One figure = one man one inch = 10ft one move = about 30 seconds

  1. Troop Classification

a. Grade

General skill, experience and courage — 5 grades from worst (E) to best (A). Sergeants cannot be A, Peasants cannot be A or B. In campaigns, Knights can have additional gradings above A, such as A1 (the lowest) A2 etc. These count ONLY in hand-to-fighting on horseback against other knights.

b. Class

Knights (K): these also include all nobles above the rank of knight, who, however count as of superior class according to their rank: Knight, Baron, Earl or Count (Viscount), Duke, King.

Sergeants (S): All professional soldiers, trained retainers, etc.

Peasants (P): Levies, untrained retainers, irregulars, etc.

c. Protection

  1. Full armor — either full plate, or full mail AND shield, also barded horses.
  2. Full mail — includes also mixed mail and plate or (3) with shield.
  3. Mail shirt, jack, aketon, etc., or no armor but with shield, also unbarded horses.
  4. No protection.
  1. Units
  2. Non-knightly figures MUST and knightly figures MAY be organized into UNITS, each of must have commander of higher class than his men. A player may handle up to 30 men or so, constituting a FORCE. This also requires a commander, who must be the highest-class figure in it. Units must keep together (no gap of over 2 inches between figures); forces need not. A BATTLE is two or more forces.

  3. Sequence of Play
  1. Before each turn each must declare any charges or moves to contact that he intents (if desirable these
  2. may be written down). Troop not declared as charging or the subject of a charge cannot move to contact that turn, and will stop short of any unintended contact. Charges etc. can only be declared against a unit or figure in sight and reach at the start of the move.

  3. Troops being must then declare whether they will counter-charge, stand, or attempt to avoid the charge
  4. by moving away. If they choose to move away they must move full move distance directly away from charge or behind friends or cover.

  5. After any necessary morale tests, players move both charging troops and their opponents; in complex
  6. Situations it may be necessary to move _ distance at a time, and for final movement to contact one figure at a time first one side then the other.

    e. Cards representing each force are shuffled and drawn. The first force drawn makes all its moves, then the next force and so on.

  7. Then settle firing. Where there is an INTERCHANGE of fire, it will usually be necessary to decide
  8. who fires first, since most firing is NOT SIMULTANEOUS. Mark off expended arrows etc., on ammunition rosters.

  9. Next, settle melees.
  10. Finally, check moral of figures or units where necessary.
  1. Movement
  2. Open ground

    Walk/ trot Run/ gallop Rough ground, Climb Swim

    Hills, wading, etc.

    Foot: Protection 1,2

    6 in

    8 in

    4 in

    1 in


    Foot: Protection 3,4

    9 in

    12 in

    6 in

    2 in

    3 in

    Mounted: barded horse

    9 in

    20 in

    3 in



    Mounted: other

    12 in

    24 in

    4 in


    As if dismounted

    Wagon, engine, bombard with team

    5 in





    Above manhandled

    2 in






    To turn over 221/2o — Running or galloping troops may NOT turn over 22 1/2o in one move. Mounted non-galloping troops subtract 2 inches from their move.

    To cross hedge, fence, or wall — deduct 3 inches from move distance. Wagons, etc., and barded horses cannot cross.

    To gallop — must not have been galloping for more than two previous consecutive moves, must have been moving in the previous turn, and must start galloping in the same direction faced at the end of the preceding turn.

    To run — must not have been running for more than two previous turns.

    Moving and firing — horse-archers can gallop and fire once, archers and javelinmen move (not run) and fire once. All these can stand and fire twice. Crossbow men can stand and fire once, can’t fire while moving. Handgun, engine, bombard can stand and load, or, if loaded, stand and fire. Cannot fire or load while moving.

    Other possible actions in one turn — mounting or dismounting takes half move, except that protection 1 and 2 take full move. Pick up or lay down object. Erect or push down ladder. Strike once with ram or twice in melee. Change from one weapon to another: takes half move: any shot or strike with 2nd weapon comes at end of turn. Unharness or harness-up team to wagon, etc. Place or remove stake or pavise. Half-complete a gap one figure wide in hedge, fence, or drystone wall. Raise or lower portcullis. Drop rock, molten lead, etc., from rampart.

  3. Shooting

a. Order of shooting:

  1. First or only shot before any second shot or end of move shot.
  2. Unwounded figure before wounded one.
  3. Stationary figure before one moving.
  4. Higher grade before lower grade.
  5. Figure in cover before one in open.
  6. Javelin before bow before crossbow before handgun before engine before bombard.

