Fuel_cell_water-mgt.bib

@article{Chen2013,
  author = {Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Waldecker,
	J.R.},
  title = {Optimization of purge cycle for dead-ended anode fuel cell operation},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {5092-5105},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.02.022},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Chen2013.pdf}
}
@article{Chen2011JECS,
  author = {Chen,Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Matsuura, Toyoaki and Stefanopoulou,
	Anna G.},
  title = {Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {158},
  pages = {B1164-B1174},
  number = {9},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation
	on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane
	(PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model is developed focusing
	on the species concentration along the channel and associated membrane
	phase potential. This model explains, and can be used to quantify,
	the carbon corrosion behavior during DEA operation of a PEM fuel
	cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally
	less than 5% in molar fraction, creates a H2/O2 front as N2 and water
	accumulate at the end of the channel and hydrogen is depleted along
	the channel. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel also results
	in a gradual drop of the membrane phase potential, promoting carbon
	corrosion in the cathode. The corrosion rate is driven by the local
	species concentration in the anode, which varies in space and time.
	In a co-flow configuration, the large spatio-temporal patterns of
	hydrogen starvation in the end of the anode channel induce the highest
	carbon corrosion, which, in turn, is shown to be moderated by the
	decreasing terminal voltage during galvanostatic operation. Although
	not fully calibrated, the model shows good agreement with preliminary
	in situ observations.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3609770},
  keywords = {carbon; corrosion; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; spatiotemporal
	phenomena},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~umfccl/FCRecent/JESOAN0001580000090B1164000001.pdf}
}
@conference{Chen2012ASMEFC,
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Optimization of Purging Cycle for Dead-Ended Anode Fuel Cell Operation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
	Conference},
  year = {2012},
  number = {ESFuelCell2012-91307},
  address = {San Diego, California},
  month = {July},
  abstract = {This paper focuses on the optimization of the purge cycle for dead-ended
	anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell.
	Controling the purge interval at given operating conditions can optimize
	the fuel cell efficiency and hydrogen loss during the purge. For
	this optimization, a model capturing the liquid water and nitrogen
	accumulation in the anode and the purge flow behavior is presented.
	A target range of purge interval is then defined based on the minimal
	purge time that removes the plug of liquid and nitrogen in the channel
	end and the maximum purge interval beyond which hydrogen is wasted
	since hydrogen molar fraction all along the channel has been restored
	to one. If the purge is sufficiently long that all of the accumulated
	water and nitrogen are removed then the power output in the subsequent
	cycle (galvanostatic operation) would be highest, compared with incomplete
	purges which do not fully restore hydrogen concentration in the anode.
	Such purge schedule, however, is associated with certain amount of
	hydrogen loss. Therefore, there is a trade-off between hydrogen loss
	and power output, and a corresponding purge interval that produces
	the largest efficiency. The optimum purge intervals for different
	cycle durations are identified. The calculated DEA efficiencies are
	compared with flow-through (FT) operation. The analysis and model-based
	optimization methodology presented in this paper can be used for
	optimizing DEA operation of PEMFC with minimum experimentation and
	development time.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ASME12_Optimization_study3.1.pdf}
}
@conference{Chen2011ACC_PEMFC,
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Nitrogen Blanketing Front Equilibria in Dead End Anode Fuel Cell
	Operation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1524 -- 1529},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, US},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the equilibrium behavior during the dead-ended
	anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A
	reduced order model is developed focusing on the species molar fraction
	in the anode channel. At equilibrium, hydrogen is present only in
	a partial region in the anode, and the remaining region is deactivated
	by the accumulation of water and nitrogen. Simulation results are
	analysed to study the influences of certain controllable inputs and
	system parameters on the nitrogen front location and steady-state
	cell voltage. The simulation results are consistent with the initial
	experimental observations. The results in this paper suggest that
