Fleisher, Mark S. Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know. Pages 226-250.

Speaker:

Ethnographer Luke Bergmann of the University of Michigan Joint Program in Social Work and Anthropology, who works with youth in Detroit, will speak.

Week 6

Class 16: A critique of the "culture of poverty"

Lewis, Oscar. 1966. "Fernanda: In the Life"; "Simplicio: That's When I Began to Be Bad", and "Cruz: Life with Emilio." In Lewis, Oscar. La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty -- San Juan and New York. New York: Random House. Pages 50-59; 456-482; and 596-617. Also, skim the introduction, focusing on "Methods" and "The Culture of Poverty."

Weeks 6-7

Classes 17-18-19-20: Ethnography.

Read two of the following:

Buford, Bill. 1991. "A Station Outside Cardiff" and "Dawes Road, Fulham" In Among the Thugs. London: Martin Secker & Warburg. Pages 12-21 and 178-207.

Bourgois, Philippe. 1995. "Violating Apartheid in the United States" and "School Days: Learning to be a Better Criminal." In In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pages 19-47 and 174-212.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 1992. "Everyday Violence: Bodies, Death and Silence." In Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pages 216-267.

Fleisher, Mark. S. 1998. Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Pages 3-85.

Hamm, Mark S. 1993. American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Selections.

Thompson, Hunter S. 1967. Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga. New York: Ballantine. Selections.

Film

World of Piri Thomas. 1968. National Education Television.

Homeboys. 1978. Focal Point Films.

ASSIGNMENT:

Write a 2-page research design for an ethnographic project in which you aim to understand some aspect of crime in a community. Include details of purpose, methodology, and analysis, following models in the ethnographies you have read.

Week 7

Class 21: Final presentations

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Quotes, in order

Davis, Mike. 1990. . City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New York: Verso Press. Page 223-224.

Behar, Ruth. 1993. Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story. Boston: Beacon Press.Page 70.

Messerschmidt, James W. 2000. Nine Lives: Adolescent Masculinities, the Body, and Violence. Boulder:Westview Press. Page 75.

Barker, Joshua. 1999. "Surveillance and Territoriality in Bandung." In Rafael, Vicente L., ed. Figures of Criminality in Indonesia, the Philippines and Colonial Vietnam. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. Page 117.

DeCesare, Donna. 1998. "The Children of War: Street Gangs in El Salvador." In NACLA: Report on the Americas. XXXII (1) July/Aug. 1998. Pages 21-29 (23).

Bourgois, Philippe. 1995. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Page 318.

 

SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES

Part I: SOCIAL DEFECTIVES AND HERO-BANDITS

Supplemental Reading

Rafter, Nicole Hahn. 1997. "The Anthropological Born Criminal." In Rafter, Nicole Hahn. Creating Born Criminals. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Pages 110-132.

Siegel, James T. 1998. "Bastards, Revolution and Kriminalitas." In A New Criminal Type in Jakarta: Counter-Revolution Today. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Pages 30-51.

Hobsbawm, Eric. 1981. Bandits. New York: Pantheon Books. (Selections).

Supplemental Film

Bonnie and Clyde. 1967. Warner Brothers.

Thelma and Louise. 1998. MGM Home Entertainment. (129 minutes).

The Legend of Billie Jean

Part II: THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL ORDER: LAW, SOCIETY, SPACE

Supplemental Reading

Meyer, Jon'a F. and John S. Mahoney, Jr. 1999. "The Elders Were Our Textbooks: The Importance of Traditional Stories in Social Control." In Ferrell, Jeff and Neil Websdale, eds. Making Trouble: Cultural Constructions of Crime, Deviance and Control. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Pages 25-46.

Bohannan, Laura. 1988. "Shakespeare in the Bush." In Cole, Johnetta, ed. Anthropology for the Nineties: Introductory Readings. New York: The Free Press. Pages 86-95.

Nader, Laura. "The Anthropological Study of Law." In "The Ethnography of Law," a special publication of American Anthropologist 67 (6, part 2), 1965. Pages 3-32.

Copet-Rougier, Elisabeth. 1986." 'Le Mal Court': Visible and Invisible Violence in an Acephalous Society—Mkako of Cameroon." In Riches, David, ed. The Anthropology of Violence. London: Basil Blackwell. Pages 50 -69.

Herbert, Steve. 1997. "Territoriality and the Police" and "Safety and Police Territoriality." In Policing Space: Territoriality and the Los Angeles Police Department. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pages 9-23 and 99-121.

Davis, Mike. 1990. "The Hammer and the Rock." In Davis, Mike. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New York: Verso Press. Pages 267-322.

Foucault, Michel. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Alan Sheridan, trans. New York: Vintage Books.

Friedman, Lawrence M. 1994. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Skolnick, Jerome H. 1998. Justice without Trial: Law Enforcement in a Democratic Society. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Supplemental Film

Reinventing the City: New York and Los Angeles. 1996. Films for the Humanities.

The Abandonment of Cities. 1971. National Broadcasting Service.

Blade Runner. 1982. Warner Brothers.

