Larry E. Antonuk - BME500 Seminar Series Talk
Title: Flat-Panel X-Ray Imager Architectures:
From Active Matrix to Active Pixel to Single Photon Counting
Date: Wednesday, September 9, 2009, 3:30-4:30 PM
Place: White Auditorium - Rm G906, Cooley Building
The successful and widespread adoption of
active matrix, flat panel imagers (AMFPIs)
in numerous medical applications is the direct result
of the many advantages of this technology.
These advantages, which include compact detector boxes,
real-time operation, radiation damage resistance and
significant performance improvements over older,
analog-based x-ray imaging technologies,
are largely a result of the use of thin-film electronics
based on amorphous silicon transistors and other devices.
However, modern AMFPIs have definite limitations in terms
of performance as well as mechanical and economic considerations.
For that reason, considerable research efforts are underway
to devise new technologies to overcome these limitations
in the areas of megavoltage and diagnostic imaging.
These efforts offer the promise of achieving the theoretical
limits of performance, bounded only by the noise of
the incident x-ray quanta, under all clinical conditions.
Moreover, there are definite possibilities for the eventual
development of large imagers that offer a mechanically
flexible package or single photon-counting capabilities.
References directly related to the talk
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Wang Y, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q:
A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging.
Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227-3238, 2009. PMCID: In progress
El-Mohri Y, Antonuk LE, Koniczek M, Zhao Q, Li Y:
Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors.
Med. Phys. 36(7), 3340-3355, 2009. PMCID: In progress
Antonuk LE, Zhao Q, El-Mohri Y, Du H, Wang Y, Street RA, Ho J, Weisfield R, Yao W:
An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays.
Med. Phys. 36(7), 3322-3339, 2009. PMCID: In progress
Antonuk LE, Koniczek M, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q:
Active Pixel and Photon Counting Imagers Based on Poly-Si TFTs – Rewriting the Rule Book on Large Area, Flat Panel X-ray Devices. SPIE Vol. 7258, Medical Imaging 2009:
Physics of Medical Imaging, 2009: 725814-1 to 725814-10.
Wang Y, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q, Sawant A and Du H:
Monte Carlo Investigations of Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT Using Thick, Segmented Scintillating Detectors for Soft Tissue Visualization.
Med. Phys. 35(1), 145-158, 2008.
Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q, Koniczek M, McDonald J, Yeakey M, Wang Y, Behravan M, Street RA and Lu JP:
Exploration of the Potential Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon-Based Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers Incorporating Active Pixel Sensor Architectures.
SPIE Vol. 6913, Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of Medical Imaging, 2008: 69130I-1 to 69130I-13.
Antonuk LE, Wang Y, Behravan M, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q and Du H:
Quantitative Exploration of Performance Enhancements Offered by Active Matrix X-ray Imagers Fabricated on Plastic Substrates.
SPIE Vol. 6510, Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, 2007: 65100P-1 to 65100P-10.
Sawant A, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q, Wang, Y, Li Y, Du H and Perna L:
Segmented Crystalline Scintillators: Empirical and Theoretical Investigation of a High Quantum Efficiency EPID Based on an Initial Engineering Prototype CsI(Tl) Detector.
Med. Phys. 33(4), 1053-1066, 2006.
Wang Y, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Sawant A, Zhao Q, Du H and Li Y:
Theoretical Investigation of Very High Quantum Efficiency, Segmented, Crystalline Detectors for Low-Contrast Visualization in Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT.
SPIE Vol. 6142, Medical Imaging 2006: Physics of Medical Imaging, 2006: 61421P-1 to 61421P-11.
Sawant A, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q, Li Y, Su Z, Wang Y, Yamamoto J, Du H, Cunningham I, Klugerman M and Shah K:
Segmented crystalline scintillators: An Initial Investigation of High Quantum Efficiency Detectors for Megavoltage X-ray Imaging.
Med. Phys. 32(10), 3067-3083, 2005.
Sawant A, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Li Y, Su Z, Wang Y, Yamamoto J, Zhao Q, Du H, Daniel J and Street RA:
Segmented Phosphors: MEMS-Based High Quantum Efficiency Detectors for Megavoltage X-Ray Imaging.
Med. Phys. 32(2), 553-565, 2005.
Antonuk LE, Li Y, Du H, El-Mohri Y, Zhao Q, Yamamoto J, Sawant A, Wang Y, Su Z, Lu JP, Street R, Weisfield R and Yao B:
Investigation of Strategies to Achieve Optimal DQE Performance from Indirect Detection, Active Matrix, Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs) through Novel Pixel Amplification Architectures.
SPIE Vol. 5745, Medical Imaging 2005: Physics of Medical Imaging, 2005: 18-31.
Sawant A, Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Kang Y, Li Y, Su Z, Wang Y, Yamamoto J and Zhao Q:
Exploring New Frontiers in X-ray Quantum Limited Portal Imaging Using Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs).
SPIE Vol. 5030, Medical Imaging 2003: Physics of Medical Imaging, 2003: 478-489.
Background references on active matrix imager technology
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Electronic Portal Imaging Devices: A Review and Historical Perspective of Contemporary Technologies and Research.
Phys. Med. Biol. 47(6), R31-R65, 2002.
El-Mohri Y, Jee K-W, Antonuk LE, Maolinbay M and Zhao Q:
Determination of the Detective Quantum Efficiency of a Prototype, Megavoltage Indirect Detection, Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imager.
Med. Phys. 28(12), 2538-2550, 2001. [PubMed: 11797959] Erratum: Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y and Wang Y: Med. Phys. 33(1), 251, 2006.
Antonuk LE, El-Mohri Y, Siewerdsen JH, Yorkston J, Huang W, Scarpine VE and Street RA:
Empirical investigation of the signal performance of a high-resolution, indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) for fluoroscopic and radiographic operation.
Med. Phys. 24(1) 51-70, 1997. [PubMed: 9029541]
Antonuk LE, Boudry J, Huang W, McShan DL, Morton EJ, Yorkston J, Longo MJ and Street RA:
Demonstration of megavoltage and diagnostic x-ray imaging with hydrogenated amorphous silicon arrays.
Med. Phys., 19(6), 1455-1466, 1992. Erratum: Antonuk LE, Boudry J, Huang W, McShan DL, Morton EG, Yorkston J, Longo MJ and Street RA: Med. Phys. 20(3), 825, 1993.
a-Si:H TFT-Based Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers For Medical X-Ray Applications in Thin Film Transistors –
Materials and Processes Volume 1: Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors,
Yue Kuo (editor), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 395-484, 2004.