	it is possible to coat only the active portion of the membrane, along
	the channel length, with catalyst.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/1357.pdf}
}
@inbook{Siegel2010b,
  chapter = {5. Purge Scheduling for Dead-Ended Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  pages = {5-1 - 5-43},
  title = {The Control Handbook, Second Edition: Control System Applications},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {2010},
  editor = {William S. Levine},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, Giulio Ripaccioli, and Stefano
	Di Cairano},
  edition = {second},
  comment = {ISBN: 1420073605},
  owner = {Admin},
  timestamp = {2011.05.09}
}
@article{Karnik2007590,
  author = {Amey Y. Karnik and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jing Sun},
  title = {Water equilibria and management using a two-volume model of a polymer
	electrolyte fuel cell},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {590 - 605},
  number = {2},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.053},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEMFC},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4MK611H-1/2/19b905be9ff26e4cc9cf2ceb799e38ed}
}
@article{Karnik2009,
  author = {Karnik, A. Y. and Sun, J. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Buckland,
	J. H.},
  title = {Humidity and Pressure Regulation in a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Gain-Scheduled
	Static Feedback Controller},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {283--297},
  number = {2},
  month = {March },
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.924562},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.03.01}
}
@conference{Marsuura2012ECSMTG,
  author = {Toyoaki Marsuura and Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Experimental Investigation of Degradation in PEMFC with Dead-Ended
	Anode Operation},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {1201},
  number = {6},
  pages = {315},
  address = {Seattle, Washington},
  month = {May},
  publisher = {ECS},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb:6]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.11},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000315.pdf}
}
@article{Matsuura201311346,
  author = {Matsuura, T. and Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G.},
  title = {Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {11346-11356},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.06.096},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Matsuura201311346.pdf}
}
@conference{Matsuura2011,
  author = {Matsuura, Toyoaki and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.
	and Chen, Jixin},
  title = {Multiple Degradation Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel
	Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
	Conference},
  year = {2011},
  number = {ESFuelCell2011-54344},
  address = {Washington DC},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {Dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell
	(PEFC) can simplify the fuel cell auxiliary and reduce system cost,
	however durability and lifetime in this operating mode requires further
	study. In this work, we investigate the electrode and membrane degradations
	of one 50 cm2 active area fuel cell under DEA operation using a combination
	of postmortem evaluation and in-situ performance evaluation protocol.
	We experimentally identify multiple degradation patterns using a
	cell which we have previously modeled and experimentally verified
	the spatio-temporal patterns associated with the anode water flooding
	and nitrogen blanketing. The change in cell voltage and internal
	resistance during operation and ex situ Scanning Electron Microscope
	(SEM) images of aged electrode/membrane are analysed to determine
	and characterize the degradation of the membrane electrode assembly
	(MEA). Chemical degradations including carbon corrosion in the catalyst
	layer and membrane decomposition are found after operating the cell
	with a DEA. Mechanical degradations including membrane delamination
	are also observed. Unique features of DEA operation including fuel
	starvation/nitrogen blanketing in the anode and uneven local water/current
	distribution, are considered as culprits for degradation.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2011-54344},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000127.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2008a,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Stack-level validation of a semi-analytic channel-to-channel fuel
	cell model for two-phase water distribution boundary value control},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {5098--5103},
  month = {11--13 June },
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4587302},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@conference{McCain2006,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Order Reduction for a Control-Oriented Model of the Water Dynamics
	in Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {Proc 4th International Conf on Fuel Cell Science, Engr and Technology.
