c 1875 Photo of Frederick Billing Miles, Toronto 1875-1881. 1829 Frederick’s future mother, Elizabeth Delahoy, was employed at age 20 as a governess in Buckinghamshire, England, by William Billing, a widower with five sons and two daughters who ranged in age from three to eleven. 1831 William Billing and Eliza Delahoy, Frederick Billing’s future parents, were married on July 13 at the parish church of Saint Alphege in Greenwich, Kent, England. 1833 Frederick was born in the Manor House in the village of Bledlow, Buckinghamshire, England on January 14. 1834 Frederick’s father William died at sea on October 12 en route to Canada. William had been injured in a fall from a horse, and his doctor had prescribed a sea voyage for his recuperation. William’s sons Samuel and James were with him on the voyage and his son Charles was already in Canada. Eliza and Frederick went to London to live with Eliza’s family. Frederick lost track of his older half brothers and sisters. 1839 Frederick’s mother Eliza married Rev. Frederick William Miles, in London on July 4. Rev. Miles was a Baptist minister and educator from Fredericton, New Brunswick. 1839 The new family, Rev. and Mrs. Miles and Frederick, moved from London, England to Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada via New York. On 10 September 1839, passengers Frederick Miles (age 33, occupation Baptist Minister), his wife Clara [sic] Miles (age 25), and her son Frederick Billing (age 6), arrived in the Port of New York on the steam ship Great Western from Bristol.  Frederick became known as Fred Miles, his step-father’s name. Frederick’s daughter Edith Miles Todd wrote in her notes, "He known there [in Fredericton] as Fred Miles as often as Fred Billing but I cannot find in Fredericton legal adoption papers - A possibility of the adoption having happened in England as Father's baby spoon and fork are marked F. B. Miles - used I think when he went away to school as a very small lad." One of Frederick’s childhood friends wrote, "Mrs. Eliza D. Billing, [Rev. Frederick W.] Miles’ second wife, was an English lady, and her son, Fred Billing was a playmate of mine, and went oftener by the name Fred Miles than Fred Billing. Of course I do not know anything about his adoption by Mr. Miles; but as Mrs. Miles was willed all of the property, so said, he would receive it from his mother."  1842 Frederick’s step-father, Rev. Frederick Miles, died in Fredericton, New Brunswick on February 2. 1842-1843 "Mrs. Miles sold the house she was living in when Mr. Miles died, went to Boston, Mass., and shortly after was married to Rev. Dr. Cushman."  1843 Frederick’s mother Eliza married widower Rev. Robert Woodward Cushman in Boston, Massachusetts on October 31. The family subsequently lived in Washington, D.C. and Boston where Rev. Cushman was a minister and headmaster of a school. 1843-53 In a letter to John Todd (son of Frederick’s daughter Edith Miles Todd) dated 20 March 1977, Hulburd Miles (grandson of Frederick Billing Miles and son of Herbert Delahaye Miles) wrote "We are still not certain why Frederick Billing changed his name [to Miles]. It seems to me my father told me some years ago that his father, Frederick Billing, was very fond of his first stepfather, Reverend Frederick W. Miles, but that he and his second stepfather, Rev. R.W. Cushman did not get along at all. When Frederick Billing was about sixteen, he was accused unjustly by the Rev. Cushman of having stolen twenty dollars from him. The Rev. Cushman had him arrested. The boy felt that his name had been permanently smirched and so adopted the name Miles.". 1849 "Arrest of a Fugitive Forger. - There was arrested on Monday, the 19th inst., in Broadway, N.Y., a young man, about eighteen years of age, by the name of Frederick Billing, who stands charged with being a fugitive from Washington City, on charges of forgery. The N.Y. Herald says: It seems he was in the employ of Mr. James C. Lewis, in Washington, on whom he has forged to some amount, and many others besides. On searching his person, when arrested, a new pistol, with powder and was found, together with a new watch and several blank checks on the “Bank of the Metropolis,” Washington. A telegraphic despatch [sic] was received last evening, setting forth that a requisition would be sent on immediately for the removal of the prisoner to Washington for trial. The N.Y. Sun says that he denies the charge most emphatically, adn appears to be willing to meet it at once, while others think he was arranging to go to California."  