(All publications in Chinese have an English abstract)









Duanmu, San [端木三], 2016. 《音步和重音》 [Foot and stress]. "十三五"国家重点出版物 [A National Key Publication of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan]. 北京语言文化大学出版社 [Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press]. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2016. A Theory of Phonological Features. Oxford University Press.

Duanmu, San. 2009. Syllable Structure: The Limits of Variation. Oxford University Press.

Duanmu, San. 2007. The Phonology of Standard Chinese. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.

Duanmu, San. 2003. The Phonology of Standard Chinese. Oxford (2000). Translated into Korean by Ik-sang Eom, et al. Seoul: Hankookmunhwasa Publishing Company.



Duanmu, San [端木三], forthcoming. 音位分析的"多解论"和最佳答案 [The non-uniqueness problem and the best solution in phonemic analysis]. 《语言科学》 [Linguistic Sciences]. (PDF file with English abstract)

Qin, Zuxuan, and San Duanmu, forthcoming. An acceptability judgment study of 1+1 NN compounds in Chinese. Lingua. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2018. 谈超音步 [On the super-foot]. 《韵律语法研究》[Studies in Prosodic Grammar] 2018.2: 77-95. (PDF file with English abstract)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2018. 复合音和"无序原则" [Complex sounds and the No Contour Principle]. 《语言科学》 [Linguistic Sciences] 17 (1): 1-17. (PDF file with English abstract)

Duanmu, San, Shengli Feng, Yan Dong, and Yingyue Zhang. 2018. A judgment study of length patterns in Chinese: prosody, last resort, and other factors. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 46.1: 42-68. (PDF file with English abstract)

Xue, Yahong, and San Duanmu [薛亚红、端木三], 2018. 形名组合的出现率:词长搭配和""字隐现 [A frequency study of [A N] nominals in Chinese: length patterns and hidden de]. 《语言科学》[Linguistic Sciences] 17.5: 479-495. (PDF file with English abstract)

Duanmu, San, forthcoming. The Revised Max Onset: syllabification and stress in English. To appear in Prosodic Studies: Challenges and Prospects, Hongming Zhang ed. Routledge. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, 2017. From non-uniqueness to the best solution in phonemic analysis: evidence from Chengdu Chinese. Lingua Sinica 3:15. (PDF file)

Qin, Zuxuan, and San Duanmu, 2017. A judgment study of word-length preferences in Chinese NN compounds. Lingua 198: 1-21. (PDF file)

LI, Xiang, and San DUANMU [李湘、端木三]. 2017. "自然焦点"有多"自然"? -- 从汉语方式状语的焦点结构地位说起 [Is a natural focus natural enough?]. 《世界汉语教学》 [Chinese Teaching in the World] 31.4: 448-462.

Duanmu, San [端木三], 2017. 从音系研究看语言的共性与任意性 [Universal and arbitrary properties of language: a phonological perspective]. 《甲子学者治学谈》[Sixty-year-old scholars on scholarship],沈阳、冯胜利、李亚飞 主编 [ed. SHEN Yang, FENG Shengli, and LI Yafei], 3-27. 北京:北京语言大学出版社. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, 2017. Syllable structure. In Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, ed. Rint Sybesma (editor-in-chief), Wolfgang Behr, Yueguo Gu, Zev Handel, C.-T. James Huang, and James Myers (associate editors), 230-236. Leiden: Brill. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, 2017. Word and Wordhood, Modern. In Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, ed. Rint Sybesma (editor-in-chief), Wolfgang Behr, Yueguo Gu, Zev Handel, C.-T. James Huang, and James Myers (associate editors), 543-549. Leiden: Brill. (PDF file)


Duanmu, San, Yingyue Zhang, Yan Dong, and Yiwen Zhou [端木三、张瀛月、董岩、周逸雯]. 2016. 上海市常住人口的语言选择和语言使用度研究 [A Study of Language Choices and Language Use by Residents of Shanghai]. 《全球华语》[Global Chinese] 2(2): 241-258. (PDF file)

Chen, Changyong, and San Duanmu [陈昌勇、端木三]. 2016. 双音节复合词内部语素的词类标注和统计分析 [Part-of-speech annotation of morphemes in disyllabic compounds]. 《汉语学习》[Chinese Language Studies] 2016.1: 30-41. (PDF file)

Yi, Li, and San Duanmu. 2015. Phonemes, features, and syllables: converting onset and rime inventories to consonants and vowels. Language and Linguistics 16.6: 819-842. (PDF file)

Qi, Feng, and San Duanmu [祁峰、端木三]. 2015. 定中式形名组合词长搭配的量化研究 [A quantitative study of word length preferences in AN nominal units]. 《语言教学与研究》 [Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies] 2015.5: 82-91. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2014. 重音理论及汉语重音现象 [Metrical phonology and metrical properties in Chinese]. 《当代语言学》 [Journal of Contemporary Linguistics] 16.3: 288-302 (PDF file)

