Lahiji, Zeynol Abedin Ghorbani, Elm-e Hadith va Naghsh-e An dar Shenakht va Tahzib-e Ahadith, Qum, Entesharat-e Ansarian, Summer 1370 A.H. Solar (Persian), 390 p.
This is an introduction to Hadith terminology and the different branches of hadith studies, including Shia approaches. -BS
Lammens, Henri, Fatima et les filles de Mahomet: Notes critiques pour l'étude de la Sira, Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1912.
Landau-Tasseron, Ella, "Sayf ibn 'Umar in Medieval and Modern Scholarship," Der Islam, 67 (1990), pp. 1-27.
---, "Processes of Redaction: the Case of the Tamimite Delegation to the Prophet Muhammad," BSOAS, 49 (1986), pp. 253-270.
The author tries to show that the tradition about the Tamimite Delegetion to Muhammad in the year 9 A.H. is made up of two originally independent accounts which were combined at a later stage. As a possible reason for this fusion she states that "it might have been their sense of order, according to which it was logical that each tribal unit should have negotiated only once with Muhammad, and hence must have been represented by one delegation only" -AG
---, review of: Fred Donner, Early Islamic Conquests in JSAI 6 (1985), p. 511.
Lane, Arabic English Lexicon, 8 volumes, Edinburgh, 1867.
Lassner, Jacob. Demonizing the Queen of Sheba: boundaries of gender and culture in postbiblical Judaism and medieval Islam, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Lawson, B.T., "Akhbârî Shî'î approaches to tafsîr, Approaches to the Qu'ran, edited by G.R. Hawting and Abdul-Kader A.Shareef, London: Routledge, 1993, pp. 173-210.
Lecker, Michael, Muslims, Jews, and pagans: studies on early Islamic Medina, Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.
---, "The death of the Prophet Muhammad's father: did Waqidi invent some of the evidence?", ZDMG 145, 1995, pp. 9-27.
Lecker argues against the theory of "continuing growth" in early Islamic historiography. The later compilers didn't invent new material but used different sources or made different selections from the same material, which accounts for the differences. -AG
---, The Banu Sulaym: a Contribution to the Study of Early Islam, Jerusalem, 1989.
---, "Muhammad at Medina: a geographical approach," Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, vol. 6, 1985, pp. 29-62.
---, "The Hudaybiyya-treaty and the expedition against Khaybar", Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, vol. 5, 1984, pp. 1-12.
---, "Waqidi's account on the status of the Jews of Medina: a study of a combined report," Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 54, no. 1, 1995, pp. 15-32.
Lecker uses Waqidi's account on the status of the Jews of Medina as an example of a combined report. A combined report is one which gives a single narrative after naming all the informants. Lecker argues that "combined report" is a more accurate term than "combined/collective isnad", because usually a harmonized text is created, which suppresses the differences among the informants. In the case that Lecker studies, the original reports which Waqidi presumably used, can be found in other sources, therefore it is possible to learn what Waqidi's editing consisted of. -AG
---, "Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman and 'Ammar b. Yasir, Jewish converts to Islam," Quaderni di Studi Arabi, vol. 11/1993, 1994, pp. 149-162.
---, "Idol worship in pre-Islamic Medina (Yathrib)," Le Muséon, vol. 106, no. 3-5, 1993, pp. 331-146.
---, "Biographical Notes on Ibn Shihâb al-Zuhrî, Journal of Semitic Studies, vol. XLI, no. 1, 1996, pp. 21-63.
---, "The Emigration of 'Utba b. Abî Waqqâs from Mecca to Medina," BSOAS, vol. LIX, no. 1, 1996, pp. 116-119.
Lecomte, G. , "Le problème d'Abu 'Ubayd; réflexions sur les "erreurs" que lui attribue Ibn Qutayba," Arabica, vol. 12, pp. 140-174.
Leder, Stefan, "The Literary Use of the Khabar: A Basic Form of Historical Writing," in: Cameron, Averil and Conrad, Lawrence (Editors), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East (Studies in Late Antiquity and Early Islam), The Darwin Press, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1992, pp. 215-275.
The essay begins with an introduction to early Muslim historiography and a definition of the akhbar (about 10 pages). It then examines the historical accounts of the death of an `Urwa ibn Hizam (d. before 61/680). Different accounts of this event were recorded in later historical sources, each purportedly going back to the event via a chain of authorities (isnad). Two of such reports include identical wording, and were thus obviously inter-related in their development. Yet, the isnads of these reports are completely independent. These isnads, therefore, do not describe the actual transmission of the reports (about 7 pages). Next, the author examines the historical reports on the alliance between Mu'awiya (d. 60/680) and 'Amr ibn al-'As (d. ca. 43/663) against Ali ibn. Abi Talib (d. 40/661). The focus is on the analysis of the literary and narrative character of these reports (about 13 pages). The paper ends with a general assessment of the nature and features of the akhbar and the process through which they assumed their final form (about 9 pages). -BS
---, "Authorship and Transmission in Unauthored Literature: the Axbar Attributed to al-Haitam ibn 'Adi," Oriens, 31 (1988).
---, "Features of the Novel in Early Historiography: the Downfall of Xalid al-Qasri," Oriens, 32 (1990), pp. 72-96.
---, "Dokumente zum Hadit in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damaskus im. 6./12. Jhdt.," Oriens, vol. 34, 1994, pp. 57-75.
---, "Prosa-Dichtung in der ahbâr Überlieferung: Narrative Analyse einer Satire," Der Islam, vol. 64, 1987, pp. 6-41.
Librande, Leonard T., "Al-Dhahabi's essay Amsar dhawat al-athar, Bulletin d'études orientales, vols. 32-33, 1980-81, pp. 113-160. Includes Arabic text.
---, "The scholars of Hadith and the retentive memory," Cahiers d'Onomastique Arabe, vol. 1988-1992, 1993, pp. 39-48.
This article demonstrates the meaning of hafiz. It includes a list of 143 traditionists identified by this word in Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib "al-Tahdhib". It seems to mean that the traditionist in question remembered an extraordinary number of hadith reports and often related them without reference to written notes; however, it does not indicate extraordinary reliability. -CM
---, "A Reconsideration of Ibn Khalla:d's Place in the Buwayhid Lands," Der Islam 57 (1980): 1-8.
Concerning al-Ramahurmuzi (d. ca. 360/970-971), esp. Al-Muhaddith al-fasil bayna al-rawi wa-al-wa`i, finding that there is no certain evidence he was either Mu`tazili or Shi`i. Incidentally, this article illustrates the confusion that may come of disregarding conventional ways of naming scholars. Whom Sezgin calls "Ibn Khallad" is not this traditionist but a Mu`tazili contemporary (GaS 1:624). In the body of the article, Librande regularly refers to him as "al-Khalladi." -CM
---, "The Supposed Homogeneity of Technical Terms in Hadith Study," Muslim World 72 (1982):34-50.
Includes a translation of Abu Hafs `Umar al-Mayyanishi (d. 581/1185), Ma la yasa`u al-muhaddith jahluh
Leemhuis, Fred, "Origins and Early Development of the tafsir Tradition," in Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur'an, Edited by Andrew Rippin, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988, pp. 117-138.
Löschner, H., Die dogmatischen Grundlagen des shi'itischen Rechts, Köln-Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1971.
Lyall, C.J. Translations of Ancient Arabian Poetry, London, 1930.