Fuel_cell_veh-ctrl.bib

@inproceedings{2006-01-0038,
  author = {Kyung-Won Suh and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Effects of Control Strategy and Calibration on Hybridization Level and Fuel Economy in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle},
  booktitle = {SAE Technical Paper},
  year = {2006},
  number = {2006-01-0038},
  abstract = {Using dynamic causal models for a direct-hydrogen fuel cell and a DC/DC converter we design decentralized and multivariable controllers regulating the bus voltage and preventing fuel cell oxygen starvation. Various controller gains are used to span the fuel cell operation from load-following to load-leveling, and hence, determine the required fuel cell-battery sizing (hybridization level) and the associated trends in the fuel economy.Our results provide insight on the strategy and calibration of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle with no need for a supervisory controller that typically depends on optimal power split during a specific driving cycle. The proposed controllers directly manipulate actuator commands, such as the DC/DC converter duty cycle, and achieve a desired power split. The controllers are demonstrated through simulation of a compact sedan using a mild and an aggressive driving cycle.},
  doi = {10.4271/2006-01-0038},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.03.02},
  url = {http://papers.sae.org/2006-01-0038/}
}
@article{ChenSiegelMatsuuraEtAl2011,
  author = {Chen,Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Matsuura, Toyoaki and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {158},
  number = {9},
  pages = {B1164-B1174},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model is developed focusing on the species concentration along the channel and associated membrane phase potential. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior during DEA operation of a PEM fuel cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally less than 5% in molar fraction, creates a H2/O2 front as N2 and water accumulate at the end of the channel and hydrogen is depleted along the channel. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel also results in a gradual drop of the membrane phase potential, promoting carbon corrosion in the cathode. The corrosion rate is driven by the local species concentration in the anode, which varies in space and time. In a co-flow configuration, the large spatio-temporal patterns of hydrogen starvation in the end of the anode channel induce the highest carbon corrosion, which, in turn, is shown to be moderated by the decreasing terminal voltage during galvanostatic operation. Although not fully calibrated, the model shows good agreement with preliminary in situ observations.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3609770},
  keywords = {carbon; corrosion; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; spatiotemporal phenomena},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~umfccl/FCRecent/JESOAN0001580000090B1164000001.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ChenSiegelMatsuuraEtAl2013,
  author = {J. Chen and J. B. Siegel and T. Matsuura and A. G. Stefanopoulou and S. Yesilyurt},
  title = {Experimental Validation of Equilibria in Fuel Cells with Dead-Ended Anodes},
  booktitle = {2013 European Control Conference},
  year = {2013},
  month = {July},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  file = {papers/experimentalvalidationofequilibria.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ChenSiegelStefanopoulou2011,
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Nitrogen Blanketing Front Equilibria in Dead End Anode Fuel Cell Operation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1524-1529},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, US},
  month = {June},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {This paper investigates the equilibrium behavior during the dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A reduced order model is developed focusing on the species molar fraction in the anode channel. At equilibrium, hydrogen is present only in a partial region in the anode, and the remaining region is deactivated by the accumulation of water and nitrogen. Simulation results are analysed to study the influences of certain controllable inputs and system parameters on the nitrogen front location and steady-state cell voltage. The simulation results are consistent with the initial experimental observations. The results in this paper suggest that it is possible to coat only the active portion of the membrane, along the channel length, with catalyst.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2011.5991552},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/1357.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ChenSiegelStefanopoulou2012,
  author = {Chen, Jixin and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Optimization of Purging Cycle for Dead-Ended Anode Fuel Cell Operation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2012},
  number = {ESFuelCell2012-91307},
  address = {San Diego, California},