1849 "Washington, March 27, 1849. ... The Circuit Court commenced its March term on yesterday. ... The jury cases will commence next week. ... Frederick Billings indicted for several forgeries, and ... were both arraigned today; their trials will take place next week."  1849 "Washington, March 29, 1849. Criminal Court - US vs Frederick Billings - There was an indictment for forgery and passing a certain forged check, payable to the order of John Brock, and purporting to be signed by J C Lewis, in whose employ the accused was engaged as a clerk. The check was drawn upon the bank of R W Latham, and was for the sum of $30. The prisoner is a remarkably good looking young man, of about eighteen years of age, and although he has numerous relatives in the city, none of them very nearly connected with him, not a solitary one appeared with him, or interested themselves in his behalf. The prisoner truly was in the situation described by his counsel, as being in the midst of his relatives, but without a friend. Mr. Lewis testified that the accused lived with him from November last, to the 9th of March, as a clerk, and that he had access to all his books, papers, and bank accounts. He had a knowledge of the prisoner's handwriting, and the check now exhibited was undoubtedly in the handwriting of the accused - Mr. Lewis never signed it, or knew of it, till it was returned to him on the 10th of March, from the bank. He compared the writing on the check with that of the prisoner, on the 10th, and was satisfied that the accused wrote it. Mr T J Latham - The check was presented at our bank, and was paid, don't know who presented it. Mr. Lewis was recalled, and stated that a few days ago, Mr. Cushman, who is the pastor of a church in this city, and who is married to the prisoner's mother, read to him the following letter. He communicated its purport to the District Attorney. He also informed Mr. Cushman that the letter would be called for on the trial; but Mr. Cushman said he did not want to come to court, and gave him the letter to be used in evidence. Washington, March 9, 1849. My dearest Mother and Father. - Probably by the time that you receive this letter, I shall be far away, as I leave Washington to-day, in the evening train. My reasons for doing so are these: - I did intend to be upright and honest when I came to Washington, but I got acquainted with some dissolute companions, which you did not know of, and was led to do things which must inevitably come to light. I have staid in o' nights, and gone to the theater, when you thought I was with Mr. Lewis at home. To do these things I must have money, and so I have to get it by some means. I shall now go to some country village, in some of the southern States, and apprentice myself to some lawyer, and thus, with my mind fully occupied and far away from the city and its dissipations, endeavor to mend my ways, and trust to be once more reinstated in the good opinions of my friends. I am heartily sick of dissipation, and have been constantly harrassed with fear of detention, and I am now determined to go where I can associate with good people, where I can live on little, and where I may endeavor to win a name for myself. Give my love and farewells to aunt -, and aunt -, each -; and dear little Ella. I went up to your room today, and took from your pocket the steel purse I gave you, it was empty - and I took it as a last and only memorial of you, my dear mother. Though you know me to be wicked do not think I am hard hearted, for I cannot express how much I love you and darling Ella; pity me, censure me, blame me as you will, but do not cease to love me, for indeed I will be upright in future. I will now tell you what money I have got dishonestly; I will tell you all and everything. About two months ago I drew a check on Mr. Lewis for $30, and spent it. Then on Monday last I borrowed $60 of Mr. Upperman, and $5 I got of him before. Ten dollars of this I paid for a ball ticket, and put with it $30 more, and then brought it to you and told you I had found it; it was me who wrote the letter to father, signed Cole, and sent it by a black boy who serves in Copp's saloon, who returned and said father would not give it to him. So I suppose you have it now. I have today borrowed of Mr Seybolt $15, of Mr Callan $10, and $2 before; and that is all, - now I must raise some more in the same manner before I start this eve, to pay my expenses, and then I am done with crime forever. When I am settled I will write to you again - till then, God bless you, is the wish of your affectionate, but misguided son, Frederick. P.S. Also $1 of Mr Fuller, who boards at Mr Johnson's; $10 of Mr. S. Bacon & Co, and $30 belonging to Mr Lewis, which I collected of Dr P?per, and $2 which I took out of the drawer, in the office. N.B. I wrote this in Washington but post it in Philadelphia. I am now going to the country, and will let you know when I get settled. This letter created the greatest commiseration on behalf of the accused, many persons in the court being affected to tears by hearing it. Considerable feeling was also excited against the source from whence it came. The prisoner was defended by Messrs Carlisle and Ratcliffe, and the jury had not rendered a verdict at the time I left the court."  