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absorb (v)

 

 

 

 

p.12 An imaging spectrograph, a digital camera, and a computer analyze the amount of laser light that is absorbed by the fruit.

 

 

أمْتصّ . تَشرَّبَ

alternative (adj)

 

 

 

 

TTelem4 Travel and Transport The motorway was closed so we had to find an alternative route.

 

 

بَديل

assume (v)

 

 

 

 

p.12 Farmers assumed that if they used this type of destructive testing on a few fruits, they would know about the condition of all the others in the batch.

TTelem 6 Lifestyle I assume that you have the necessary documents.

 

 

إِفْتَرَضَ . ظنّ

bundles (n)

 

 

 

 

p.12 A more advanced machine could also tie the grain into bundles.

 

 

 

لفَّة . ربْطة

check on (col.)

 

 

 

 

p.11  Computer systems make it possible for farmers to check on operations.

TTelem 2 Science and Technology We have periodic meetings to check on progress.

to keep an eye on, to watch

 

راقَبَ

cultivate (v)

 

 

 

 

p.14 The treadle pump can provide water for up to 0.5 hectares of land and is very suitable for most small farmers who cultivate less than this.

 

 

فَلَحَ (او حَرَثَ) الارض

destructive (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.12 Farmers assumed that if they used this type of destructive testing on a few fruits, they would know about the condition of all the others in the batch.

TT 3 Crime and Society The war was a paradigm of the destructive side of human nature.

 

 

مُخَرِب . مُدَمِر

divided into (col.)

 

 

 

 

p.10 This material allowed large areas of land to be divided into fields.

TTelem 3 Environment The organisms can be divided into discrete categories.

 

 

مُقَسَّم . مُنْقَسِم . مُخَزًّأ

fabric (n)

 

 

 

 

p.10 The invention of this implement quickly led to further industrial inventions for producing fabric, such as spinning and weaving machines.

 

 

نسيج . قماش

 

fuse (v)

 

 

fuse (n electricity) مِصْهَر . سلك الامصهار

 

p.12 An optical detector fuses four laser beams, each at a different waveband of light, into one.

 

 

لحم . اَدمَجَ . إنْدَمَجَ

germinate (v)

 

 

 

 

p.10 When seed was scattered by hand, it was often eaten by birds or failed to germinate.

 

 

تنبث البذرة

get used to (col.)

 

 

 

 

p.11 They havenít used this machine for long.  They still need some time to get used to it.

TTelem 8 Family and Home After you retire there is always a period of readjustment while you get used to your new life.

 

 

يصبح متَعوَد على

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ideally (adv)

 

 

 

 

p.14 It is ideally suited to areas where the water table is at a high level.

 

 

تماما

implements (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.11 Tractors have been used on farms since the start of the twentieth century.  The first mechanical implements were drawn by horse.

TTelem 11 Language and Communication Youíve got the wrong implement for cutting the edge of the lawn.

 

 

الة . اداة (زراعية مثلاً)

inactive (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.13 Cool conditions slow the activity of bacteria, while very cold conditions make bacteria totally inactive.

 

 

 

 

عديم الحركة. غير فعّال

indicates (v)

 

 

 

 

p.12 This indicates the sweetness of the fruit, while the firmness is measured by the amount of light bounced back.

TTelem 11 Language and Communication Recent research indicates that children are getting too little exercise.

 

 

يدلّ او يشير الى

irrigation (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.14  In many parts of the world farmlands are supplied with water through irrigation systems so that crops can be grown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

سِقاية

labour-intensive (adj)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.10  This mechanical device removes the seeds, hulls, and other small objects from the fibres, a process which had been very labour-intensive before.

 

 

 

 

شديد الاحتياج بالعمل

pistons (n)

 

 

 

 

p.14  The pump consists of two pistons positioned inside two cylinders.

 

 

مِكْبَس

potential (adj)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.11 They designed a robot system to kill weeds and they have demonstrated it to potential manufacturers over the last few weeks.

TTelem 2 Science and Technology Wind power is a potential source of energy.

 

 

 

ممكن . كامن

precision (n)

 

 

 

 

p.11 Look at the pictures.  What do you understand by the term precision agriculture?

TTelem 6 Lifestyle The plans were drawn with great precision.

 

 

 

دقَّة

 

preservation (n)

 

 

 

 

p.12 The principle behind food preservation is to slow down the activity of bacteria which could potentially cause disease, or to kill bacteria completely.

 

 

 

 

حِفظ

principle (n)

 

 

 

on principle

TTelem 6 He doesnít eat meat on principle.

p.12 The principle behind food preservation is to slow down the activity of bacteria which could potentially cause disease, or to kill bacteria completely.

 

 

مبدأء . قاعدة

reliance (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.14  For many farmers these low-cost irrigation pumps have removed their reliance on a single crop, allowing them to grow more crops out of season.

trust in

 

ثقة بِ

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replace (v)

 

 

 

 

p.10 It(the early harvesting machine) was eventually replaced by the modern combine harvester-operated by only one person.

 

 

 

يستبدل . يحل محله

restrict (v)

Restricted (adj)  TTelem 4 Travel and Transport There is only restricted parking available.

 

 

 

p.14  Irrigation is necessary in parts of the world where rainfall is low or where rainfall is restricted to certain months in the year.

 

 

يقيِّد يحصر . يحدّد

shortage of (col.)

 

 

Shortage (n) TTelem 6 The lack of rain and consequent poor harvests have led to food shortages.

 

p.10 As the American frontier moved westwards during the 19th century, there was a shortage of wooden rails and stone.

 

 

نقص

sort (v)

Sort (n)ج  نوع  p.11 Listen again and answer these questions. 

What sorts of variations could there be in a field?

TT 12 Countries and Nationalities He has travelled the globe and has met all sorts انواعof interesting people.

 

 

 

p.12 Now, every individual fruit can be tested using non-destructive technologies to grade and sort them.

 

 

يصنّف . يقرر

variations (n)

 

 

 

 

p.11  What sorts of variations could there be in a field?

 

 

تنويع

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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