  month = {July},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {This paper focuses on the optimization of the purge cycle for dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Controling the purge interval at given operating conditions can optimize the fuel cell efficiency and hydrogen loss during the purge. For this optimization, a model capturing the liquid water and nitrogen accumulation in the anode and the purge flow behavior is presented. A target range of purge interval is then defined based on the minimal purge time that removes the plug of liquid and nitrogen in the channel end and the maximum purge interval beyond which hydrogen is wasted since hydrogen molar fraction all along the channel has been restored to one. If the purge is sufficiently long that all of the accumulated water and nitrogen are removed then the power output in the subsequent cycle (galvanostatic operation) would be highest, compared with incomplete purges which do not fully restore hydrogen concentration in the anode. Such purge schedule, however, is associated with certain amount of hydrogen loss. Therefore, there is a trade-off between hydrogen loss and power output, and a corresponding purge interval that produces the largest efficiency. The optimum purge intervals for different cycle durations are identified. The calculated DEA efficiencies are compared with flow-through (FT) operation. The analysis and model-based optimization methodology presented in this paper can be used for optimizing DEA operation of PEMFC with minimum experimentation and development time.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ASME12_Optimization_study3.1.pdf}
}
@article{ChenSiegelStefanopoulouEtAl2013,
  author = {Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Waldecker, J.R.},
  title = {Optimization of purge cycle for dead-ended anode fuel cell operation},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {5092-5105},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.02.022},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Chen2013.pdf}
}
@article{Domenico2010,
  author = {Domenico Di Domenicoa and Giovanni Fiengoa and Anna Stefanopoulou},
  title = {A decoupled controller for fuel cell hybrid electric power split},
  journal = {International Journal of Systems Science},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {41},
  number = {4},
  pages = {447-456},
  month = {April},
  doi = {10.1080/00207720903072274},
  file = {papers/decoupledcontroller.pdf},
  owner = {Admin},
  timestamp = {2011.05.09}
}
@techreport{Filipi2004,
  title = {Fuel Cell APU for Silent Watch and Mild Electrification of a Medium Tactical Truck},
  author = {Filipi,Zoran and Louca, Loucas and Stefanopoulou,Anna and Pukrushpan, Jay and Kittirungsi ,Burit and Peng, Huei},
  institution = {SAE 2004-01-1477},
  year = {2004},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/SAE_ARC_FMTV_APU_final.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.24}
}
@inproceedings{Hoffmann2001,
  title = {Valve Position Tracking for Soft Landing of Electromechanical Camless Valvetrain},
  author = {Hoffmann, W and Stefanapoulou, A G},
  booktitle = {Advances in Automotive Control 2001. Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Workshop},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {295-300},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.03.02}
}
@inbook{JasonB.SiegelCairano2010,
  chapter = {5. Purge Scheduling for Dead-Ended Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  pages = {5-1 - 5-43},
  title = {The Control Handbook, Second Edition: Control System Applications},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {2010},
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Giulio Ripaccioli and Stefano Di Cairano},
  editor = {William S. Levine},
  edition = {second},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  comment = {ISBN: 1420073605},
  owner = {Admin},
  timestamp = {2011.05.09}
}
@article{KarnikStefanopoulouSun2007,
  author = {Amey Y. Karnik and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jing Sun},
  title = {Water equilibria and management using a two-volume model of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {164},
  number = {2},
  pages = {590 - 605},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.053},
  file = {papers/1-s2.0-S0378775306021586-main.pdf},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEMFC},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4MK611H-1/2/19b905be9ff26e4cc9cf2ceb799e38ed}
}
@article{KarnikSunStefanopoulouEtAl2009,
  author = {Karnik, A. Y. and Sun, J. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Buckland, J. H.},
  title = {Humidity and Pressure Regulation in a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Gain-Scheduled Static Feedback Controller},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {17},
  number = {2},
  pages = {283--297},
  month = {March },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.924562},
  file = {papers/humidityandpressureregulationinaPEM.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.03.01}
}
@article{Kokkolaras2005,
  author = {M. Kokkolaras and Z. Mourelatos and L. Louca and Z Filipi and G. Delagrammatikas and A. Stefanopoulou and P. Papalambros and D. Assanis},
  title = {Design Under Uncertainty and Assessment of Performance Reliability of a Dual-Use Medium Truck with Hydraulic-Hybrid Powertrain and Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit},
  journal = {SAE Transactions - Journal in Engines SAE 2005-01-1396},
  year = {2005},
  doi = {10.4271/2005-01-1396},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27},
  url = {http://papers.sae.org/2005-01-1396/}
}
@conference{MarsuuraSiegelStefanopoulou2012,
  author = {Toyoaki Marsuura and Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Experimental Investigation of Degradation in PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Operation},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {1201},
  number = {6},
  pages = {315},
  address = {Seattle, Washington},
  month = {May},
  publisher = {ECS},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.11},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000315.pdf}
}
@article{MatsuuraChenSiegelEtAl2013,
  author = {Matsuura, T. and Chen, J. and Siegel, J.B. and Stefanopoulou, A.G.},