	FUELCELL2006-97075.},
  year = {2006},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_MORFC06.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@conference{McCain2006c,
  author = {B. A. McCain and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Order Reduction for a Control-Oriented Model of the Water Dynamics
	in Fuel Cells},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {2006},
  number = {42479},
  pages = {151-159},
  publisher = {ASME},
  doi = {10.1115/FUELCELL2006-97075},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2006/i42479/p151/s1}
}
@conference{McCain2008b,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Kenneth R. Butts},
  title = {On Controllability and Observability of Linearized Liquid Water Distributions
	Inside a PEM Fuel Cell},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {43352},
  pages = {385-392},
  publisher = {ASME},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2155},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p385/s1}
}
@conference{McCain2006a,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Butts, K. R.},
  title = {A Study towards Minimum Spatial Discretization of a Fuel Cell Dynamics
	Model},
  booktitle = {Proc 2006 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and
	Exposition, IMECE2006-14509},
  year = {2006},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_IJER05.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2008,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V.},
  title = {Stability analysis for liquid water accumulation in low temperature
	fuel cells},
  booktitle = {Proc. 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control CDC 2008},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {859--864},
  month = {9--11 Dec. },
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2008.4739189},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCain20084418,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Ilya V. Kolmanovsky},
  title = {On the dynamics and control of through-plane water distributions
	in PEM fuel cells},
  journal = {Chemical Engineering Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {4418 - 4432},
  number = {17},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ces.2008.05.025},
  issn = {0009-2509},
  keywords = {Model reduction},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TFK-4SM1TG3-1/2/e9c81dfcaca2f0c1b298734bb7ef6efa}
}
@inproceedings{McCain2007,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V. },
  title = {A multi-component spatially-distributed model of two-phase flow for
	estimation and control of fuel cell water dynamics},
  booktitle = {Proc. 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {584--589},
  month = {12--14 Dec. },
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2007.4434923},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCain2010,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jason B. Siegel},
  title = {Controllability and Observability Analysis of the Liquid Water Distribution
	Inside the Gas Diffusion Layer of a Unit Fuel Cell Model},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {132},
  pages = {061303},
  number = {6},
  eid = {061303},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4002477},
  keywords = {channel flow; controllability; difference equations; diffusion; electrochemical
	electrodes; flow control; observability; partial differential equations;
	proton exchange membrane fuel cells; reduced order systems; two-phase
	flow},
  numpages = {8},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/132/061303/1}
}
@conference{McKay2005,
  author = {D. A. McKay and W. T. Ott and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Modeling, Parameter Identification, and Validation of Reactant and
	Water Dynamics for a Fuel Cell Stack},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress
	\& Exposition},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {2005},
  number = {42169},
  pages = {1177-1186},
  month = {Nov},
  organization = {ASME},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2005-81484},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_GDLIMECE05.pdf},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2005/i42169/p1177/s1}
}
@article{McKay2008207,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Jason B. Siegel and William Ott and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Parameterization and prediction of temporal fuel cell voltage behavior
	during flooding and drying conditions},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {178},
  pages = {207 - 222},
  number = {1},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.12.031},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/McKay2008207.pdf},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEM fuel cells},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4RC6R7R-2/2/52e221c70130b4887605e897517acfe3}
}
@article{McKay2011,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  title = {A Controllable Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications---Part
	II: Controller Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {011004},
  number = {1},
  eid = {011004},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4001020},
  keywords = {humidity control; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; temperature
	control},
  numpages = {12},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/8/011004/1}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2008,
  author = {McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Cook, J. },
  title = {Model and experimental validation of a controllable membrane-type
	humidifier for fuel cell applications},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {312--317},
  month = {11--13 June },
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586509},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@conference{McKay2008a,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  title = {A Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications: Controller
	Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {43181},
  pages = {841-850},
  publisher = {ASME},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2008-65257},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43181/p841/s1}
}
@inproceedings{McKay2004,
  author = {McKay, D. and Stefanopoulou, A. },
  title = {Parameterization and validation of a lumped parameter diffusion model
	for fuel cell stack membrane humidity estimation},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference the 2004},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {816-821},
  month = {June},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Final_ACC04.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@conference{Muller2008a,
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Denise A. McKay
	and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {43352},
  pages = {393-401},
  publisher = {ASME},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2156},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p393/s1}
}
@article{Muller2010,
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Anna G. Stefanopoulou
	and Denise A. McKay},
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {021013},
  number = {2},
  eid = {021013},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3177447},
  keywords = {anodes; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; permeability; proton
	exchange membrane fuel cells},
  numpages = {11},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/7/021013/1}
}
@conference{Ripaccioli2009,
  author = {Ripaccioli, Giulio and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.