Otherwise treat shooting as simultaneous, but that in some cases a figure will be able to shoot first because it is concealed, and not revealed — thus not a target, until it shoots.

  1. Timing of fire (1 above)
  2. When a figure changes weapons, any shot with the first weapon counts as at halfway through move (for order of fire, range, target visibility, etc.) Any shot with second weapon counts as end of move. Neither can be fired unless it is bow or javelin.

    When weapon capable of being fired twice does so, the first shot is at the half-move, second at the end of the move. A weapon, which fires only once, does so before the 2nd shot of any weapon firing twice.

  3. Direction of fire
  4. Horse-archers can fire all around, others within 45o of direction faced, bombards and engines within 221/2o of direction faced.

  5. Selection of Targets
  6. Target must be in sight and range at the appropriate point of the move. When firing at horsemen, either the horse or man may be nominated the target. Targets are nominated before finding the effect of fire. Single figure can only fire one target per turn.

  7. Units firing

All figures with not more than one friend within 2 inches of them, and between them and the target,

may fire. Presence of friends on line of fire, more than one deep, or further from shooters, prevents shooting, except up or down, from or to building or rampart. Guns cannot shoot over friends except in latter case.

f. Ammunition Rosters

For each missile man, engine, or bombard a roster must be kept. Javelinmen carry three missiles, archers, crossbowmen, and handgunners twelve. Extra missiles may be held in wagon, on packhorse, or in store; and collected by figures that have run out. Wagons can carry 50 javelins, 10 rounds for engines or bombards, or 100 for other weapons. Packhorses carry 20 javelins, 2 rounds for engines or bombards, 40 for other weapons. Rocks for engines or to be dropped and balls for bombards may be determined by host.

g. Ranges

short medium long


3 in

6 in


Shortbow, sling

5 in

10 in

20 in


8 in

16 in

40 in


10 in

20 in

40 in


3 in

6 in

20 in


8 in

20 in

40 in

Engine (catapult, etc.)


8 to 20 in

40 in

Dropped rock, molten lead, boiling oil etc.

2 in (unlimited vertical)




i. To Hit

  1. Throw two six sided dice, 7 or less hits.
  2. Add one for medium range. Add two for long range.
  3. Add one for each level of armor protection of target above no armor.
  4. Add one for light cover (woods, pavise, etc.)
  5. Add two for heavy cover (high wall, etc.)
  6. Handgun reduces level of armor protection by one (no armor minimum).
  7. To hit with bombard, engine, dropped rock, etc., throw two dice 5 or less hits. Add two for long range. Add two for short range. No other modifiers.

  1. Effects on walls, etc.

Use hit only when engine or bombard fires on inanimate target. Hits are cumulative, and the following number will open a breach 2 inches wide or destroy a wagon or engine or pavise:

Timber wall, wagon, engine, pavise 3 hits

Light stone wall, house, etc. 5 hits

Castle walls, etc. 10 hits

  1. Fire Missiles

Use under host game conditions. Can be fired from engines or bows. Take 1 move to ignite before firing. When a hit is scored a die is thrown to see if the target is set on fire: Timber structure: throw of one; straw, thatch, etc.: throw of 4 or less (same used when figure is use with torch). Fire burn three turns for straw etc., nine turns for timber, and ignite everything within 1 inch at end of each turn, and cause smoke (soft cover) for 12 inches downwind. Fires may be put out first thorough fourth turn of burning. Throw two dice, a throw of 2 puts out fire. Subtract 1 for each figure after first fighting fire, subtract one for each bucket of water used; all figure within 2 inches may fight fire. Figures in burning structure or within 1 inch after 2 moves are killed.

6. Melee

  1. A figure may strike at another in any turn, which it starts or finishes in base-to-base contact with that
  2. figure or figures. If it both starts and finishes the in base-to-base contact in an enemy it will be able to strike twice (not necessarily at the same figure).

  3. Figures in base-to-base contact with enemy for more than half of a turn cannot be shot at that turn, nor
  4. can any figure be shot at the point in the turn when it is in contact with the enemy.

  5. Order in which blows are struck:
  1. All blows at beginning of a move before all blows at end.
  2. Unwounded figure strikes before wounded one.
  3. Charging horse before infantry without pike.
  4. Highest grade first.
  5. Longest weapon first.
  6. Highest class first.
  7. Height advantage first. (on rampart or uphill of opponent etc.)
  8. Figure charging first.

  1. Weapon lengths:

Longest: Pikes.

Then: Light and Heavy lances.

Spears, bills, halberds, glaives, and similar.