  title = {Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {11346-11356},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  document_type = {Article},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.06.096},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2013.12.01},
  url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~annastef/FuelCellPdf/Matsuura201311346.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{MatsuuraSiegelStefanopoulouEtAl2011,
  author = {Matsuura, Toyoaki and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Chen, Jixin},
  title = {Multiple Degradation Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2011},
  number = {FuelCell2011-54344},
  pages = {127-135},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {Dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) can simplify the fuel cell auxiliary and reduce system cost, however durability and lifetime in this operating mode requires further study. In this work, we investigate the electrode and membrane degradations of one 50 cm2 active area fuel cell under DEA operation using a combination of postmortem evaluation and in-situ performance evaluation protocol. We experimentally identify multiple degradation patterns using a cell which we have previously modeled and experimentally verified the spatio-temporal patterns associated with the anode water flooding and nitrogen blanketing. The change in cell voltage and internal resistance during operation and ex situ Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of aged electrode/membrane are analysed to determine and characterize the degradation of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Chemical degradations including carbon corrosion in the catalyst layer and membrane decomposition are found after operating the cell with a DEA. Mechanical degradations including membrane delamination are also observed. Unique features of DEA operation including fuel starvation/nitrogen blanketing in the anode and uneven local water/current distribution, are considered as culprits for degradation.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2011-54344},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000127.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{McCainSiegelStefanopoulou2008,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Stack-level validation of a semi-analytic channel-to-channel fuel cell model for two-phase water distribution boundary value control},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {5098--5103},
  month = {11--13 June },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4587302},
  file = {papers/stacklevelvalidationofasemianalytic.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{McCainStefanopoulou2006,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Order Reduction for a Control-Oriented Model of the Water Dynamics in Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {Proc ASME 4th International Conf on Fuel Cell Science, Engr and Technology},
  year = {2006},
  number = {FUELCELL2006-97075},
  pages = {151-159},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/FUELCELL2006-97075},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_MORFC06.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@inproceedings{McCainStefanopoulouButts2006,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Butts, K. R.},
  title = {A Study toward Minimum Spatial Discretization of a Fuel Cell Dynamics Model},
  booktitle = {Proc 2006 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2006-14509},
  year = {2006},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2006-14509},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_IJER05.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.07}
}
@inproceedings{McCainStefanopoulouButts2008,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Kenneth R. Butts},
  title = {On Controllability and Observability of Linearized Liquid Water Distributions Inside a PEM Fuel Cell},
  booktitle = {Proc. of 2008 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC08)},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {DSCC2008-2155},
  pages = {385-392},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2155},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p385/s1}
}
@inproceedings{McCainStefanopoulouKolmanovsky2007,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V. },
  title = {A multi-component spatially-distributed model of two-phase flow for estimation and control of fuel cell water dynamics},
  booktitle = {Proc. 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {584--589},
  month = {12--14 Dec. },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2007.4434923},
  file = {papers/amulticomponentspatiallydistributedmodel.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCainStefanopoulouKolmanovsky2008,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Ilya V. Kolmanovsky},
  title = {On the dynamics and control of through-plane water distributions in PEM fuel cells},
  journal = {Chemical Engineering Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {63},
  number = {17},
  pages = {4418 - 4432},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ces.2008.05.025},
  file = {papers/1-s2.0-S0009250908002698-main.pdf},
  issn = {0009-2509},
  keywords = {Model reduction},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TFK-4SM1TG3-1/2/e9c81dfcaca2f0c1b298734bb7ef6efa}
}
@inproceedings{McCainStefanopoulouKolmanovsky2008a,
  author = {McCain, B. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Kolmanovsky, I. V.},
  title = {Stability analysis for liquid water accumulation in low temperature fuel cells},
  booktitle = {Proc. 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control CDC 2008},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {859--864},
  month = {9--11 Dec. },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2008.4739189},