	and Di Cairano, Stefano},
  title = {Derivation and Simulation Results of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control
	for Water Purge Scheduling in a Fuel Cell},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2nd Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Hollywood, CA, USA},
  month = {October 12-14},
  abstract = {This paper illustrates the application of hybrid modeling and model
	predictive control techniques to the water purge management in a
	fuel cell with dead-end anode. The anode water flow dynamics are
	approximated as a two-mode discrete-time switched affine system that
	describes the propagation of water inside the gas diffusion layer,
	the spilling into the channel and consequent filling and plugging
	the channel. Using this dynamical approximation, a hybrid model predictive
	controller based on on-line mixed-integer quadratic optimization
	is tuned, and the effectiveness of the approach is shown through
	simulations with a high-fidelity model. Then, using an off-line multiparametric
	optimization procedure, the controller is converted into an equivalent
	piecewise affine form which is easily implementable even in an embedded
	controller through a lookup table of affine gains.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.18},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000149.pdf}
}
@article{Siegel2010JECS,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Stanislav V. Bohac and Anna G. Stefanopoulou
	and Serhat Yesilyurt},
  title = {Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel
	Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {157},
  pages = {B1081-B1093},
  number = {7},
  abstract = {In this paper, we model and experimentally verify the evolution of
	liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel
	in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended
	anode that is fed by dry hydrogen. The accumulation of inert nitrogen
	and liquid water in the anode causes a voltage drop, which is recoverable
	by purging the anode. Experiments were designed to clarify the effect
	of N2 blanketing, water plugging of the channels, and flooding of
	the gas diffusion layer. The observation of each phenomenon is facilitated
	by simultaneous gas chromatography measurements on samples extracted
	from the anode channel to measure the nitrogen content and neutron
	imaging to measure the liquid water distribution. A model of the
	accumulation is presented, which describes the dynamic evolution
	of a N2 blanketing front in the anode channel leading to the development
	of a hydrogen starved region. The prediction of the voltage drop
	between purge cycles during nonwater plugging channel conditions
	is shown. The model is capable of describing both the two-sloped
	behavior of the voltage decay and the time at which the steeper slope
	begins by capturing the effect of H2 concentration loss and the area
	of the H2 starved region along the anode channel.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3425743},
  keywords = {chromatography; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; proton exchange
	membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/JES0B1081.pdf}
}
@conference{SiegelACC2008,
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Modeling and Validation of Fuel Cell Water Dynamics Using Neutron
	Imaging},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2008 American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2573-2578},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {Using neutron imaging, the mass of liquid water within the gas diffusion
	layer and flow channels of an operating polymer electrolyte membrane
	fuel cell (PEMFC) is measured under a range of operating conditions.
	Between anode purge events, it is demonstrated that liquid water
	accumulates and is periodically removed from the anode gas channels;
	this event is well correlated with the dynamic cell voltage response.
	The estimation of flooding and cell performance is achieved by a
	spatially distributed (through-membrane plane), temporally-resolved,
	and two-phase (liquid and vapor) water model. Neutron imaging techniques
	have never before been applied to characterize flooding with a dead-ended
	anode and elucidate important issues in water management as well
	as provide a means for calibrating and validating a dynamic lumped
	parameter fuel cell model.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586879},
  keywords = {fuel cells, image processing, anode gas channel, dead-ended anode,
	dynamic cell voltage response, dynamic lumped parameter fuel cell
	model, flow channel, fuel cell water dynamics, gas diffusion layer,
	liquid water, neutron imaging, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel
	cell, water management},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/04586879.pdf}
}
@article{Siegel2008,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and
	Daniel S. Hussey and David L. Jacobson},
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended
	Anode},
  journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {155},
  pages = {B1168-B1178},
  number = {11},
  doi = {10.1149/1.2976356},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Siegel2008.pdf},
  keywords = {current density; electrochemical electrodes; humidity; neutron diffraction;
	proton exchange membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@conference{Siegel2008b,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and McKay, Denise and Stefanopoulou, Anna},
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a Proton Exchange Membrane
	Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science Engineering and
	Technology},
  year = {2008},
  note = {FuelCell2008-65053},
  abstract = {The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure
	of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a dead-ended
	anode is observed using neutron imaging. The measurements are performed
	on a single cell with 53 square centimeter active area, Nafion 111-IP
	membrane and carbon cloth Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL). Even though
	dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation, accumulation
	of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels was observed
	for all current densities up to 566 mA cm−2 and 100% cathode humidification.
