Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

combustor (n)

(aeronautics)

 

 

 

The combustor is the combustion chamber that  fires up a jet engine  or an automobile engine.

 

 

حُجرة الاحترااق(في آله نفَّاثة)

absorb (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

pp.36-37 In conventional aircraft there are no sound-absorbing materials in the engines; but in the SAX 40 long engine exhaust ducts provide space for acoustic linters.  As a result, noise is absorbed.

 

 

امتصّ . تَشَرَّبَ (او)نشَّف

The walls absorbed the sound= الجدران اغترقت الصوت كإنها مصَّته

achieve (v)

 

 

achievement (n) إاحراز

 

p.38 After the launch, the glider achieves lift in three different ways.

TTelem 1 Business and Commerce They have achieved a lot in a short time.

 

 

احرز . حقَق

advanced (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.37 If Design Engineers didnít have such advanced computer tools, they wouldnít be able to develop such advanced technology.

 

 

مُتَقَدَّم . تقدُّمي

approach (v)

 

 

approach (n) pp.36-37 In conventional aircraft,  lift is created by the wing shape. In the SAX-40, however, aerofoil shape means the whole body creates lift.  As a result, the plane can make a slower approach and so reduce noise. مقارِبة ج مقاربات

Approach (n) TTelem 8 Family and Friends Parents donít always know what approach to take with teenage children.وسيلة (التعامل)

p.35  Approach Controllers take over from Area Controllers as the plane approaches the airport.

 

 

قَرُبَ . تقرَّب (من او الى)

اتقرَّب من . دنا (من, الى, او لِ)

cockpit (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.34  The cockpit houses all the instrument panels and the pilots.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

مقعد ربان الطائرة

constant (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.35  I'm in constant radio contact with Pilots, updating them with information about the weather, special conditions, and any relevant information.

TTelem 6 Lifestyle The constant noise gave me a headache.

 

 

 

دائم . مستمر

conventional (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.30  The wings are longer and narrower than conventional  planes.

 

 

unconventional(adj)

TTelem 6 Lifestyle I like him but heís so unconventional.

نقليدي

drag (n)

 

 

 

 

p.36 This extra wingspan means less drag for the amount of lift.

draft, pull(n)

 

جر

 

flaps (n)

 

 

 

Flaps provide stability, keeping the plane level. p.34

 

 

غطاء سائب (للجيب

مثلاً)

fuel-efficient (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.37 The researchers say that it'll be more fuel-efficient if they remove some of the noise-reducing features.

 

 

فعّال بنسبة الوقود

label (v)

 

 

 

 

رقيمة   label(n) TTelem 11 Language and Communication There is a list of all ingredients on the label.

 

p.38 Look at your diagram and think of questions you can ask your partner so that you can label it.

 

 

 

علّم برَقيمة (او) عُلامة

landing gear (n)

 

 

The landing gear supports the plane on the ground. p.34

 

 

جهاز مع دولاب

مستعمل في هبوط

الطائرة

launch (v)

 

 

 

 

p.38 After the launch, the glider achieves lift in three different ways.

 

 

 

 

 

اطلق

شمَّر سفينة سفينة جديدة في البحر

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

lift (n)

 

 

to lift (v)

Rising columns of warm heat, called thermals, lift the glider.

 

p.38 After the launch, the glider achieves lift in three different ways.

 

 

رفع . رفعة

manage (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manager(n)  TTelem 1 Business and Commerce If you need assistance, please consult your line manager.

manage (v) TTelem 11 Language and Communication They managed to break the enemy code.

 

 

 

 

p.35 It's my job to manage the airspace and issue instructions about which route a plane should take, the speed and the altitude they should hold.

 

 

دبَّر . صرَّف . أدار

perform (v)

 

 

 

 

p.  It would be difficult to test how a new aircraft performed if there were no simulators.

TTelem 1 Business and Commerce The promoter of the concert was not happy that the singer decided to perform in a smaller venue.يمثَّل بدور

 

 

 

 

يقوم . يجري

pitching (n)

 

 

 

Now label the parts of the plane which control yawing, pitching, and rolling. p.34

 

 

تميل (السفينة) إلى الأمام والى الوراء او لرنُحا

probable (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.37 We use the First Conditional to talk about a possible scenario or action and the probable result.

 

 

محتمَل

radical (adj)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.37 I certainly think that if we want to reduce noise, we'll have to come up with some radical designs.

TT 3 Crime and Society The tax system needs radical reform.

 

 

 

 

 

 

جذري

relevant (adj)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.35  I'm in constant radio contact with Pilots, updating them with information about the weather, special conditions, and any relevant information. مهم . مفيد

 

 

 

Irrelevant (adj) TTelem 6 LifestyleThatís completely irrelevant to the subject under discussion.

متعلق بالموضوع

rolling (n)

 

 

 

 

 

Now label the parts of the plane which control yawing, pitching, and rolling. p.34   Rolling is the movement from side to side, like the roll of a ship.p.667 Oxford Word Power.

 

 

ترنُح . تمايل

rotor (n)

 

 

 

The computer activates the yaw motor, which turns the rotor into the wind. p.30

 

 

جهاز دوَّار .

مراوح دوّارة

speculate (v)

 

 

 

 

p.37 We use the Second Conditional to talk about an imaginary scenario and to speculate on the result.

 

 

يخمَّن . يحزَّر

spoiler (n)

 

 

 

 

p.34  Spoilers are used to slow the plane or help it descend.

 

 

 

 

مفسِّد (من فعل " فسَّدَ")

stability (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.34 Stabilizers provide stability, keeping the plane level.

TTelem 9 Health and Medicine After so much change we now need a period of stability.

 

 

 

ثَبات

 

stabilizers (n)

 

 

 

 

p.34 Stabilizers provide stability, keeping the plane level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

مُركَّد = جهاز في طائرة يجعلها قارَّة في طَيَرانها

thrust (n)

 

 

 

 

p.34 Engines provide thrust.

 

 

 

 

 

 

دفْعة شديدة

track (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.35 I work at a control centre, away from the airport itself, where I track the exact position of aircraft from my work station using radar and computer systems as well as radio equipment.

 

 

تتَّبع اثاره

trailing edge (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In conventional aircraft air flowing from the top surface of the reduce trailing edge wing noise wing off the trailing edge produces no ise In the SX40, trailing edge brushes can be found at the back of the wing which reduces trailing edge wing noise. p.36-37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

حافة خلفية

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

variable (adj)

variable (n)  TT elem 11 Language and Communication Itís impossible to hypothesize about the outcome. There are too many variables.

 

 

 

p.  In conventional aircraft, high-speed engine exhausts create noise.  However, in the SAX-40, variable exhaust nozzles on the engines can be closed for take-off and landing. Thus, these variable exhaust nozzles reduce noise when closed but maximize fuel efficiency when open at cruising altitude.

 

 

قابل للتحوُّل . مُنحَوِّل

wingspan (n)

 

 

 

 

 

The Spruce Goose, built by billionaire Howard Hughes, was one of the biggest planes in history. It had a wingspan of

97.5 metres and was 24.2 metres high. It only ever flew 1mile. p.38

 

 

إمتداد جناح

yawing (n)

 

 

 

 

If a plane yaws, it turns to the side without moving up or down and without doing a roll  Macmillan online dictionary. Look at the pictures that show the different movements of a plane and label them yawing, pitching, and rolling . p.34

 

 

حركة الى الجانب