1849 "The Trial of Billings---As the communication of B, in the Sun of yesterday, reflected unjustly upon the conduct of Rev Mr Cushman, a sense of justice to injured innocence requires me to state some facts in relation to the painful case to which he alludes. I earnestly desired to throw a veil over the late conduct of young Billings, so far as might be compatible with public justice. But the innocent should not be allowed to suffer. Billings had been guilty of fraud, forgery, and theft, and had fled. Mr Cushman, on being made acquainted with the fact, stated to me that as his connection with his family had given him his position in the community, he would pay every dollar Billings had obtained though he were obliged to subsist upon two meals a day to accomplish it. The confession of Billings was received on Monday, March 12, and had the full effect intended, which was to prevent any effort for his arrest. But on the same day the letter was received he sought out and defrauded, in my name, one of my most particular friends of twenty-five dollars, and left Philadelphia for New York, though in his letter he said he was going to the country. In New York, before one week had passed, he had swindled a friend of his parents of fifty dollars by draft on me. What could be done? Parental authority was lost, and there was no end to his villainies. No alternative was left but to let the strong arm of the law stop him. Persons in New York who had been made acquainted with his conduct caused his arrest. I said to Mr Cushman I shall be required in court to tell the truth, the whole truth, and as his letter is part that I know, to it I must allude, and then the court will require you, in person, to produce it; and the only way to avoid a painful result is to give me the letter, to which he finally consented. I did not deem it in any way essential to his conviction; his counsel told me, after the trial, that he would have been convicted with out it. If there is anything blameworthy in this I am chargeable, and not Mr and Mrs Cushman. Billings was doubtless greatly injured by a mistaken sympathy shown towards him in his transgressions some years since. The sympathy attempted now will very likely complete his ruin, as it seems to say you shall have more and warmer friends in the practice of vice than virtue. His parents and other true friends will be much more likely to reclaim him than others, however officious. The whole conduct of both his parents in this "scene of trial" has been most praiseworthy. The story of his rights being invaded, and his not having been well provided for, are sheer fabrication. No one could have been better instructed or their wants more fully supplied. I will add, for the information of parents and guardians, and as a warning to the young, that I found, after he had left, that he had been reading, intensively, Capt Marryatt's tales on pocket-picking, shop lifting, robbery, &c; and on opening his trunk, after his arrest, the "Forger," by James, "The Plot," and other kindred prints were found. Respectfully, J C Lewis. Washington, March31st, 1849.  1849 "Washington, April 4th, 1849. Criminal Court---Sentence of Billings. ... Frederick Billings, convicted of forgery, was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment in the penitentiary."  1849 "Police Intelligence. Ingenious Arrests, and Recover of the Stolen Money---Officers Norris and Calrow, two very able and efficient officers, attached at the Chief’s office, have arrested two genteel-looking young men, on a charge of stealing from the possession of Mr. Samuel L. Wells, a boarder at the Irving House corner of Chambers street and Broadway, the sum of $450, in gold eagles. The prisoners’ names are Frederick Billing, alias Charles F. Stone, and George Northerman. The circumstances respecting the manner in which the robbery was effected are briefly as follows. It appears that Billing arrived in this city about the 9th instant and took board at the Irving House. In the room occupied by him were two beds one of which Mr. Wells slept in; and as both occupied one room, as a matter of course, they soon became acquainted, Billing taking the opportunity to make himself very familiar on all occasions. On Friday night last Billing and Wells visited the Broadway Theatre together, and from there retired to their room. During the night, however Mr. Wells was awoke by Billing, who was near the head of his bed and he subsequently believes his intentions were to steal his pocket book, which he (Billing) saw him place, previous to going to sleep, under his pillow. This passed on until Saturday afternoon when Mr. Wells discovered, on opening his trunk, that $450 had been stolen therefrom. Suspicion at once fell upon Billing more particularly as he left the house that day without paying his bill. The facts and suspicions concerning this robbery were then laid before the Chief of Police who at once directed the above named officers to catch the thief, if possible. Means were then taken and during Sunday, officer Brown arrested Northerman on suspicion of being an accomplice of Billing, but as