Fuel_cell_water-mgt.bib

@article{Chen2013,
  title = {Optimization of purge cycle for dead-ended anode fuel cell operation},
  author = {Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Waldecker, J.R.},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {5092-5105},
  volume = {38},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.02.022},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Chen2013.pdf}
}
@article{Chen2011JECS,
  title = {Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations},
  author = {Chen,Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Matsuura, Toyoaki and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2011},
  number = {9},
  pages = {B1164-B1174},
  volume = {158},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model is developed focusing on the species concentration along the channel and associated membrane phase potential. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior during DEA operation of a PEM fuel cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally less than 5% in molar fraction, creates a H2/O2 front as N2 and water accumulate at the end of the channel and hydrogen is depleted along the channel. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel also results in a gradual drop of the membrane phase potential, promoting carbon corrosion in the cathode. The corrosion rate is driven by the local species concentration in the anode, which varies in space and time. In a co-flow configuration, the large spatio-temporal patterns of hydrogen starvation in the end of the anode channel induce the highest carbon corrosion, which, in turn, is shown to be moderated by the decreasing terminal voltage during galvanostatic operation. Although not fully calibrated, the model shows good agreement with preliminary in situ observations.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3609770},
  keywords = {carbon; corrosion; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; spatiotemporal phenomena},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~umfccl/FCRecent/JESOAN0001580000090B1164000001.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Chen2012ASMEFC,
  title = {Optimization of Purging Cycle for Dead-Ended Anode Fuel Cell Operation},
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2012},
  address = {San Diego, California},
  month = {July},
  number = {ESFuelCell2012-91307},
  abstract = {This paper focuses on the optimization of the purge cycle for dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Controling the purge interval at given operating conditions can optimize the fuel cell efficiency and hydrogen loss during the purge. For this optimization, a model capturing the liquid water and nitrogen accumulation in the anode and the purge flow behavior is presented. A target range of purge interval is then defined based on the minimal purge time that removes the plug of liquid and nitrogen in the channel end and the maximum purge interval beyond which hydrogen is wasted since hydrogen molar fraction all along the channel has been restored to one. If the purge is sufficiently long that all of the accumulated water and nitrogen are removed then the power output in the subsequent cycle (galvanostatic operation) would be highest, compared with incomplete purges which do not fully restore hydrogen concentration in the anode. Such purge schedule, however, is associated with certain amount of hydrogen loss. Therefore, there is a trade-off between hydrogen loss and power output, and a corresponding purge interval that produces the largest efficiency. The optimum purge intervals for different cycle durations are identified. The calculated DEA efficiencies are compared with flow-through (FT) operation. The analysis and model-based optimization methodology presented in this paper can be used for optimizing DEA operation of PEMFC with minimum experimentation and development time.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ASME12_Optimization_study3.1.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Chen2011ACC_PEMFC,
  title = {Nitrogen Blanketing Front Equilibria in Dead End Anode Fuel Cell Operation},
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference},
  year = {2011},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, US},
  month = {June},
  pages = {1524-1529},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the equilibrium behavior during the dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A reduced order model is developed focusing on the species molar fraction in the anode channel. At equilibrium, hydrogen is present only in a partial region in the anode, and the remaining region is deactivated by the accumulation of water and nitrogen. Simulation results are analysed to study the influences of certain controllable inputs and system parameters on the nitrogen front location and steady-state cell voltage. The simulation results are consistent with the initial experimental observations. The results in this paper suggest that it is possible to coat only the active portion of the membrane, along the channel length, with catalyst.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2011.5991552},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/1357.pdf}
}
@inbook{Siegel2010b,
  title = {The Control Handbook, Second Edition: Control System Applications},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, Giulio Ripaccioli, and Stefano Di Cairano},
  chapter = {5. Purge Scheduling for Dead-Ended Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  editor = {William S. Levine},
  pages = {5-1 - 5-43},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {2010},
  edition = {second},
  comment = {ISBN: 1420073605},
  owner = {Admin},
  timestamp = {2011.05.09}
}
@article{Karnik2007590,
  title = {Water equilibria and management using a two-volume model of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell},
  author = {Amey Y. Karnik and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jing Sun},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2007},
  number = {2},
  pages = {590 - 605},
  volume = {164},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.053},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEMFC},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4MK611H-1/2/19b905be9ff26e4cc9cf2ceb799e38ed}
}
@article{Karnik2009,
  title = {Humidity and Pressure Regulation in a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Gain-Scheduled Static Feedback Controller},
  author = {Karnik, A. Y. and Sun, J. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Buckland, J. H.},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {2009},
  month = {March },
  number = {2},
  pages = {283--297},
  volume = {17},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.924562},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.03.01}