	The accumulation of liquid water in the anode channels is followed
	by a significant voltage drop even if there is no buildup of water
	in the cathode channels. Anode purges and cathode surges are also
	used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between anode and cathode
	water flooding. The rate of accumulation of anode liquid water, and
	its impact on the rate of cell voltage drop is shown for a range
	of temperature, current density, cathode relative humidity and air
	stoichiometric conditions. Neutron imaging of the water while operating
	the fuel cell under dead-ended anode conditions offers the opportunity
	to observe water dynamics and measured cell voltage during large
	and repeatable transients.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.26},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000757.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2010ECS,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Reduced Complexity Models for Water Management and Anode Purge Scheduling
	in DEA Operation of PEMFC},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1002},
  number = {10},
  pages = {766-766},
  publisher = {ECS},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  review = {In this work, the dynamic behavior of Fuel Cell operation under Dead-Ended
	Anode conditions is shown. A DEA can be fed with dry hydrogen, since
	water crossing through the membrane is sufficient to humidify the
	fuel. The reduced requirements for inlet humidification yield a system
	with lower cost and weight compared to FCs with flow-through or recirculated
	anodes. The accumulation of water and nitrogen in the anode channel
	is first observed near the outlet. A stratified pattern develops
	in the channel where a hydrogen-rich area sits above a depleted region
	and is stabilized by the effect of gravity. A model is presented
	which describes the dynamic evolution of a blanketing N2 front in
	the anode channel and a hydrogen starved region. Understanding, modeling,
	and predicting the front evolution can reduce the H2 wasted during
	purges, avoid over drying the membrane, and mitigate degradation
	associated with hydrogen starved areas.},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECS_Meeting_2010.pdf}
}
@conference{SiegelACC10,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel
	Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2010 American Control Conference},
  year = {2010},
  abstract = {This paper parameterizes the 0-dimensional model of liquid water front
	evolution associated with: (1) water transport through the membrane,
	and (2) accumulation and transport of liquid water in the Gas Diffusion
	Layer (GDL) originally presented in [1]. We add here vapor transport
	into and out of the channels and liquid water removal from the anode
	channel during a purge. This completely describes a model for purge
	scheduling, to avoid anode channel plugging, and to prevent over-drying
	of the membrane. The model is parameterized using two tunable and
	one experimentally identified parameter to match the rate of liquid
	water accumulation in the anode channel that was observed via neutron
	imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the
	GDL and Membrane model augmented with a lumped channel model are
	presented and compared with measured liquid water values.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05531386.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2009a,
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Through the Membrane \& Along the Channel Flooding in {PEMFCs}},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2009 American Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2666-2671},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {Neutron imaging of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)
	revealed distinct patterns of water fronts moving through the gas
	diffusion layers (GDL) and channels. The PEMFC was operating with
	dead-ended, straight and almost vertically-oriented anode channels;
	hence the gravity driven accumulation of liquid water at the end
	of the channel caused flooding in an upward direction. In order to
	predict the spatiotemporal evolution of water patterns inside severely-flooded
	fuel cells, various distributed parameter models of the water transport
	through the membrane and GDLs to the cathode and anode channels have
	been developed by the authors and others. In this paper, a zero-dimensional
	moving front model is presented which captures the location of the
	water phase transition inside the GDL, instead of using the standard
	partial differential equation (PDE) approach for modeling liquid
	water in porous media which is numerically difficult to solve. This
	model uses three nonlinear states (the anode and cathode GDL front
	location and the membrane water content) and three inputs (the anode
	and cathode vapor concentration and the current density) to predict
	the slowly evolving front locations in both anode and cathode side
	GDLs during flooding and drying as well as the dynamic changes in
	membrane water content. The unit cell model is finally formulated
	with three hybrid modes and their transition laws. The hybrid-state
	model will be parameterized in the future using experimentally observed
	front evolutions. This parameterized unit cell model will be used
	to model the water accumulation along the channel in order to predict
	and avoid severe flooding conditions.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2009.5160290},
  issn = {0743-1619},
  keywords = {diffusion, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane
	fuel cells, spatiotemporal phenomenaPEMFC, channel flooding, gas
	diffusion layers, hybrid state model, membrane water content, neutron
	imaging, parameterized unit cell, partial differential equation,
	polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, porous media, spatiotemporal
	evolution, water accumulation, water patterns, water phase transition},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.14},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05160290.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2011ASME,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of PEM Fuel Cells
	with the Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
	Conference},
  year = {2011},
  number = {ESFuelCell2011-54768},
  address = {Washington DC},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {The operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with dead-ended anode (DEA)
	leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen,
	water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion
	layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient
	with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in
	the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water
	takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in
	the case of downward orientation of the gravity. Here, we present
	a transient 1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged
	DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the
	Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the
	cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the membrane
	to express the permeance of nitrogen and transport of water through
	the membrane. The model results agree very well with experimental
	results for the voltage transients of the PEMFC operating with DEA.