Part III: GENDER AND CRIME: MASCULINITIES AND FEMINIST QUESTIONS

Supplemental Reading

Sommers, Evelyn K. 1995. "The Women's Words: Visible Anger" and "The Women's Words: Fear." In Voices from Within: Women Who Have Broken the Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 76-100 and 101-110.

Collier, Richard. 1998. "Sex, Gender and the (Criminal) Bodies of Men." In Collier, Richard. Masculinities, Crime and Criminology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Pages 1-35.

Spelman, Elizabeth and Martha Minow. 1992. "Outlaw Women: An Essay on 'Thelma and Louise.'" In New England Law Review 26:1281-96, esp. 1287-8. [15 pages]

Omolade, Barbara. 1989. "Black Women, Black Men and Tawana Brawley -- The Shared Condition." In Harvard Women's Law Journal 12: 11-23, esp. 11.

Cameron, Deborah and Elizabeth Frazer. 1994. "Cultural Difference and the Lust to Kill." In Sex and Violence: Issues of Representation and Experience. Harvey and Gow, eds. New York: Routledge. 156-171.

Garvey, Nicola. 1999. "'I Wasn't Raped, but …": Revisiting Definitional Problems in Sexual Victimization." In Lamb, Sharon, ed. New Versions of Victims: Feminists Struggle with the Concept. New York: New York University Press. Pages 57-81.

Collier, Richard. 1998. "'A Lonely Man with a Passion for Guns': Crime, Community and the Heterosexualized Body." In In Collier, Richard. Masculinities, Crime and Criminology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Pages 103-126 (124).

Supplemental Film

The Bandit Queen. 1995. Evergreen Entertainment. (119 minutes).

Part IV: MORAL PANICS AND OTHER SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS: MASS MEDIA AND CRIME

Supplemental Reading

Bell, Daniel. 1960. "The Myth of Crime Waves: The Actual Decline of Crime in the United States." In Bell, Daniel. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press. Pages 137-158.

Best, Joel. 1991. "'Road Warriors' on 'Hair-Trigger Highways': Cultural Resources and the Media's Construction of the 1987 Freeway Shootings Problem." In Sociological Inquiry 61 (3) August 1991. 327-345.

Glassner, Barry. 1999. "Crime in the News: Tall Tales and Overstated Statistics." In Glassner, Barry. The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things. New York: Basic Books. Pages 25-49.

Jenkins, Philip. 1996. "The Social Construction of Serial Homicide." In Conklin, John E., ed. New Perspectives in Criminology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pages 2-13.

Chesny-Lind, Meda. 1999. "Media Misogyny: Demonizing 'Violent' Girls and Women." In Ferrell, Jeff and Neil Websdale, eds. Making Trouble: Cultural Constructions of Crime, Deviance and Control. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Pages 115-140.

Potter, Garry w. and Victor E. Kappeler. 1998. Constructing Crime: Perspectives in Making News and Social Problems. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.

Part V: ETHNOGRAPHIES OF CRIME AND EVERYDAY VIOLENCE

Supplemental Reading

Hamm, Mark S. and Jeff Ferrell. "Confessions of Danger and Humanity." In Ferrell, Jeff and Mark S. Hamm, eds. Ethnography at the Edge: Crime, Deviance and Field Research. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Pages 254-272 (271).

Ferrell, Jeff and Mark S. Hamm, eds. Ethnography at the Edge: Crime, Deviance and Field Research. Boston: Northeastern University Press. The following chapter: Kraska, Peter B. "Enjoying Militarism: Political/Personal Dilemmas in Studying U.S. Paramilitary Units" ( 88-110); Hamm, Mark S. "The Ethnography of Terror: Timothy McVeigh and the Blue Centerlight of Evil" (111-130); Kane, Stephanie. "Reversing the Ethnographic Gaze: Experiments in Cultural Criminology" ( 132-145); Jacobs, Bruce A. "Researching Crack Dealers: Dilemmas and Contradictions" ( 160-177); Weisheit, Ralph A. "Marijuana Subcultures: Studying Crime in Rural America" (178-203).

Ro, Ronin. 1996. "A Nation in Danger" and "Riding Shotgun." In Gangsta: Merchandising the Rhymes of Violence. New York: St. Martin's Press. Pages 1-12 and 13-24.

Mieczkowski, Thomas. 1986. "Geeking Up and Throwing Down: Heroin Street Life in Detroit." In Criminology 24 (4): 645-666.

Fleisher, Mark S. 1995. "Street Ethnography." In Fleisher, Mark S. Beggars and Thieves: Lives of Urban Street Criminals. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Pages 20-77.

DeCesare, Donna. 1998. "The Children of War: Street Gangs of El Salvador." In "Latin American Youth: Anger and Disenchantment on the Margins," a special issue of NACLA: Report on the Americas XXXII (1) July/August 1998. Pages 21-29.

Supplemental Film

Salaam Bombay! 1988. Mira Nair. (110 minutes).

Boyz 'n the Hood. 1991. Columbia Pictures. (112 minutes).