}
@conference{Marsuura2012ECSMTG,
  title = {Experimental Investigation of Degradation in PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Operation},
  author = {Toyoaki Marsuura and Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Seattle, Washington},
  month = {May},
  number = {6},
  pages = {315},
  publisher = {ECS},
  volume = {1201},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb:6]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.11},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000315.pdf}
}
@article{Matsuura201311346,
  title = {Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode},
  author = {Matsuura, T. and Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G.},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {11346-11356},
  volume = {38},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.06.096},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Matsuura201311346.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Matsuura2011,
  title = {Multiple Degradation Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  author = {Matsuura, Toyoaki and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Chen, Jixin},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2011},
  number = {FuelCell2011-54344},
  pages = {127-135},
  abstract = {Dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) can simplify the fuel cell auxiliary and reduce system cost, however durability and lifetime in this operating mode requires further study. In this work, we investigate the electrode and membrane degradations of one 50 cm2 active area fuel cell under DEA operation using a combination of postmortem evaluation and in-situ performance evaluation protocol. We experimentally identify multiple degradation patterns using a cell which we have previously modeled and experimentally verified the spatio-temporal patterns associated with the anode water flooding and nitrogen blanketing. The change in cell voltage and internal resistance during operation and ex situ Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of aged electrode/membrane are analysed to determine and characterize the degradation of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Chemical degradations including carbon corrosion in the catalyst layer and membrane decomposition are found after operating the cell with a DEA. Mechanical degradations including membrane delamination are also observed. Unique features of DEA operation including fuel starvation/nitrogen blanketing in the anode and uneven local water/current distribution, are considered as culprits for degradation.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2011-54344},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000127.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2008a,
  title = {Stack-level validation of a semi-analytic channel-to-channel fuel cell model for two-phase water distribution boundary value control},
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  month = {11--13 June },
  pages = {5098--5103},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4587302},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2006,
  title = {Order Reduction for a Control-Oriented Model of the Water Dynamics in Fuel Cells},
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  booktitle = {Proc ASME 4th International Conf on Fuel Cell Science, Engr and Technology},
  year = {2006},
  number = {FUELCELL2006-97075},
  pages = {151-159},
  doi = {10.1115/FUELCELL2006-97075},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_MORFC06.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2008b,
  title = {On Controllability and Observability of Linearized Liquid Water Distributions Inside a PEM Fuel Cell},
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Kenneth R. Butts},
  booktitle = {Proc. of 2008 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC08)},
  year = {2008},
  number = {DSCC2008-2155},
  pages = {385-392},
  volume = {2008},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2155},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p385/s1}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2006a,
  title = {A Study toward Minimum Spatial Discretization of a Fuel Cell Dynamics Model},
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Butts, K. R.},
  booktitle = {Proc 2006 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2006-14509},
  year = {2006},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2006-14509},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_IJER05.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2008,
  title = {Stability analysis for liquid water accumulation in low temperature fuel cells},
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V.},
  booktitle = {Proc. 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control CDC 2008},
  year = {2008},
  month = {9--11 Dec. },
  pages = {859--864},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2008.4739189},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCain20084418,
  title = {On the dynamics and control of through-plane water distributions in PEM fuel cells},
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Ilya V. Kolmanovsky},
  journal = {Chemical Engineering Science},
  year = {2008},
  number = {17},
  pages = {4418 - 4432},
  volume = {63},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ces.2008.05.025},
  issn = {0009-2509},
  keywords = {Model reduction},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TFK-4SM1TG3-1/2/e9c81dfcaca2f0c1b298734bb7ef6efa}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2007,
  title = {A multi-component spatially-distributed model of two-phase flow for estimation and control of fuel cell water dynamics},
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V. },
  booktitle = {Proc. 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {2007},
  month = {12--14 Dec. },
  pages = {584--589},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2007.4434923},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCain2010,
  title = {Controllability and Observability Analysis of the Liquid Water Distribution Inside the Gas Diffusion Layer of a Unit Fuel Cell Model},
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jason B. Siegel},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2010},
  number = {6},
  pages = {061303},
  volume = {132},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4002477},
  eid = {061303},
  keywords = {channel flow; controllability; difference equations; diffusion; electrochemical electrodes; flow control; observability; partial differential equations; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; reduced order systems; two-phase flow},
