Sachedina, Abdulaziz, "Early Muslim Traditionists and their Familiarity with Jewish sources," in Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions II, edited by William Brinner and Stephen Ricks, Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1989, pp. 49-59.
---, "The Significance of Kashshi's Rijal in understanding the early role of the Shi'ite fuqaha," Logos Islamicos: Studia Islamica in honorem Georgii Michaelis Wickens, Ed. R. M. Savory & D.A. Agius, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Islamic Medieval Studies, 1984, pp. 183-206.
Saheb, Hikmatullah, Ph.D. Dissertation (in progress), University of Edinburgh.
I'll give more info on this at a later time. -BS
Salisbury, Edward E., "Contributions from original sources to our knowledge of the science of Muslim tradition," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 7, 1862,pp. 60-142.
This article includes long excerpts (in Arabic) from four primary sources along with English translation and commentary. The sources include Bukhari's Sahih, Muslim's preface to his Sahih, a treatise on the principles of tradition by Sayyid 'Ali al-Jurjani (d. 816 A.H.), and an exposition of hadith terminology by 'Abd al-Haq. -BS
al-Samarrai, Qasim, editor (with introduction and notes) of: Sayf b. 'Umar al-Tamîmî, Kitâb al-Ridda wa'l-Futûh and Kitâb al-Jamal wa masîr 'Â'isha wa 'Alî, A critical edition of the fragments preserved in the University Library of Imam Muhammad Ibn Sa'ud Islamic University in Riyadh, Sa'udi Arabia, Leiden: Smitskamp Oriental Antiquarium, 1995.
Look under the letter "A" for Al-Samuk.
Sartre, M., review of Irfan Shahid's Byzantium and the Arabs in the fifth century, Journal of Semitic Studies, vol. 36, 1991, pp. 182-184 (F).
Schacht, Joseph, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford, 1950.
Among other things, this book studies the evolution of the Hadith literature and its interaction with legal developments. The author starts with Goldziher's ideas as the basis of his work, trying to corroborate his theories on the late origin of hadiths. Unlike Goldziher, he pays due attention to the evidence of the isnad for the purpose of dating hadiths and puts forward a number of relevant theories. One theory offers a relative dating of hadiths: hadiths from the Prophet's companions are older than those from the Prophet, and hadiths from the Successors are older than those from the Companions. A second theory provides a method for absolute dating of hadiths: a hadith that has a common link was brought into circulation by the common link, provided the common link was not a first century figure (in which case the purported transmission from the common link is not historical). The "common link" is the earliest transmitter from whom multiple isnad stands begin to fan out. Schacht's ideas have been further developed, refined, or criticized by G.H.A. Juynboll, M.M. Azami, M. Cook, H. Motzki, and others. -BS
---, An introduction to Islamic law, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1964.
On the development of Muslim law from its origins until modern times. Includes an excellent and comprehensive bibliography. -BS
---, "A Revaluation of Islamic Traditions," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1949, 143-154.
---, "Modernism and Traditionalism in Islamic Law," Middle Eastern Studies, 1:4 (July 1965), 388-400.
---, "Foreign Elements in Ancient Islamic Law," J. Com. Law. Int. Law, xxxii, 14. Also in Memoires de l'Academie Internationale de Droit Compare, 1955.
---, "Pre-Islamic Background and Early Development of Jurisprudence, in Khadduri, Majid and H.J. Liebesny (eds.), Law in the Middle East, vol. 1, Washington, Middle East Institute, 1955.
Schoeler, Gregor, "Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im frühen Islam," Der Islam, 62/2, 1985, pp. 201-230.
The question of oral or written transmission in early Islamic times is fundamental to the question of authenticity and reliabilty of texts which exist in later compilations only. This is the first in a series of four articles by Schoeler which develop a model of how the sciences were transmitted in early Islam. This first article is the most general one and is a good starting point for research in this field. See C. Gilliot's introductory remarks, quoted below in full, to his English translation of the fourth article. --AG
---, "Weiteres zur Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im Islam," Der Islam 66 (1989), 38-67.