no direct evidence could then be brought against him the Chief was compelled to liberate him from custody, but still he kept an eye on all his movements. Billing during this time visited a barber in Maiden lane, and procured a false wig and moustaches. On Monday, in this disguise, he was promenading up Broadway, as large as life, decked out in a new suit of clothes, when he was recognized by a tailor, to whom he owed $50 for a suit of clothes. The tailor seized hold of him and sent for officer Norris who took him into custody. He was then placed under the searching operation by Mr. Norris and in his pockets were found twenty-one gold eagles, valued at $210. This corresponding exactly with the money stolen, caused Billing to shake all over, as if he had the ague; soon after he acknowledged his guilt, and told how he effected the larceny; he also implicated Northerman and said he was the man who concocted the robbery and induced him to effect it. He said on finding two trunks belonging to Mr Wells in the room, he examined the locks and general appearance of the trunks and then he went to several trunk makers, ordered a trunk with a similar lock or as near as possible, locked the trunk and put the key into his pocket, and told the trunk maker to send it to the Astor House and it would be paid for giving a fictitious name; by this means he procured some half a dozen keys corresponding with the locks of Mr. Wells’ trunks. With these keys during Saturday morning in the absence of Mr. Wells he tried to unlock the trunks and finding that one would fit, by a little alteration, obtained that alteration at a locksmith’s, in West Broadway; on returning again to the room the key fitted, the trunk opened, and the $450 in gold was extracted. Billing, upon getting this booty left the hotel. He then met Northerman and gave him for his share $100. Upon the officers hearing this story from Billing, some little doubt existed as to the guilt of Northerman, therefore to try the veracity of the accused, a letter was written by Billing to Northerman, requesting him to meet him (Billing) at the Pacific Hotel, in Greenwich street, at 8 o’clock, on Monday evening, the arrest of Billing being kept perfectly secret, therefore. Northerman, unconscious that any arrest had been made, returned an answer by the bearer that he would be there. At near 9 o’clock, sure enough, Northerman came according to appointment and inquired for Mr Frederick Adams, as that was the assumed name he was to ask for. Billing was at this time placed in one of the upper bed rooms, and when Northerman was shown up to the door by the porter and entered the room, officer Norris listened outside the door to hear the conversation. The first salutation from Northerman was "you d---d fool you have blighted all my hopes, I would not have had it for a thousand dollars, like a d---d fool you must go and take that lobster headed tailor up to my house to raise hell with me." Billings replied, "I could not help it, I took him away up town and stopped at a Mr McClelland’s on my way and asked for a name, in hopes to shake him off and get away from him." The two officers outside the door, now becoming impatient, walked in, took both into custody, and conveyed them before the Chief. A small amount of money was found on the person of Northerman, as he told Billing that he threw the hundred dollars into the river from the ferry boat going to Brooklyn, in company with Mr Howard, when he was pretending to search for Billing. The officers have ascertained that both these rogues purchased together $25 worth of clothing at the store of Mr. Brooks, corner of Cherry and Catharine streets, and other places with the stolen money, all of which will be recovered, as the store keepers will be compelled to take back the articles and restore the money. This Billing is well known to our police as a few months ago he was arrested in this city on a charge of forgery, committed in Washington city, for which offence he was conveyed back by Captain Goddard, and subsequently, from the influence of his relations, was pardoned by the President; yet still it appears not having taken a sufficient warning at the first offence against the law, he has continued his progress of felony, and is now doomed possibly to a sentence which awaits him of five years hard labor in the State prison at Sing Sing. Both the accused parties were taken before his honor the Mayor and committed to prison for examination. Much praise is due the officers and all those concerned in the accomplishment of this prompt arrest."  1850 In the census for Washington, D.C. (4th ward, 9 July 1850), Robert W. Cushman, age 50, is a teacher living in a female seminary with his wife Eliza, age 39, and daughter Ella, age 4. There are three other adults and nineteen teenage girls listed in the household. Frederick is not listed. 1850 Frederick Billings (age 18, born in England) occupation clerk, was a convict (1849) for grand larceny in Sing Sing prison in Ossining, West Chester County, New York (3 Aug).  