Annotated Bibliography on The Evolution of Cooperation

Prepared by
Robert Axelrod
Institute of Public Policy Studies
Lisa D'Ambrosio
Department of Political Science
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

October, 1994

Converted to HTML by James Kennedy,
with minor editing by Theodore C. Belding.

November, 1996


This is a guide to recent research on the evolution of cooperation. This is the second such document. The first was compiled by Robert Axelrod and Douglas Dion in 1988. Entries in this bibliography cover the period 1988 to early 1994. For a review of work prior to 1988 see the Axelrod and Dion entry in this bibliography.

This guide includes work that makes use of Robert Axelrod's The Evolution of Cooperation (NY: Basic Books, 1984) or earlier work included in that book, such as the biological article by Robert Axelrod and William Hamilton of the same title in Science, vol. 211 (1981): 1390-96. While most of the items included in this bibliography explicitly cite this work, other research which draws heavily on the ideas and themes of Axelrod's approach is also cited here. This bibliography generally excludes work that makes only passing or minor reference to Axelrod.

We apologize to authors whose contributions we may have overlooked.

Items in the guide are listed in alphabetical order by author. Each entry contains a complete citation for the work, occasional notes or comments about the piece, an abstract, and keywords. We have included indices of authors and subjects. Index entries are citation numbers, not page numbers.
The following abbreviations are used: You may obtain a copy of this bibliography on the WWW (e.g., Mosaic), in text or HTML format.

This project was supported by the University of Michigan LSA College Enrichment Fund.


The keywords are broken down into three categories: key assumptions and concepts; applications of the work; and type of work or methodology. Some keywords contain modifiers. When possible, these more specific keywords were used rather than the general ones. Here is a listing of the keywords with explanations when needed.





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Revised May, 1998.