Second in a series of four articles. See C. Gilliot's introductory remarks, quoted below in full, to his English translation of the fourth article.
---, "Mündliche Thora und Hadit. Überlieferung, Schreibverbot, Redaktion," Der Islam, 66, 1989, 213-251.
Third in a series of four articles. See C. Gilliot's introductory remarks, quoted below in full, to his English translation of the fourth article.
---, "Schreiben und Veröffentlichen. Zu Verwendung und Funktion der Schrift in den ersten islamischen Jahrhunderten," Der Islam, 69 (1992), pp. 1-43. (Translated by C. Gilliot as: "Writing and Publishing...," for which see below).
Last in a series of four articles.
---, "Writing and Publishing. On the Use and Function of Writing in the First Centuries of Islam," Arabica, vol. XLIV, no. 3, July 1997, pp. 423-435.
English translation, by C. Gilliot, of Schoeler's article "Schreiben und Veröffentlichen." Gilliot makes some introductory remarks that are quoted here in full:
[Introductory remarks by C. Gilliot:]
This contribution by G. Schoeler is the fourth of a set of articles on orality and literacy in early Islam. Every one knows Fuat Sezgin's thesis, based on his work on al-Buhârî, written in 1956 in Turkish, and repeated in GAS: the possibility to reconstitute a lot of early works on the basis of later compilations. Meanwhile some research and investigations, particularly in Germany, or in German, have tested Sezgin's theories, challenged them and cast doubt on them (Al-Samuk, Werkmeister, Leder, etc.).
In his first article on the subject: "Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im frühen Islam," ("The question of the written or oral transmission of the sciences in early Islam") (see bibliography), G. Schoeler examined the question whether the sources which are the bases of the compilations of the II-IVth century were essentially written or oral. The result can be summarized in Schoeler's own words: "The sources of these compilations (for example of Mâlik's Muwatta', of Tabarî's History and Coranic Commentary, of Abû l-Farag al-Isbahânî's K. al-Agânî) are in most cases lessons given by the sayh's/teachers on the basis of written notes (jottings), that they read or recited and which the pupils heard and wrote down (or took notes of). Most of them were not written works in bookform, which authors definitively composed and published. Most of them were neither purely oral transmissions meaning that the sayh and his audience should have memorized the transmitted matierial only."
In his second article: "Weiteres zur Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im Islam," ("More on the quesion of the written or oral transmission of the sciences in early Islam"), G. Schoeler has extended his research to sciences in which the chains of transmission are not used as they are in the science of tradition. In the first part of the article, he brought out the common features of scholarship in late Antiquity and in Islamic tradition, and above all the essential distinction in Greek between hypomnêma (private notes to commit to memory for a lecture) and syngramma (a literary work with all the rules of the definitive, or nearly definitive, redaction). (The apo phônês tu deinos in Alexanderia reminds us of the 'an in titles of early Arabic works, such as K. Tafsîr Warqâ' 'an Ibn Abî Nagîh Mugâhid). This distinction between syngramma and hypomnêma will be very important for the continuation of G. Schoeler's research. The second part of the article is devoted to the grammatical and lexicographic works, the third and last one to philosophical and medical sciences. In the field of linguistics and grammar we find a book (syngramma) at a relative[ly] early time (before 183/800): Sîbawayh's Kitâb. Nevertheless, this Book of Sîbawayh was transmitted "orally" (or better: "aurally") by the way of qirâ'a. The case of al-Halîl is different: he never wrote a book (syngramma) on grammar, though he held lectures on this subject and may have written books in other fields.
In his third article "Mündliche Thora und Hadit. Überlieferung, Schreibverbot, Redaktion" ("Oral Thora and Hadît: transmission, interdiction of writing, redaction"), G. Schoeler deals with the analogy between hadît and Koran on the one hand and the oral and written teaching in Judaism on the other, an analogy which was rejected by Goldziher. He proves that the transmission of "oral teaching" among Jews and Moslems has many conformities.