1852-1853 Frederick took a voyage around Cape Horn before he was twenty.  1853 F.B. Miles arrived in San Francisco from New York in May 1853. "ARRIVAL OF THE CALIFORNIA. The P.M.S.S. Co.’s steamer California arrived in our harbor on Saturday last. She brought the way mails and three hundred and forty passengers, forty two of whom were ladies. Her dates from New York are no later than those received by previous arrivals. ... PASSENGERS ... F.B. Miles, ..."  1853 A series of advertisements in the Oregonian newspaper in Portland, Oregon suggest that Frederick established a business in Portland in June of 1853. "F.B. Miles & Co. Levee, Portland. Have in store and offer for sale, at lowest prices a complete assortment of Hardware, Carpenter's tools, Nails and spikes, Grindstones, Axes, Harrows, Grain and hay scythes, Fanning mills, Cutlery, Platform and counter scales, Bolts and screws, Brass kettles, Hoes, Shovels, 3 and 4 pronged forks, Hay cutters, Circular, mill, and crosscut saws, Sheet iron, Blacksmith Tools, Tom iron, Steel, Lead pipe, Bar iron, Wire, zinc, Groceries, Pork, Salmon, N. O. and China Sugar, Syrup in kegs, Coffee, Grape tobacco, Salt ... , Flour, Hams, Codfish, Crushed sugar, Apples and Peaches, Tea, Gunny bags, Sardines, Dry Goods, Drills, ticks, Blankets, Boots & Shoes, Soap, Sheetings, ... , Cotton Duck, &c &c F.B. M. & Co. constantly keeping a large stock and regularly receiving additions thereto, invite merchants to an inspection of their stock before purchasing elsewhere. June 18, 1853."  1853 Frederick built one of the first brick buildings in Portland in 1853. "Portland was wholly of wood until 1853. In this year W. S. Ladd was so far willing to bank upon the future as to construct a building of brick. Mr. Lucien Snow and D. C. Coleman soon followed his example. Mr. Ladd's was that now occupied by Beach & Armstrong; a substantial structure of decent appearance and commodious for the transaction of business. It has been in constant use up to the present time, and while not exactly ornamental or imposing, is not at all discreditable to the business portion of the place. Mr. Snow was a Maine man, having the thrift and enterprise of New England, and Mr. Coleman was a brother of the wealthy merchant of San Francisco of that name. For the following complete list of brick buildings for the decade, 1850-'60, we are indebted to Mr. Edward Failing, well known as leading citizen and merchant, whose memory covers the entire period and whose interest in our city insures the accuracy of his recollection. ... Where not otherwise specified, but one story may be understood. 1853 - W. S. Ladd, 103 Front street, between Stark and Washington; D. C. Coleman. southeast corner Front and Oak (Cost $9500); Lucien Snow, Front street, between Pine and Oak; F. B. Miles & Co., southwest corner Front and Pine (Cost $13,500)."  "Many of the houses doing business in Portland at that time have passed away, but others have continued to this day. F.B. Miles and Company, hardware, groceries and provisions, have disappeared long since."  The F.B. Miles and Co. structure is also mentioned in a U.S. Department of Interior document concerning the Skidmore/Old Town Historic District in Portland: "Front Street, which ran parallel to the river, served as the main commercial street and was home to most of the early town’s more substantial buildings. The 1850’s saw the construction of the City’s first brick buildings, including the one-story F. B. Miles & Co. building on the southwest corner of Pine and Oak (1853, demolished), the one-story Coleman Building built for $9,500 at the southeast corner of SW Front and Oak (1853, demolished), and the Hallock and MacMillan Building (1857, # 99), located at the northwest corner of the same intersection. Although it has been significantly altered, the Hallock and McMillan building, built by Portland’s first architect, Absolom Hallock, is the oldest extant structure in the district." Note: Throughout the period of significance, this thoroughfare was called Front Street, having been briefly known as Water Street in the 1840s. Its name was changed to Front Avenue in the mid-twentieth century. More recently, a section of Front Avenue, including the segment running through the historic district, has been renamed Naito Parkway. 