Huang, Lijun, and San Duanmu [黄丽君、端木三]. 2013, 现代汉语词长弹性的量化研究 [A quantitative study of elastic word length in Modern Chinese]. 《语言科学》[Linguistic Sciences] 12.1: 8-16. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2012, Word-length preferences in Chinese: a corpus study. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 21.1: 89-114. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2010. Contemporary views on architecture and representation in phonology (Review). Language 86: 2: 455-458. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2007. 重音、信息、和语言的分类 [Stress, information, and language typology]. 《语言科学》 [Linguistic Sciences] 6.5: 3-16. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2007. A two-accent model of Japanese word prosody. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, H.-Y. Kim, and N. Stiennon. 2005. Stress and syllable structure in English: Approaches to phonological variations. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 3.2: 45-57. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, and N. Stiennon. 2005. Tonal requirements in Chinese regulated verse: a corpus study. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 3.1: 1-31. (PDF file) (Some Chinese characters are missing in the printed version. This PDF file is more complete.)

Duanmu, San. 2004. Tone and non-tone languages: An alternative to language typology and parameters. Language and Linguistics. 5.4, pp. 891-923. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2004. Left-headed feet and phrasal stress in Chinese. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale 33.1, pp. 65-103. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2004. A corpus study of Chinese regulated verse: phrasal stress and the analysis of variability. Phonology 21. pp. 43-89. (PDF file, Appendix1, Appendix2, Appendix3)

Kim, M.-R., and S. Duanmu. 2004. Tense and lax stops in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 13: 59-104. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2002. Two theories of onset clusters. Chinese Phonology 11 (Special issue: glides, syllable and tone): 97-120. (PDF file, Appendix)

Lu, B.-F., and S. Duanmu. 2002. Rhythm and syntax in Chinese: A case study. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 37.2: 123-136. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2002. Review of The morphology of Chinese: A linguistic and cognitive approach by Jerome L. Packard, Cambridge University Press. Diachronica 19.1: 190-200. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2001. Review of Matthew Y. Chen (2000) Tone sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 92.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Phonology 18.2: 306-308. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2000. Hanyu de jiezou [Rhythm in Chinese]. Dangdai Yuyanxue [Contemporary Linguistics] 4: 203-209. (PDF file)

Kim, Mi-Ryoung, and San Duanmu. 2000. The interaction between consonant types and tone of the Chonnam dialect of Korean. Korean Linguistics 10: 79-104. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1999. Stress and the development of disyllabic vocabulary in Chinese. Diachronica XVI: 1.1-35. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1999. Zhongyin lilun he Hanyu de ci chang xuanze [Metrical theory and word length choices in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yuwen 1999.4 (271): pp. 246-254. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1999. Metrical Structure and Tone: Evidence from Mandarin and Shanghai. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 8: pp. 1-38. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1997. Phonologically motivated word order movement: evidence from Chinese compounds. Studies in Linguistic Sciences 27.1, pp. 49-73. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1997. Recursive constraint evaluation in Optimality Theory: evidence from cyclic compounds in Shanghai. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 15, pp. 465-507. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1997. Cong Hanyu de zhongyin tan yuyan de gongxing yu texing [Language universals and language particulars: evidence from stress in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yuyanxue Luncong [Studies in Chinese Linguistics] 1: pp. 79-84. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1996. Pre-juncture lengthening and foot binarity. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 26.1/2, pp. 95-115. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1995, Metrical and tonal phonology of compounds in two Chinese dialects. Language 71.2, pp. 225-259. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1994. Against contour tone units. Linguistic Inquiry 25.4, pp. 555-608. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1994. Syllabic weight and syllabic duration: A correlation between phonology and phonetics, Phonology 11.1, pp. 1-24. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1994. The phonology of the glottal stop in Garo. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 17.2, pp. 69-82. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1993, Rime length, stress, and association domains, Journal of East Asian Linguistics 2.1, pp. 1-44. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1992. An autosegmental analysis of tone in four Tibetan languages. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 15:1, pp. 65-91. (PDF file)


Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2016. 从音步和重音看语言的共性与任意性. 《韵律研究》冯胜利 主编,第一集,72-96. 北京:科学出版社. [Universal and arbitrary properties of language: perspectives from foot structure and stress. In Studies on Prosody, ed. Shengli Feng, 1: 72-96. Beijing: Kexue Chubanshe.] (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, and Yan Dong. 2016. Elastic Words in Chinese. Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language, ed. CHAN Sin-Wai 452-468. London and New York: Routledge. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2015. 《中国音系数据库》的构建及用途 [The Phonology Inventory Database of China: Its compilation and applications]. 《南方语言学》 [Linguistics of South China],甘于恩 [ed. Yu-en Gan] 1-15. 广州: 暨南大学出版社 [Guangzhou: Jinan University Press]. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2015. Contrast and vowel features. In The segment in phonetics and phonology, ed. Eric Raimy and Charles E. Cairns, 218-235. Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2015. A study of elastic word length in monomorphemic nouns in Chinese: 'monosyllabic-only' nouns in the lexicon and in actual use [汉语单语素名词的词长弹性研究:词典中和实际使用中的"只单不双"名词]. In New explorations in Chinese prosodic syntax [《汉语韵律语法新探》], ed. Shengli Feng (冯胜利), 4-21. Shanghai: Shanghai Zhongxi Shuju (上海中西书局). (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, and Yan Dong. 2015. Homophone density and word length in Chinese. In Capturing phonological shades within and across languages, ed. Yuchau Hsiao and Lian-Hee Wee, 213-242. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San, (2015). Onset and the Weight-Stress Principle in English. 《梅祖麟教授八秩寿庆学术论文集》[Linguistic essays in honor of Professor Tsu-Lin Mei on his 80th birthday], ed. 洪波 [HONG Bo], 吴福祥 [WU Fuxiang], and Chaofen SUN [孙朝奋], 295-338. Beijing: Capital Normal University Press [首都师范大学出版社]. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2014, Syllable structure and stress. In The Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, ed. C.-T. James Huang, Y. H. Audrey Li, and Andrew Simpson, 422-442. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2013. How many Chinese words have elastic length? In Eastward flows the great river: Festschrift in honor of Prof. William S-Y. Wang on his 80th birthday, ed. PENG Gang and SHI Feng, 1-14. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2011. The CVX theory of syllable structure. In Handbook of the Syllable, ed. Charles Cairns and Eric Raimy, 99-127. Leiden and Boston: Brill. (PDF file)

Duanmu, S. 2011. Chinese syllable structure. In The Blackwell Companion to Phonology, volume 5, ed. by Marc Van Oostendorp, Colin Ewen, Elizabeth Hume, and Keren Rice, 2151-2777. Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2010. Stress, information, and language typology. In 《语言学文选》 [Papers in Linguistics], ed. Feng SHI and Hongming Zhang, 3-21. Beijing: 世界图书出版社 [World Book Press]. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San [端木三]. 2009. 对立、特征、和发音动作 [Contrast, Features, and Articulatory Gestures]. 《语言学论丛》 40: 120-153. Beijing: Commercial Press. (PDF file, slightly revised from the published version)

Duanmu, San. 2008. The spotty-data problem and boundaries of grammar. In Interfaces in Chinese Phonology: Festschrift in Honor of Matthew Y. Chen on his 70th Birthday, ed. Yuchau E. Hsiao, Hui-Chuan Hsu, Lian-Hee Wee, and Dah-an Ho, 261-278. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2006. Chinese (Mandarin): phonology. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd Edition, ed. by Keith Brown, 351-355. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Publishing House. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2005. The tone-syntax interface in Chinese: some recent controversies. Proceedings of the Symposium 'Cross-Linguistic Studies of Tonal Phenomena, Historical Development, Tone-Syntax Interface, and Descriptive Studies', December 14-16, 2004, ed. Shigeki Kaji. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp. 221-254. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2003. The Syllable Phonology of Mandarin and Shanghai. Proceedings of the Fifteenth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, 86-102. University of Southern California Press. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2000. Stress in Chinese. Chinese Phonology in Generative Grammar, edited by Debao Xu. New York: Academic Press, pp. 117-138. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 2000. Tone: An overview. The First Glot International State-of-the-Article Book: The Latest in Linguistics, edited by Lisa Lai-Shen Cheng and Rint Sybesma. Studies in Generative Grammar 48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 251-286. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1999. Alignment and the cycle are different. The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimality Theory, eds. B. Herman and M. van Oostendorp. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 129-152.

Duanmu, San. 1999. Syllable structure in Chinese. The Syllable: Views and Facts, eds. H. van der Hulst, and N. Ritter. Studies in Generative Grammar 45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 477-499. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1998. Wordhood in Chinese. New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the Lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese, ed. J. Packard, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp.135-196. (PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1992 (1991). Stress and syntax-phonology mismatches: Tonal domains in Danyang and Shanghai. In Proceedings of the Tenth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. Dawn Bates, 127-137. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information. (original: PDF file; reformatted: PDF file)

Duanmu, San. 1990. Tonal patterns in Chinese regulated verses: Phonological rules or phonological constraints? In Thomas Green, and S. Uziel (eds.), MIT working papers in linguistics 12: Proceedings of the 2nd Student Conference in Linguistics (SCIL 2), 177-189. (PDF file)


Duanmu, San. 1990. A formal study of syllable, tone, stress and domain in Chinese languages. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass. Distributed by MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. (original, reformatted)



Duanmu, S., Wakefield, G. H., Hsu, Y. P., Cristina, G., and Qiu, S. P. 1998. Taiwanese Putonghua speech and transcript corpus. Linguistic Data Consortium.


Duanmu, San. 1988. The lack of scope ambiguity in Chinese. Ms. MIT. (PDF file)