The [present] article is the last part of these studies. [End of C. Gilliot's introductory remarks].
---, Charakter und Authentie der muslimischen Überlieferung über das Leben Mohammeds , Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 1996.
In four previous articles in Der Islam, Schoeler had treated the question of oral and written transmission in early Islamic sciences. In this book, he continues his research into the same problem concentrating upon early Muslim historiography. Schoeler studies two traditions in detail--the story of Muhammad's first revelation and the hadith al-ifk--both of which can be traced back to 'Urwa b. al-Zubair. He tries to compare all the extant versions of these traditions by using and building upon Juynboll's method of isnâd-analysis. He traces the differences in the various versions back to their most probable authors, obtaining in the end the contents of the traditions which 'Urwa gave to his students. It is, therefore, possible to reconstruct the contents of traditions of the middle of the first century AH, which is a forceful argument against the theses of Wansbrough, Crone, etc. Select this for additional notes on the book. -AG
Schöller, Marco, "In welchem Jahr wurden die Banu L-Nadir aus Medina vertrieben?", Der Islam, 73 (1996), pp. 1-39.
---, "Die Palmen (lina) der Banu n-Nadir und die Interpretation von Koran 59:5," ZDMG, 146 (1996), pp. 317-380.
Schutzinger, H., "Ibn Abi Saiba und sein Ta'rix: Eine Untersuchung an Hand des MS. Berlin 9409," Oriens 23-24 (1974): 134-46.
Sellheim, Rudolf, "Prophet, Chalif und Geschichte. Die Muhammed-Biographie des Ibn Ishaq." Oriens 18-19 (1967),pp. 33-91.
Serjeant, R.B., "Early Arabic Prose," in A.F.L. Beeston, et. al. (Editors), Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, Cambridge University Press, 1983.
---, "The Constitution of Medina," Islamic Quarterly, vol. 8, 1964.
---, "'The Sunnah Jamiaah'--Pacts with the Yathrid Jews and the 'Tahrim' of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the So-Called 'Constitution of Medina,'" BSOAS, vol. 41, no. 1, 1978, pp. 1-42.
---, "Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam: Misconceptions and Flawed Polemics," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 110, No. 3, 1990, 472-486.
A review of Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam by Patricia Crone, Princeton University Press, 1987. Crone's reply appeared as: P. Crone, "Serjeant and Meccan Trade", Arabica 39 (1992), 216-240.
Sezgin, M. Fuad, Buharinin kaynaklari; hakkinda arastirmalar, Istanbul, Ibrahim Horoz Basimevi, 1956, xxix, 406 p. ("Researches on Bukhari's Personages," Turkish).
---, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Vol. 1: Qur'anwissenschaften, Hadit, Geschichte, Fiqh, Dogmatik, Mystik bis ca. 430 H., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1967.
---, Tarikh-e negareshha-ye 'Arabi, asar-e Fu'ad Sizgin, tarjumah, tanzim va fihristha az Changiz Pahlavan. Chap-e 1, [Tehran]: Intisharat-i Mu'arif, 1366 . (Translated by Changiz Pahlavan into Persian).
Seyyed Alavi, Seyyed Ebrahim,"Ta'lighat-e allame Tabatabayi bar Bihar al-anwar," Kayhan-e Andisheh, Qum, 1371 A.H.S., no. 38 (p. 12) and no. 39 (p. 49). (Persian).
On Tabatabyi's commentary on Bihar al-Anwar.
Shaban, Muhammad `Abd al-Hayy Muhammad, Islamic History: A New Interpretation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 1 (1971), Vol. 2 (1976).
Shabbir, Mohammad, The Authority and Authenticity of Hadith as a Source of Islamic Law , New Delhi, Kitab Bhavan, 1982.
Shahid, Irfan, The Martyrs of Najran: New Documents, Brussels, Societe des Bollandistes, Bd. Saint Michel, 24, 1971.
---, Byzantines and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1984.