  numpages = {8},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/132/061303/1}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2005,
  title = {Modeling, Parameter Identification, and Validation of Reactant and Water Dynamics for a Fuel Cell Stack},
  author = {D. A. McKay and W. T. Ott and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress \& Exposition},
  year = {2005},
  month = {Nov},
  number = {42169},
  organization = {ASME},
  pages = {1177-1186},
  volume = {2005},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2005-81484},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_GDLIMECE05.pdf},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2005/i42169/p1177/s1}
}
@article{McKay2008207,
  title = {Parameterization and prediction of temporal fuel cell voltage behavior during flooding and drying conditions},
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Jason B. Siegel and William Ott and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2008},
  number = {1},
  pages = {207 - 222},
  volume = {178},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.12.031},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/McKay2008207.pdf},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEM fuel cells},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4RC6R7R-2/2/52e221c70130b4887605e897517acfe3}
}
@article{McKay2011,
  title = {A Controllable Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications - Part II: Controller Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2011},
  number = {1},
  pages = {011004},
  volume = {8},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4001020},
  eid = {011004},
  keywords = {humidity control; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; temperature control},
  numpages = {12},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/8/011004/1}
}
@article{McKay2010,
  title = {A Controllable Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications - Part I: Operation, Modeling and Experimental Validation},
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  journal = {ASME Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  number = {5},
  pages = {051006},
  volume = {7},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4000997},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2008,
  title = {Model and experimental validation of a controllable membrane-type humidifier for fuel cell applications},
  author = {McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Cook, J. },
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  month = {11--13 June },
  pages = {312--317},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586509},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2008a,
  title = {A Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications: Controller Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  booktitle = {Proc. ASME 2008 6th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology},
  year = {2008},
  number = {FuelCell2008-65257},
  pages = {841-850},
  volume = {2008},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2008-65257},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43181/p841/s1}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2004,
  title = {Parameterization and validation of a lumped parameter diffusion model for fuel cell stack membrane humidity estimation},
  author = {McKay, D. and Stefanopoulou, A. },
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference the 2004},
  year = {2004},
  month = {June},
  pages = {816-821},
  volume = {1},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Final_ACC04.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{Muller2008a,
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {Proc. ASME 2008 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Parts A and B},
  year = {2008},
  number = {DSCC2008-2156},
  pages = {393-401},
  volume = {2008},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2156},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p393/s1}
}
@article{Muller2010,
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise A. McKay},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  number = {2},
  pages = {021013},
  volume = {7},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3177447},
  eid = {021013},
  keywords = {anodes; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; permeability; proton exchange membrane fuel cells},
  numpages = {11},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/7/021013/1}
}
@inproceedings{Ripaccioli2009,
  title = {Derivation and Simulation Results of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Water Purge Scheduling in a Fuel Cell},
  author = {Ripaccioli, Giulio and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Di Cairano, Stefano},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2nd Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Hollywood, CA, USA},
  month = {October 12-14},
  abstract = {This paper illustrates the application of hybrid modeling and model predictive control techniques to the water purge management in a fuel cell with dead-end anode. The anode water flow dynamics are approximated as a two-mode discrete-time switched affine system that describes the propagation of water inside the gas diffusion layer, the spilling into the channel and consequent filling and plugging the channel. Using this dynamical approximation, a hybrid model predictive controller based on on-line mixed-integer quadratic optimization is tuned, and the effectiveness of the approach is shown through simulations with a high-fidelity model. Then, using an off-line multiparametric optimization procedure, the controller is converted into an equivalent piecewise affine form which is easily implementable even in an embedded controller through a lookup table of affine gains.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.18},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000149.pdf}
}
@article{Siegel2010JECS,
  title = {Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Stanislav V. Bohac and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Serhat Yesilyurt},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2010},
  number = {7},
  pages = {B1081-B1093},
  volume = {157},