Javelins, swords, two-handed club, and axes.

One-handed axes, maces, and mauls.

Knives, daggers, and improvised weapons.

e. To strike a player throws one die (attack die) for a figure striking; his opponent throws one die (defense die) for the figure being struck. If the modified attack die is higher than the modified defense die, the defending figure is hit.

  1. Attack die modifiers:
  2. Heavy lance add 1

    Pikes against horse add 1. Pikes in woods, subtract 1.

    Attacker grade A or B add 1

    Charging add 1.

    Improvised weapons, knives, and daggers etc. subtract 1.

  3. Defense die modifiers:
  4. Armor class 1, add 2.

    Armor class 2, add 1.

    Armor class 4, subtract 1.

    Defending an obstacle, add 1.

    Infantry against horse in woods or rough terrain, add 1.

    If defender grade E subtract 1.

    Other melee rules:

    Lances can only be used by figure charging in that turn.

    Lancer charging mounted opponent automatically unhorses him if wounding him.

    Lancer killing or wounding opponent with his lance has broken it. (may then be used as an improvised


    Non-knightly figures can select horse rather than rider as target where there is a choice.

  5. After a Turn in which a Melee has Taken Place.
  1. Both sides check morale. Side with the most men killed checks first, if all opponents in contact have failed morale the remaining figures may not have to check morale (see Morale).
  2. Any unhorsed knight checks morale.
  3. If charging mounted troops have defeated infantry not in close order (base-to-base contact) or have made a gap at least 3 figures wide in a close order infantry unit, may the next turn pass through the enemy, if desired, without further fighting unless the infantry are defending an obstacle.
  1. Leaving a Melee
  2. If figures are moved out of a melee, which is already in existence at the start of a turn, they will receive one strike from their opponents without reply. The figures, which were in contact with them, may follow up, regardless of sequence of movement, and might of course be able to catch them in the rear.

    Figures moving out of an already-constituted melee cannot move into contact with fresh opponents in the same move, except where cavalry ride through infantry (h3).

  3. Pursuit
  4. Knights and peasants whose melee opponents all retire as above or break and flee after a moral test, MUST, unless dismounted and defending an obstacle, pursue them at charge speed for at least one turn.

  5. Flank and Rear Attacks

All figures in melee can strike against opponents to the front. The second and third rank figures of pikes in close order may strike at opposing figures in contact with the front rank directly to the front of them. Those figures using weapons other than lances and pikes can also strike at opponents to their flank. Cavalry of protection 3 or 4, armed with sword, spear, or javelin can strike, at minus 2 to the attack die, against figures to their rear.

7. Morale

Morale must be checked in the following situations; knightly figure not organized into units testing individually, all others by units.


  1. After melee
  2. Unit lost 3 or more figures killed or wound by missiles in one turn.
  3. Every time a unit under half strength has another man killed or wounded.
  4. Friends flee or pass in flight within 15 inches.
  5. Army, own battle, force, or unit leader killed, captured, or fled within 15in.
  6. Fired on by engine or bombard this turn.
  7. Fired on by handgun within 15 inches.
  8. Charging or being charged (peasants only)
  9. Charged or shot at from rear.
  10. Surprised by enemy shooting or attacking from cover within 15 in.


  1. After melee.
  2. Unhorsed.
  3. 3 or more friends of equal class killed, wounded, or flee within 6in.
  4. Enemy in flight within 15 in.
  5. Fired at while halted (second or subsequent turn of shooting).
  6. Charged at or shoot at from rear.
  7. Army, battle, or force leader killed, fled, or captured within 15 in.
  8. Fired at by firearm within 15 in.
  1. Testing Morale.
  2. Throw three dice: if the modified result is 13 or higher unit or figure is bold; 12 to 9 resolute; 7 or 8 craven; 6 or less recreant.