Ref. To be consulted for Byzantine sources on Jahili culture. (e.g. pp. 418-62, pp. 444 ff).
---, Byzantium and the Semitic Orient before the rise of Islam, London: Variorum Reprints, 1988.
---, Byzantium and the Arabs in the fifth century, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1989.
Reviews: Müller, W.W., Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. 48, 1991, pp. 921-929 (G). Bowman, S., Choice, vol. 27, 1990, p. 1220 (E). Hawting, G.R., Der Islam, vol. 70, no. 1, 1993, pp. 177-181 (E). Sartre, M., Journal of Semitic Studies, vol. 36, 1991, pp. 182-184 (F). Mossay, J., Le Muséon, vol. 102, 1989, pp. 387-388 (F). Brisch, K., Oriens, vol. 34, 1994, pp. 537-540 (G). Gundel, H.G., ZDMG, vol. 141, 1991, pp. 222 (G).
---, "Another contribution to Koranic Exegesis: The Sura of the Poets XXVI," Journal of Arabic Literature, 14, 1983, pp. 1-21.
Shaukat, Jamila, A Critical Edition of Musnad Aishah from Ibn Rahuwaih's Musnad, with an Account of the Author and of Women Transmitters of Hadith, Doctoral Thesis, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, 1984.
Shills, Edward, Tradition, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam, Edited by Gibb and Kramers, London: Luzac & Co.; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1961.
Siddiqi, M.A.S., "Early History of Islamic Law: An analysis of western scholarship," Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (Karachi), vol. 1-2, 1985, pp. 77-88.
Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubayr, edited & revised by Murad, Abdal Hakim, Hadith literature: its origin, development, revised edition, 1961, Cambridge, UK: The Islamic Texts Society, revised edition 1993, ISBN 0-946621-38-1 (pbk).
A well-written, lucid, and very useful introductory work on hadith literature. The Chapter headings are: The Event of the Hadith, the Companions, After the Companions, Categories of Hadith Collections, Some Special Features of the Literature [incl. the Isnad System], the Biographical Dictionaries, and Disciplines of Formal Criticism.
There are three appendices that were added not by the original author, but by the reviser and editor, A.H. Murad. Appendix I is on Women in Hadith Scholarship. In Appendix II, entitled "The Hadith and Orientalism," A.H. Murad subjects certain Western authors to personal attacks. He also writes: "It is only in the West that Islamic studies are a small, almost imperceptible activity." That is not the impression one gets from the numerous references within the text and in its bibliography to the works of Westerners. Nor does the word "imperceptible" come to mind when in the same appendix he speaks of N. Abbott in this fashion: "This American scholar has given us in many ways the most well-written and coherent account of the literature." Finally, Appendix III is entitled "The Leiden edition of Ibn Sa'd." Three fourths of it is devoted to the labors of some Westerners. -BS
---, "Ahadith were Recorded During the Lifetime of Muhammad," In Idara-i-Maarif-i-Islamiyyah, Proceedings of the First Session, Lahore: Working Committee, Idara-i-Maarif-i-Islamiyyah, 1933, pp. 61-71.
---, "The Services of the Companions of the Prophet of Islam to His Traditions", Islamic Culture, vol. 35, no. 2, 1961, pp. 130-5.
---, "Atraf al-hadith," Studies in Islam, VIII (1971), pp. 17-28.
---, "The Importance of Hadith as a Source of Islamic Law," Studies in Islam, vol. 1, no. 1, 1964, pp. 19-25.
---, "Islamic Studies--Their Significance and Importance," Islamic Culture, vol. 35, no. 4, 1961, pp. 217-23.
---, "Ulum al-Hadith," Studies in Islam, vol. 5, no. 4, 1968, pp. 197-211.
Simon, Robert, Meccan Trade and Islam: Problems of Origin and Structure, Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica, vol. 32, Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1989, Pp. 206.