  abstract = {In this paper, we model and experimentally verify the evolution of liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended anode that is fed by dry hydrogen. The accumulation of inert nitrogen and liquid water in the anode causes a voltage drop, which is recoverable by purging the anode. Experiments were designed to clarify the effect of N2 blanketing, water plugging of the channels, and flooding of the gas diffusion layer. The observation of each phenomenon is facilitated by simultaneous gas chromatography measurements on samples extracted from the anode channel to measure the nitrogen content and neutron imaging to measure the liquid water distribution. A model of the accumulation is presented, which describes the dynamic evolution of a N2 blanketing front in the anode channel leading to the development of a hydrogen starved region. The prediction of the voltage drop between purge cycles during nonwater plugging channel conditions is shown. The model is capable of describing both the two-sloped behavior of the voltage decay and the time at which the steeper slope begins by capturing the effect of H2 concentration loss and the area of the H2 starved region along the anode channel.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3425743},
  keywords = {chromatography; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/JES0B1081.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelACC2008,
  title = {Modeling and Validation of Fuel Cell Water Dynamics Using Neutron Imaging},
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2008 American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  month = {June},
  pages = {2573-2578},
  abstract = {Using neutron imaging, the mass of liquid water within the gas diffusion layer and flow channels of an operating polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is measured under a range of operating conditions. Between anode purge events, it is demonstrated that liquid water accumulates and is periodically removed from the anode gas channels; this event is well correlated with the dynamic cell voltage response. The estimation of flooding and cell performance is achieved by a spatially distributed (through-membrane plane), temporally-resolved, and two-phase (liquid and vapor) water model. Neutron imaging techniques have never before been applied to characterize flooding with a dead-ended anode and elucidate important issues in water management as well as provide a means for calibrating and validating a dynamic lumped parameter fuel cell model.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586879},
  keywords = {fuel cells, image processing, anode gas channel, dead-ended anode, dynamic cell voltage response, dynamic lumped parameter fuel cell model, flow channel, fuel cell water dynamics, gas diffusion layer, liquid water, neutron imaging, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, water management},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/04586879.pdf}
}
@article{Siegel2008,
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Daniel S. Hussey and David L. Jacobson},
  journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society},
  year = {2008},
  number = {11},
  pages = {B1168-B1178},
  volume = {155},
  doi = {10.1149/1.2976356},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Siegel2008.pdf},
  keywords = {current density; electrochemical electrodes; humidity; neutron diffraction; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{Siegel2008b,
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and McKay, Denise and Stefanopoulou, Anna},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science Engineering and Technology},
  year = {2008},
  note = {FuelCell2008-65053},
  abstract = {The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a dead-ended anode is observed using neutron imaging. The measurements are performed on a single cell with 53 square centimeter active area, Nafion 111-IP membrane and carbon cloth Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL). Even though dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation, accumulation of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels was observed for all current densities up to 566 mA cm−2 and 100% cathode humidification. The accumulation of liquid water in the anode channels is followed by a significant voltage drop even if there is no buildup of water in the cathode channels. Anode purges and cathode surges are also used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between anode and cathode water flooding. The rate of accumulation of anode liquid water, and its impact on the rate of cell voltage drop is shown for a range of temperature, current density, cathode relative humidity and air stoichiometric conditions. Neutron imaging of the water while operating the fuel cell under dead-ended anode conditions offers the opportunity to observe water dynamics and measured cell voltage during large and repeatable transients.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2008-65053},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.26},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000757.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2010ECS,
  title = {Reduced Complexity Models for Water Management and Anode Purge Scheduling in DEA Operation of PEMFC},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2010},
  number = {10},
  pages = {766},
  publisher = {ECS},
  volume = {MA2010-02},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  review = {In this work, the dynamic behavior of Fuel Cell operation under Dead-Ended Anode conditions is shown. A DEA can be fed with dry hydrogen, since water crossing through the membrane is sufficient to humidify the fuel. The reduced requirements for inlet humidification yield a system with lower cost and weight compared to FCs with flow-through or recirculated anodes. The accumulation of water and nitrogen in the anode channel is first observed near the outlet. A stratified pattern develops in the channel where a hydrogen-rich area sits above a depleted region and is stabilized by the effect of gravity. A model is presented which describes the dynamic evolution of a blanketing N2 front in the anode channel and a hydrogen starved region. Understanding, modeling, and predicting the front evolution can reduce the H2 wasted during purges, avoid over drying the membrane, and mitigate degradation associated with hydrogen starved areas.},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECS_Meeting_2010.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelACC10,
  title = {Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2010 American Control Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {6606-6611},
  abstract = {This paper parameterizes the 0-dimensional model of liquid water front evolution associated with: (1) water transport through the membrane, and (2) accumulation and transport of liquid water in the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) originally presented in [1]. We add here vapor transport into and out of the channels and liquid water removal from the anode channel during a purge. This completely describes a model for purge scheduling, to avoid anode channel plugging, and to prevent over-drying of the membrane. The model is parameterized using two tunable and one experimentally identified parameter to match the rate of liquid water accumulation in the anode channel that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane model augmented with a lumped channel model are presented and compared with measured liquid water values.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2010.5531386},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05531386.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Siegel2009a,