	In order to emphasize the effect of nitrogen accumulation in the
	anode, we present experimentally obtained cell voltage measurements
	during DEA transients, when the cathode is supplied with pure oxygen.
	In the absence of nitrogen in the cathode, voltage remained almost
	constant throughout the transient. Then, the model is used to determine
	the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen feed ratio in the cathode on the
	voltage transient behavior for different load currents. Lastly, the
	model is used to show the effect of the small amount of leak from
	the anode exit on the voltage transient; even for leak rates as low
	as less than 10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels
	is alleviated and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout
	the transient.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ESFuelCell2011-54768.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2010ASMEFC,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  title = {Modeling and Simulations of PEMFCs Operating with Periodically Purged
	Dead-ended Anode Channels},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 8th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and
	Technology Conference},
  year = {2010},
  number = {FuelCell2010-33341},
  address = {Brooklyn, New York, USA},
  month = {June 14-16},
  abstract = {PEMFC operation with dead-ended anode has inherent transient behavior:
	the cell operates between purge cycles that replenish fuel and discharge
	accumulated gases, such as nitrogen and water vapor, and liquid water.
	During the operation when the anode exit is shut, gases that cross-over
	from the cathode accumulate and stratify in the anode channels above
	the liquid water when the gravity is acting in the flow direction.
	In this work, we present transient two-dimensional along the channel
	model and simulations of the PEMFC operating with a deadended anode.
	Transport of gas species in flow channels and gas diffusion layers
	is modeled by Maxwell-Stefan equations. Flow in the channels is modeled
	by laminarized Navier-Stokes equations, where the inertial terms
	are dropped from the force balance, but the buoyancy effect due to
	the variation of the composition of gas mixture is included at the
	anode side. Flow in the gas diffusion layers is modeled by Darcy’s
	Law. Permeation of nitrogen in the membrane is considered since it
	can accumulate in the anode as opposed to instant reaction of oxygen
	(hydrogen) at the anode (cathode) catalyst layer(s). Membrane is
	considered as a resistance (interface) to transport of water vapor
	and nitrogen. Ohm’s Law is used to model the transport of charged
	particles, i.e. electrons in the electrodes and flow plates and protons
	in the membrane. Finite-element representation of the governing equations
	in the 2D PEMFC geometry and subject to boundary conditions mimicking
	experimental conditions is solved using a commercial multiphysics
	software, COMSOL. According to model results reversible voltage degradation
	between purge cycles is mostly due to nitrogen accumulation in the
	anode that leads to partial fuel starvation in the cell.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/Fuelcell2010-33341-FINAL.pdf}
}
@conference{Siegel2009,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Yesilyurt, Serhat and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Extracting Model Parameters and Paradigms from Neutron Imaging of
	Dead-Ended Anode Operation},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 7th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and
	Technology Conference},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {In a PEMFC, feeding dry hydrogen into a dead-ended anode (DEA), reduces
	the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced need for
	a hydrogen-grade humidification and recirculation subsystems, but
	requires purging to remove the accumulated water and inert gas. Although
	the DEA method of operation might be undesirable due to its associated
	high spatial variability it provides a unique perspective on the
	evolution of the water accumulation in the anode. Sections of the
	channel nearest the inlets are significantly drier than those nearest
	the outlet as shown in the neutron imaging of a 53 cm2 PEMFC. This
	method allows in-situ visualization of distinct patterns, including
	water front propagation along the channels. In this paper we utilize
	neutron imaging of the liquid water distributions and a previously
	developed PDE model of liquid water flow in the GDL to (a) identify
	a range of numerical values for the immobile saturation limit, (b)
	propose a gravity-driven liquid flow in the channels, and (c) derive
	the two-phase GDL boundary conditions associated with the presence
	of liquid water in the channel.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.27},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000439.pdf}
}
@article{Stefanopoulou2009,