Reviewed: Michael Morony, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 53, no. 2, 1994, pp. 154-156. Ibrahim, Mahmood, IJMES, vol. 25, 1993, pp. 528-30 (E). Öhrnberg, K., Acta Orientalia, vol. 54, 1993, pp. 183-84.
Smith, William Robertson, Kinship & marriage in early Arabia, With additional notes by the author and by Ignaz Goldziher, edited by Stanley A. Cook., London: Darf, 1990.
Speight, R. Marston, 1924- The Musnad of al-Taylisi, A Study of Islamic Hadith as Oral Literature, vii, 200 leaves; 28 cm., UMI #71-11451. Thesis (1970 Ph. D.), Hartford Seminary Foundation.
---, "The Will of Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas: The Growth of a Tradition," Der Islam, 50 (1973), 249-267.
---, "The Function of hadith as Commentary on the Qur'an, as Seen in the Six Authoritative Collections," in Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur'an, Edited by Andrew Rippin, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988, pp. 63-81.
---, "Attitudes towards Christians as revealed in the Musnad of al-Taylisi," Muslim World, vol. 63, no. 4, 1973, pp. 249-68
---, "Traditions sur le Djihâd," Études théologiques et religieuses, vol. LVI, 1981, pp. 97-102.
---, "Oral Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad: A Formulaic Approach," Oral Tradition, vol. 4, Jan.-May, 1989, pp. 27-37.
---, "Rhetorical Argumentation in the Hadith Literature of Islam," Semeia, 64 (1993), The Rhetoric of Pronouncement, pp. 73-92.
---, "Hadith," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, Ed. vol. 2, John L. Esposito, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 83-87.
This is an excellent, concise introductory article. It defines Hadith, gives an account of its development, describes the roles of the main collections of hadiths for Sunnis and Shia doctrine, piety, and law, gives an account of the classical approaches to isnâd and matn criticism, and describes modern approaches to Hadith within and without the Muslim community. -BS
Spellberg, D. A., Politics, gender, and the Islamic past: The Legacy of `A'isha bint Abi Bark, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
A wide-ranging analysis of the portrayal of `A'isha in Islamic literature, beginning with the Hadith and the Medieval literature until modern times. -BS
Sprenger, Aloys, "Die Schulfacher und Scholastik der Muslime." ZDMG, 1878, 32(1):1-20.
---, "Über das Traditionaswesen bei den Arabern." ZDMG, 1856, 10(1).
---, "On the Earliest Biography of Mohammad," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1851, no. 20 (New Series), pp. 395-7.
---, "On the Origin and Progress of Writing down Historical Facts among the Musulmans," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 25
Spuler, Bartold, Iran in fruhislamischer Zeit, Wiesbaden, 1952. xvi.
Cited by Leder (1992) in regard to the concept of the "atomistic" character of the akhbar literature.
Stauth, G., Die Überlieferung des Korankommentars Mugahid b. Gabr's, Giessen, 1969.
Cook says this is study of the transmission of Mujahid's tafsir and the role of the isnad (See Cook, Early Muslim Dogma, p. 204).
Stern, Gertrude, "The First Women Converts in Early Islam," Islamic Culture, vol. 8, 1939, pp.290-305.
---, "Mohammad's Bond with the Women," BSOAS, 1939, 10 (1), pp. 185-97.
Stetter, Eckart, Topoi und Schemata im Hadit, Tuebingen, 1965.
Stowasser, Barbara, "The mothers of the believers in the 'Hadith.' " Muslim World, vol. 82, n 1-2, Jan-April 1992. p1(36).
Her interest is primarily in what modern Egyptian biographers have made of the biographical material in hadith. She finds that those without training in the Islamic sciences are willing to ignore or dismiss prominent parts of the medieval record when they clash with modern ideas of propriety. Not important for hadith studies. -CM
---, Women in the Qur'an, traditions, and interpretation, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Subhi as-Salih, 'Ulum al-hadith wa mustalahuhu, Damascus, Matba'at Jami'at Dimashq, 1379-1959. Also: Beirut, 1959.