  3. Modifiers:
  1. Knight add 1, peasant subtract 1.
  2. Class A, add 2; Class B add 1; Class D subtract 1; Class E subtract 2.
  3. Unit supported, add 1.
  4. Each enemy fleeing within 15 in., add 1.
  5. Unit in close order, add 1 (sergeants and peasants only).
  6. Unit isolated, minus 1.
  7. Each fleeing friend, subtract 1.
  8. Each 25% of unit killed, or wounded, subtract 1.
  9. Testing unit fleeing, subtract 1.
  10. Unit leaderless, subtract 1.
  11. Side received 3 or more killed or wounded in melee that turn, subtract 1.
  12. Force, Battle, or Army standard seen to be lost, subtract 1.
  13. Army Commander seen to be killed, fled, or captured, subtract 1.
  14. Cleric or leader within 15 inches, determined by host.
  15. Each secure flank, add one.
  1. Definitions:
  1. Recreant: Flee — run/gallop until rallied by a morale test with a result of resolute or better. Unless: in open, active enemy within 6 in.; in cover active enemy in contact; active enemy within 10 in of front and rear.
  2. Craven: If in open and active enemy within 10 in, retreat full move next turn, otherwise don’t advance next turn.
  3. Resolute: Will act as player requires next turn. Will stop fleeing, and spend next turn rallying.
  4. Bold: If defending obstacle, with no enemy on your side; or if fleeing same as resolute. Otherwise charge enemy if within charge distance, or advance toward enemy next turn.
  5. Sight: Cavalry can be seen over infantry. Troops can see up to 36 in through a gap of at least 2 in wide.
  6. They cannot see troop in woods, unless they shoot, but troops within 2 in of edge of woods can see

    out. Inside woods troops can see 3 in.

  7. Friends Fleeing; Must be unit or 4 knightly figures, and units and figures only count fleeing friends of at least equal class.
  8. Secure Flank: Resting on impassable obstacle or friends within 2in.
  9. Supported: Friendly unit, not in melee within 10 in facing roughly the same way.
  10. Isolated: No friendly unit not fleeing or retreating within 24in. (4 friendly knights count as unit).
  11. Yield: Figure which has yielded may fight and is moved by captor as long as it has one enemy figure within 2 in not in melee.
  12. Leaderless: Unit has lost original leader (killed or yielded) and he has not been replaced with own force, battle, or army leader joining and staying with unit.

8. Wounds, etc.

  1. Wounded Figures
  2. When a figure is struck by fire or in melee, it rolls a die, if the result is 4 or less the figure is wounded; the figure is killed on the roll of 5 or 6. Figures with armor protection of 1 or 2, subtract 1 to the number rolled on the die. A second wound kills.

  3. Falling, Being Unhorsed

Figures fall when:

  1. they are on a ladder that is pushed down;
  2. they are wounded while on a tree, wall (not a rampart walk), ladder or gangway;
  3. They are wounded by charging lancer while on horseback;
  4. Their horse is killed under them.

A mounted figure may fall when its horse is wounded or has firearms discharged within 6inches. To see if figure falls in these circumstances; throw two dice, grade A troops do not fall, grade B troops on a 2, grade C on 3 or less, grade D on 4 or less, grade E on 5 or less.

A vertical fall of more than 4 inches kills a figure; otherwise, the figure is laid on the ground and remains completely inactive during the next turn. The figure must yield if this is demanded by an enemy figure coming into contact with it (on foot).

  1. Quarter, Recruitment and Ransom
  1. Quarter means the acceptance of the surrender of figures that yield: some must yield under morale or failing rules, others may yield at any time if the player wishes.
  2. Quarter must be given by knights to other knights, and in other cases where captor’s cleric is within 15in. Otherwise it is at the player’s option, but it takes one figure, in contact, one full turn to massacre up to three prisoners.
  3. For future battles, half any captured sergeants may be recruited. Captured peasants may be used as grade E combat laborers only. Knights will be held to ransom at the following rates: A grade A: 65 marks; B: 55: C: 45; D: 35; E: 25. Barons count double, Earls or Viscounts treble Duke and Kings subject to negotiation. (Note: In the War of the Roses era, if a player doesn’t intend to execute the King, negotiations concern how much it costs for him to change sides.
  1. Looting the dead
  2. Weapons and armor may be taken from figures that are dead or have yielded (except yielded knights). It takes one half turn to remove one weapon, a full turn to remove protection other than shield, two turns to put on protection of level 3, three for better protection.



  3. Sieges, etc.

For determining results of using siege equipment, use two different colored ten sided dice. One die to represent tens, and the other to represent ones.

  1. Pushing Down Ladders
  2. Can only be done when there is no figure on top of the ladder to oppose it. Up to men can push. Chance of pushing it down: 30 per cent per man pushing less 5 per cent per man on ladder, or on ground holding it (max two).

  3. Battering Ram
  4. Only effective against doors, gates, and timber structures. Wielded by at least two figures, up to maximum of ten. Its chance of destroying a gate or door or making a one inch gap in timber is 7 per cent per man, plus 5 per cent per turn in which it is used. Thus two men with ram, on their second turn of battering, have 19% chance of success. Wounded men cannot wield a ram.