  author = {Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Kolmanovsky, I.V. and McCain, B.A.},
  title = {A Dynamic Semi-Analytic Channel-to-Channel Model of Two-Phase Water
	Distribution for a Unit Fuel Cell},
  journal = {Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {1055-1068},
  number = {5},
  month = {Sept. },
  abstract = {The critical task of controlling the water accumulation within the
	gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the channels of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane
	(PEM) fuel cell is shown to benefit from a partial-differential-equation
	(PDE) approach. Starting from first principles, a model of a fuel
	cell is represented as a boundary value problem for a set of three
	coupled nonlinear second-order PDEs for mass transport across the
	GDL of each electrode. These three PDEs are approximated, with justification
	founded in linear systems theory and a time-scale decomposition approach,
	by a semianalytic model that requires less than one-third the number
	of states to be numerically integrated. A set of numerical transient,
	analytic transient, and analytic steady-state solutions for the semianalytic
	model are presented, and an experimental verification of the cell
	voltage prediction due to liquid-water accumulation is demonstrated.
	The semianalytic model derived and the associated analysis represent
	our main contribution for which future expansion of along-the-channel
	dynamics and statistical consideration of cell-to-cell variations
	can be implemented for application to control, estimation, and diagnostic
	algorithms.},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.2005064},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  keywords = {linear systems, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane
	fuel cellsanalytic steady-state solutions, analytic transient, cell
	voltage prediction, dynamic semi-analytic channel-to-channel model,
	gas diffusion layer, linear systems theory, liquid-water accumulation,
	mass transport, numerical transient, partial-differential-equation
	approach, polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell, semianalytic model,
	time-scale decomposition approach, two-phase water distribution,
	unit fuel cell},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06}
}
@conference{Yesilyurt2009,
  author = {Serhat Yesilyurt and Jason Siegel and Anna Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Effects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode
	Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {901},
  number = {6},
  pages = {359-359},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000359.pdf}
}
@article{Yesilyurt2012,
  author = {Yesilyurt, Serhat and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of Polymer Electrolyte
	Membrane Fuel Cells With the {Dead-Ended} Anode},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {021012},
  number = {2},
  month = {April},
  __markedentry = {[siegeljb:]},
  abstract = {Operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with the dead-ended anode (DEA)
	leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen,
	water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion
	layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient
	with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in
	the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water
	takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in
	the case of downward orientation of the gravity. We present a transient
	1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged
	DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the
	Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the
	cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the permeance
	of nitrogen and transport of water through the membrane. Simulation
	results agree very well with experimental results for voltage transients
	of the PEMFC operating with the DEA. In order to emphasize the effect
	of nitrogen accumulation in the anode, we present experimentally
	obtained cell voltage measurements during DEA transients when the
	cathode is supplied with pure oxygen. In the absence of nitrogen
	in the cathode, voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient.
	The model is used to demonstrate the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen
	feed ratio in the cathode on the voltage transient behavior for different
	load currents. Lastly, the effect of small leaks from the anode exit
	on the voltage transient is studied: even for leak rates as low as
	10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels is alleviated
	and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient
	according to the results.},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4005626},
  issn = {{1550624X}},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/FCT021012.pdf}
}
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