  title = {Through the Membrane \& Along the Channel Flooding in {PEMFCs}},
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2009 American Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  month = {June},
  pages = {2666-2671},
  abstract = {Neutron imaging of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) revealed distinct patterns of water fronts moving through the gas diffusion layers (GDL) and channels. The PEMFC was operating with dead-ended, straight and almost vertically-oriented anode channels; hence the gravity driven accumulation of liquid water at the end of the channel caused flooding in an upward direction. In order to predict the spatiotemporal evolution of water patterns inside severely-flooded fuel cells, various distributed parameter models of the water transport through the membrane and GDLs to the cathode and anode channels have been developed by the authors and others. In this paper, a zero-dimensional moving front model is presented which captures the location of the water phase transition inside the GDL, instead of using the standard partial differential equation (PDE) approach for modeling liquid water in porous media which is numerically difficult to solve. This model uses three nonlinear states (the anode and cathode GDL front location and the membrane water content) and three inputs (the anode and cathode vapor concentration and the current density) to predict the slowly evolving front locations in both anode and cathode side GDLs during flooding and drying as well as the dynamic changes in membrane water content. The unit cell model is finally formulated with three hybrid modes and their transition laws. The hybrid-state model will be parameterized in the future using experimentally observed front evolutions. This parameterized unit cell model will be used to model the water accumulation along the channel in order to predict and avoid severe flooding conditions.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2009.5160290},
  issn = {0743-1619},
  keywords = {diffusion, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, spatiotemporal phenomenaPEMFC, channel flooding, gas diffusion layers, hybrid state model, membrane water content, neutron imaging, parameterized unit cell, partial differential equation, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, porous media, spatiotemporal evolution, water accumulation, water patterns, water phase transition},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.14},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05160290.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Siegel2011ASME,
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of PEM Fuel Cells with the Dead-Ended Anode},
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Washington DC},
  number = {ESFuelCell2011-54768},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {The operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with dead-ended anode (DEA) leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen, water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in the case of downward orientation of the gravity. Here, we present a transient 1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the membrane to express the permeance of nitrogen and transport of water through the membrane. The model results agree very well with experimental results for the voltage transients of the PEMFC operating with DEA. In order to emphasize the effect of nitrogen accumulation in the anode, we present experimentally obtained cell voltage measurements during DEA transients, when the cathode is supplied with pure oxygen. In the absence of nitrogen in the cathode, voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient. Then, the model is used to determine the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen feed ratio in the cathode on the voltage transient behavior for different load currents. Lastly, the model is used to show the effect of the small amount of leak from the anode exit on the voltage transient; even for leak rates as low as less than 10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels is alleviated and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ESFuelCell2011-54768.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Siegel2010ASMEFC,
  title = {Modeling and Simulations of PEMFCs Operating with Periodically Purged Dead-ended Anode Channels},
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 8th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Brooklyn, New York, USA},
  month = {June 14-16},
  number = {FuelCell2010-33341},
  pages = {823-83},
  abstract = {PEMFC operation with dead-ended anode has inherent transient behavior: the cell operates between purge cycles that replenish fuel and discharge accumulated gases, such as nitrogen and water vapor, and liquid water. During the operation when the anode exit is shut, gases that cross-over from the cathode accumulate and stratify in the anode channels above the liquid water when the gravity is acting in the flow direction. In this work, we present transient two-dimensional along the channel model and simulations of the PEMFC operating with a deadended anode. Transport of gas species in flow channels and gas diffusion layers is modeled by Maxwell-Stefan equations. Flow in the channels is modeled by laminarized Navier-Stokes equations, where the inertial terms are dropped from the force balance, but the buoyancy effect due to the variation of the composition of gas mixture is included at the anode side. Flow in the gas diffusion layers is modeled by Darcy’s Law. Permeation of nitrogen in the membrane is considered since it can accumulate in the anode as opposed to instant reaction of oxygen (hydrogen) at the anode (cathode) catalyst layer(s). Membrane is considered as a resistance (interface) to transport of water vapor and nitrogen. Ohm’s Law is used to model the transport of charged particles, i.e. electrons in the electrodes and flow plates and protons in the membrane. Finite-element representation of the governing equations in the 2D PEMFC geometry and subject to boundary conditions mimicking experimental conditions is solved using a commercial multiphysics software, COMSOL. According to model results reversible voltage degradation between purge cycles is mostly due to nitrogen accumulation in the anode that leads to partial fuel starvation in the cell.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2010-33341},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/Fuelcell2010-33341-FINAL.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Siegel2009,
