Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

ancestors (n)

 

 

 

 

p.39 There is evidence that humans 30,000 years ago had toes which were weaker than those of their ancestors.

 

 

سَلَف ج اسلاف

breakthrough (n)

 

 

 

 

p.37 Prominent scientists believe that one of the reasons is that science is undervalued in society; people do not discuss the latest scientific breakthrough in the same way they would discuss the latest bestseller.

 

 

فتح (علمي)

تطور هام

claim (v)

 

 

p.37 Claim(n)

 إدعاء ج عدعاتHowever, some scientists think that the reason is a distrust of scientists because of the claims for 'breakthroughs' and 'cures' for diseases which do not actually happen

 

p.132 Oxford Word Power “The bus driver claimed that she had not seen the cyclist.”

 

 

ادَّعى . يدَّعي

consist (v)

 

 

 

 

p.39/p.164 Oxford Word Power Pastry consists of flour, fat, and water.

 

 

تكوّن (او) تألف (من)

contribute (v)

 

 

 

 

p.36 Forest fires can contribute to an increase in air pollution.

 

 

تأدَّى . يتئدِّي (الى)

damage (n)

 

 

 

 

p.35However, it is the increasing number and use of motor vehicles that is doing the most damage, and logically, where there are more cars, there is more pollution, that is, in the cities of the world.

 

 

ضرَر

decline (n)

 

 

 

 

p.36 Read the article Scientists on the decline on page 37.

 

 

في الانحطاط .

في الهبوط

demand (n)

 

 

 

 

p.39/p.208 Oxford Word Power “We no longer stock that product because there is no longer demand for it.”

 

 

طلب

depend (v)

 

 

 

 

p.39/p.210 Oxford Word Power “You can’t depend on trains.  They’re always late.”

 

 

 

 

 

اعتمد . اتّكل

 

develop (v)

 

 

 

 

p.35 Canada reported that children living near busy roads were more likely to develop asthma.

 

 

تَنَشِّأ . يتنشَّى

distrust (n)

 

 

 

 

p.37 However, some scientists think that the reason is a distrust of scientists because of the claims for 'breakthroughs' and 'cures' for diseases which do not actually happen.

 

 

استَخْوَن . أساء الظن (v)

سوء الظن . إرتياب (n)

ensure (v)

 

 

 

 

p.36 It is therefore essential to ensure that children eat properly.

 

 

ضمن

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

evidence (n)

 

 

 

 

p.39 There is evidence that humans 30,000 years ago had toes which were weaker than those of their ancestors.

 

 

بَيَّنة . دليل

fossil fuels (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.35 However, there are many other man-made sources, such as industrial factories power stations mining, building, and the burning of fossil fuels and wood in homes around the world.

 

 

وقود مُستحائي

(كالفحم والنفط

 من الارض)

generations (n)

 

 

 

 

p.35 It is clear from these studies and others that the time has come to start reducing the levels of air pollution in our cities for the sake of our children and future generations.

 

 

 

 

جيل . اجيال

industrial (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.35 However, there are many other man-made sources, such as industrial factories power stations mining, building, and the burning of fossil fuels and wood in homes around the world.

 

 

 

 

صناعي

origins (n)

 

 

 

 

p.39 In the article on page 39, it says scientists believe the origins of tuberculosis go back 3 million years because traces of tuberculosis have been found in bones 3 million years old.

 

 

 

 

 

اصول

plagiarize (v)

 

 

 

 

p.37 The use of other people's work 'word for word' without saying you have done so

(plagiarizing)انتحال)) is strictly not allowed

 

 

literary theft;

arrogation of the work of others to oneself

 

إنتحَل = سرق(v)

آراء الغير و كتاباتهم

وادّعاها لنفسه

pollutants (n)

 

 

 

 

p.35 There are natural sources of air pollution too; volcanoes and forest fires produce a lot of pollutants.

 

 

مادات مُلَوِّثة

prominent (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.37 Prominent scientists believe that one of the reasons is that science is undervalued in society; people do not discuss the latest scientific breakthrough in the same way they would discuss the latest bestseller.

 

 

بارز

protect (v)

 

 

 

 

p.38 Some cyclists wear face masks to protect themselves from pollution.

 

 

 

 

يحمي

 

prove (v)

 

 

 

 

p.35The results of the Canadian studies prove there is a link between a child living close to traffic and getting asthma.

 

 

 

 

برْهن . أثْبت

quote (v)

 

 

 

 

p.37 NOTE You may quote directly from the piece of work, but it is essential to give

the source of the quote and its author, e.g

 

 

اقتبس

 (عبارة او

 قطعة من كتاب مثلا)

 

ratio (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.38 1:5 represents a ratio of one to five.

 

 

 

 

 

نسبة

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

reaction (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.39/Oxford Word Power “She had an allergic reaction to something in the fluid.”

 

 

ردّ تلفعل . استجابة

reduce (v)

 

 

 

 

p.35All these studies show that it is important to reduce air pollution for the next generation.

 

 

خفض . قلل

relevant (adj)

 

 

 

 

p.34 To find and mark relevant information, you need to read and underline or highlight relevant information in the text.

 

 

لازم . له تَعَلُّق =

له صلة (وثيقة)

بموضوع البحث

reveal (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.36 Summary Research into 10,000 primary pupils' daily diet revealed that just under half had eaten chips, fewer than 50% had had either vegetables or fruit, and only 10% of the children had eaten fish.

 

 

بيّن . اظهر

risk (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

p.35 They found that as the number of tiny particles, those less than 2.5 microns in diameter, increased, so did the risk of dying from health problems such as heart attacks and lung cancer

 

 

خطر

shortage (n)

 

 

 

 

p.37 As science becomes increasingly important in our daily lives, so the shortage of scientists gets greater.

 

 

قِلة

speculate (v)

 

 

 

 

p.35 Most academic and scientific articles express facts (what happened), and speculate (guess).

 

 

يخمن . يتحزر

تَظَنَّى = تحجَّى

suffer (v)

 

 

 

 

p.39/p.774 Oxford Word Power “Mary often suffers from severe headaches.”/ The army  suffered heavy losses.

 

 

عانى . يعاني (من)

تضرّر

uncertainty (n)

 

 

 

 

p.35 It is important to be able to distinguish  uncertainty and speculation from fact.

 

 

حال الغير متأكد

حَيرة