1853 An article and advertisements in the Oregon Spectator in the late summer and fall of 1853 suggest that Frederick also established a business in Oregon City at about the same time as his business in Portland. In recommencing publication of the Oregon Spectator on Friday, August 19, 1853, the editor wrote of Oregon City in his salutatory remarks "It is being conceded, even by its enemies that Oregon City is fast assuming that importance, in a business point of view, that every discriminating mind could have supposed. There is ten times the amount of business done here now, to that done twelve months ago. To meet the demands of this increase of trade, large buildings have been erected and are still in process of erection. Dr. McLaughlin has nearly completed, on Main Street, two of the largest and most completely finished buildings in the city. Both of these houses are already occupied by wholesale establishments - Messrs. Miles, Cushman & Co., occupying the one, and Messrs. Preston, O’Neil & Co., the other." [p. 2, col. 2] Later in the remarks, he notes "Our merchants are preparing for a heavy fall trade ...Messrs. Miles, Cushman & Co., are now competitors for public favor, and have a good supply on hand." [p. 2, col. 4] F.B. Miles ran an advertisement on page 3 of the same issue, "To Merchants and others. The subscribers having established a Mercantile House in Oregon City, for the transaction of a General Wholesale and Retail Grocery, provision and hardware business, are prepared to offer to Merchants, Miners, Farmers and others, a large stock of Groceries and a full assortment of Hardware. Having unsurpassed facilities for obtaining merchandise, they hope to merit a portion of the trade by affording goods at the lowest rates and in quantities to suit. F.B. Miles & Co., Oregon City, August 19, 1853 - 2m27." [col. 3] The same advertisement appeared in the Oregon Spectator [p. 3, col. 4] on October 20, 1853. 1854 Frederick was naturalized on March 13 in Oregon City, Clackama County, Oregon Territory.  1854 An advertisement in the Portland Democratic Standard suggests that Frederick was still operating a business in his Portland location in the fall of 1854. "F.B. Miles & Co, Merchants. Corner of Front and Pine Streets, Portland, O.T. ... Groceries, Provisions, Liquors, Hardware, Paint & Oil, ... "  By 1855, Frederick had moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Fred. B. Miles was a founding member of the Milwaukee Light Guard in the spring of 1855. He (Private F.B. Miles) fired the best shot in a competition held in July 1856 to celebrate the first anniversary of the organization. In April 1857 he was elected Paymaster of the battalion. He is listed as a private in the comprehensive list of members of the Old Guard compiled in 1875 as one of the honorary members in a list compiled in 1868.  1857 The Milwaukee City Directory lists F.B. Miles as a forwarding merchant on West Water Street, between Clybourn and Fowler, and says that he boards at Newhall House. He is also listed in the Milwaukee Light Guard Battalion with the title Commissary of Subsistence. The same directory lists P.D. Armour of Chapin, Gregory & Armour and his partners. Chapin, Gregory, & Armour are grocers at 12 and 14 Spring St., corner of West Water. P.D. Armour boards at Mrs. Freeman's. E.D. Chapin (of Chapin, Gregory & Armour) lives on Jefferson Street, between Oneida and Biddle, West. William B. Gregory (of Chapin, Gregory & Armour) lives at 84 Cass Street. 
 Registers of Vessels Arriving at the Port of New York from Foreign Ports, 1789-1919 (Microfilm Serial Number M237, Microfilm Roll Number 40, List Number 672, National Archives, Washington, D.C., image on Ancestry.com)
 Letter to H.B. Rainsford, Esq., Barrister, dated 26 January 1908, from Richard H. Phillips, Office of Local Board of Health, Fredericton, New Brunswick
 Letter to H.B. Rainsford, Esq., Barrister from Richard H. Phillips, op. cit.
 Newspaper: The Daily Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana; 3-28-1849; P. 1.
 Newspaper: The Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, 3-28-1849; Vol. XXIV; Issue 110; P. 4.
 Newspaper: The Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, 3-30-1849; Vol. XXIV; Issue 112; P. 4.
 Newspaper: The Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, 4-03-1849; Vol. XXIV; Issue 115; P. 4.
 Newspaper: The Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, 4-05-1849; Vol. XXIV; Issue 117; P. 4.
 Newspaper: The Weekly Herald, New York, New York; 5-26-1849; Vol. XV; Issue 22; P. 162.
 FamilySearch.org, citing US census, 1850, [FamilySearch_Record].
 Notes of Edith Miles Todd, FHL 6004403
 Daily Placer Times and Transcript, San Francisco, California, Monday, 9 May, 1853
 Newspaper: The Oregonian, Portland Oregon, 1853 November 5 and 19, December 17 and 24, and 1854 January 28.
 H.W. Scott, Ed., History of Portland Oregon with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens and Pioneers. Syracuse, N.Y.: D. Mason and Co., 1890, p. 140
 Harvey Whitefield Scott, History of the Oregon Country, Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1924, p.81
 Notes of Hulburd Miles, citing a Court Record, Oregon City, Oregon
 Democratic Standard, Portland, Oregon; 11-08-1854; Vol. I; Issue 18; P. 3
 Herbert C. Damon, History of the Milwaukee Light Guard, Milwaukee: The Sentinel Company, 1875, p. 16, 53, 64, 186, and 286
 Erving, Burdick & Co's Milwaukee City Directory, for 1857 & 1858, Milwaukee: King, Jermain & Co., 1857, p. 181, 335, 40, see also www.linkstothepast.com/milwaukee/1858mkedirectoryM.html