  title = {Extracting Model Parameters and Paradigms from Neutron Imaging of Dead-Ended Anode Operation},
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Yesilyurt, Serhat and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 7th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {In a PEMFC, feeding dry hydrogen into a dead-ended anode (DEA), reduces the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced need for a hydrogen-grade humidification and recirculation subsystems, but requires purging to remove the accumulated water and inert gas. Although the DEA method of operation might be undesirable due to its associated high spatial variability it provides a unique perspective on the evolution of the water accumulation in the anode. Sections of the channel nearest the inlets are significantly drier than those nearest the outlet as shown in the neutron imaging of a 53 cm2 PEMFC. This method allows in-situ visualization of distinct patterns, including water front propagation along the channels. In this paper we utilize neutron imaging of the liquid water distributions and a previously developed PDE model of liquid water flow in the GDL to (a) identify a range of numerical values for the immobile saturation limit, (b) propose a gravity-driven liquid flow in the channels, and (c) derive the two-phase GDL boundary conditions associated with the presence of liquid water in the channel.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.27},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000439.pdf}
}
@article{Siegel2010,
  title = {Reduced Complexity Models for Water Management and Anode Purge Scheduling in DEA Operation of PEMFCs},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Serhat Yesilyurtb and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  journal = {ECS Transactions},
  year = {2010},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1583-1596},
  volume = {33},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3484648},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@article{Stefanopoulou2009,
  title = {A Dynamic Semi-Analytic Channel-to-Channel Model of Two-Phase Water Distribution for a Unit Fuel Cell},
  author = {Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Kolmanovsky, I.V. and McCain, B.A.},
  journal = {Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2009},
  month = {Sept. },
  number = {5},
  pages = {1055-1068},
  volume = {17},
  abstract = {The critical task of controlling the water accumulation within the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the channels of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cell is shown to benefit from a partial-differential-equation (PDE) approach. Starting from first principles, a model of a fuel cell is represented as a boundary value problem for a set of three coupled nonlinear second-order PDEs for mass transport across the GDL of each electrode. These three PDEs are approximated, with justification founded in linear systems theory and a time-scale decomposition approach, by a semianalytic model that requires less than one-third the number of states to be numerically integrated. A set of numerical transient, analytic transient, and analytic steady-state solutions for the semianalytic model are presented, and an experimental verification of the cell voltage prediction due to liquid-water accumulation is demonstrated. The semianalytic model derived and the associated analysis represent our main contribution for which future expansion of along-the-channel dynamics and statistical consideration of cell-to-cell variations can be implemented for application to control, estimation, and diagnostic algorithms.},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.2005064},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  keywords = {linear systems, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane fuel cellsanalytic steady-state solutions, analytic transient, cell voltage prediction, dynamic semi-analytic channel-to-channel model, gas diffusion layer, linear systems theory, liquid-water accumulation, mass transport, numerical transient, partial-differential-equation approach, polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell, semianalytic model, time-scale decomposition approach, two-phase water distribution, unit fuel cell},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06}
}
@conference{Yesilyurt2009,
  title = {Effects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  author = {Serhat Yesilyurt and Jason Siegel and Anna Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2009},
  number = {6},
  pages = {359-359},
  volume = {901},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000359.pdf}
}
@article{Yesilyurt2012,
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells With the {Dead-Ended} Anode},
  author = {Yesilyurt, Serhat and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2012},
  month = {April},
  number = {2},
  pages = {021012},
  volume = {9},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb:]},
  abstract = {Operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with the dead-ended anode (DEA) leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen, water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in the case of downward orientation of the gravity. We present a transient 1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the permeance of nitrogen and transport of water through the membrane. Simulation results agree very well with experimental results for voltage transients of the PEMFC operating with the DEA. In order to emphasize the effect of nitrogen accumulation in the anode, we present experimentally obtained cell voltage measurements during DEA transients when the cathode is supplied with pure oxygen. In the absence of nitrogen in the cathode, voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient. The model is used to demonstrate the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen feed ratio in the cathode on the voltage transient behavior for different load currents. Lastly, the effect of small leaks from the anode exit on the voltage transient is studied: even for leak rates as low as 10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels is alleviated and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient according to the results.},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4005626},
  issn = {{1550624X}},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/FCT021012.pdf}
}
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