  5. Pick, Screw
  6. Mounted in sow (penthouse on wheels, which can also be used with a ram). Can make a 1 in square hole in stone wall at rate of 1/8th inch of penetration per move with crew of four. When hole has penetrated through the wall, the wall above may collapse to form a breach — 40 per cent.

  7. Axes
  8. Up to two men may use axes against timber wall, gate, or door. Chance of destroying gate, door, or of making a 1 inch breach in a wall is nill in the first turn of chopping, increasing by 5 per cent per man move thereafter.

  9. Cauldrons, Rocks
  10. Rocks and cauldrons of boiling oil or molten lead (fire required, 3 moves to heat up) may be placed on ramparts; each is operated by one figure and can be used only once per game. Molten lead doubles the chance of hitting over rock or oil. If oil hits a sow, siege tower, or ram it has a 10 per cent chance of setting it on fire. Same as timber (under fire arrow rule) to put out.

  11. Drawbridges and Portcullises
  12. Take 1/4th move to operate (down), full move to pull up. Portcullis prevents use of axes against a door.

  13. Engines, Crews
  14. Sows, rock-throwing engines and siege towers all require crews which count as units and must include at least one B grade sergeant, only such a man being able to master the complex technology involved. If this sergeant is killed or wounded the host may decide what penalty is involved, otherwise the engine is inoperable. Crew at least four in each case. To be manhandled, they need at least ten figures on foot to aid. A team of four animals and a driver can move them at full speed.

  15. Stakes
  16. May be carried and set up by foot figures. If placed within one half inch of each other, they count as a defended obstacle in melee.

  17. Ladders

Can be carried by one man per 3 in, set up by one if up to 6 in, otherwise 2.

  1. Use of Weapons

    A figure climbing or carrying a standard, faggot or similar load cannot use a two-handed weapon or a one-handed weapon and shield. A figure shooting, except with javelin, cannot claim to be using a shield.

  3. Standards
  4. Each force, battle, and army should have a standard, carried by a figure, or in the case of armies, it may be mounted on a wagon. An opposing figure which kills the standard-bearer has a 50 per cent chance of snatching the standard, which otherwise falls to the ground. It takes a half move to pick up a fallen standard. In deciding who has won a battle, standards captured count:

    Army standard — 300 points

    Battle standard — 150 points

    Force standard — 50 points

  5. Clerics
  6. Clerics are unprotected unarmed figures whose function is to affect their own side’s morale. They can be A grade (bishops, saints, etc.) or B grade (monks, nuns, priests, etc.) If attacked in melee, they do not fight back, but yield to the enemy. Exception to this rule are Joan of Arc type figures which can be covered under the host’s game conditions.

  7. Downgrading and Upgrading
  1. A knight who flees from the field is downgraded one level.
  2. A knight failing to meet a charge is downgraded one level IMMEDIATELY.
  3. Sergeants recruited into an opponents army go down one level.
  4. Captured peasants drop to grade E.
  5. Anyone injuring a cleric is downgraded one level IMMEDIATELY.
  6. In a campaign, sergeants and peasants may be upgraded one level after a victory in which they

Fought hand-to-hand and were not forced to flee. Knights who unhorse an equal (or better) in grade

and class opponent may be upgraded after the battle — even if already grade A, they can rise to A1, A2,

and so forth.

  1. Points System

The point system is intended to allow the choice of differing, but roughly equivalent armies for games. It also provides a means to decide the winner. In this case, troops who have yielded or are fleeing on the table, count _ point value to their own side. Troops dead or fled off the table are not counted, wounded troops which have not yielded or fled count one half.

Peasant 1 Faggot (to fill moats, etc,) 1

Sergeant 3 Flint and Steel 5

Knight 7 Fire missile 1

Cleric 9 3 javelins or 12 other missiles 2

Grade A 5 Wagon 10

B 4 Draught animal 3

C 3 Penthouse 12

D 2 Ram or Pick 10

E 0 Ladder 2

Extra for: Baron 10 Oil, cauldron or similar with fire 6

Count, Earl 20 Rock 1

Duke 30 One round for bombard 3

King 50 Catapult type engine 20

Protection: 1 5 Bombard 30

2 4 Siege Tower 50

3 2 Bucket with water 1

4 0 wood stone

Horse 5 Keep 250 625

Barded horse 8 Large Tower 50 125

Handgun, crossbow, longbow, Small turret 30 75

Heavy Lance 2 12 in of curtain 50 125

Other weapons 1 Gatehouse 100 250

Pavise (2in by 1 in) 2 12 in wet moat 40

Points continued:

Stakes 1 12 in wet moat 20

Drawbridge, portcullis 15