  file = {papers/stabilityanalysisforliquidwater.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{McCainStefanopoulouSiegel2010,
  author = {Buz A. McCain and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jason B. Siegel},
  title = {Controllability and Observability Analysis of the Liquid Water Distribution Inside the Gas Diffusion Layer of a Unit Fuel Cell Model},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {132},
  number = {6},
  pages = {061303},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4002477},
  eid = {061303},
  file = {papers/061303_1.pdf},
  keywords = {channel flow; controllability; difference equations; diffusion; electrochemical electrodes; flow control; observability; partial differential equations; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; reduced order systems; two-phase flow},
  numpages = {8},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/132/061303/1}
}
@inproceedings{McKayOttStefanopoulou2005,
  author = {D. A. McKay and W. T. Ott and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Modeling, Parameter Identification, and Validation of Reactant and Water Dynamics for a Fuel Cell Stack},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress \& Exposition},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {2005},
  number = {42169},
  pages = {1177-1186},
  month = {Nov},
  organization = {ASME},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2005-81484},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_GDLIMECE05.pdf},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2005/i42169/p1177/s1}
}
@article{McKaySiegelOttEtAl2008,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Jason B. Siegel and William Ott and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Parameterization and prediction of temporal fuel cell voltage behavior during flooding and drying conditions},
  journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {178},
  number = {1},
  pages = {207 - 222},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.12.031},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/McKay2008207.pdf},
  issn = {0378-7753},
  keywords = {PEM fuel cells},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TH1-4RC6R7R-2/2/52e221c70130b4887605e897517acfe3}
}
@inproceedings{McKayStefanopoulou2004,
  author = {McKay, D. and Stefanopoulou, A. },
  title = {Parameterization and validation of a lumped parameter diffusion model for fuel cell stack membrane humidity estimation},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference the 2004},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {816-821},
  month = {June},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Final_ACC04.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{McKayStefanopoulouCook2008,
  author = {McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Cook, J. },
  title = {Model and experimental validation of a controllable membrane-type humidifier for fuel cell applications},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {312--317},
  month = {11--13 June },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586509},
  file = {papers/modelandexperimentalvalidationfofacontrollable.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{McKayStefanopoulouCook2008a,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  title = {A Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications: Controller Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  booktitle = {Proc. ASME 2008 6th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {FuelCell2008-65257},
  pages = {841-850},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2008-65257},
  file = {papers/1-s2.0-S0009250908002698-main.pdf},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43181/p841/s1}
}
@article{McKayStefanopoulouCook2010,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  title = {A Controllable Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications - Part I: Operation, Modeling and Experimental Validation},
  journal = {ASME Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {7},
  number = {5},
  pages = {051006},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4000997},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@article{McKayStefanopoulouCook2011,
  author = {Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeffrey Cook},
  title = {A Controllable Membrane-Type Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications - Part II: Controller Design, Analysis and Implementation},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {011004},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4001020},
  eid = {011004},
  file = {papers/011004_1.pdf},
  keywords = {humidity control; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; temperature control},
  numpages = {12},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/8/011004/1}
}
@inproceedings{Muller2005,
  title = {Analysis, Modeling, and Validation for the Thermal Dynamics of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell System},
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {ASME 2005 3rd International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology (FUELCELL2005)},
  year = {2005},
  month = {May},
  number = {37645},
  pages = {389-404},
  volume = {2005},
  doi = {10.1115/FUELCELL2005-74050},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FC_ThermalDyn.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2005/i37645/p389/s1}
}
@article{Muller2006,
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Analysis, Modeling, and Validation for the Thermal Dynamics of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell System},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {99-110},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2173663},
  file = {papers/99_1.pdf},
  keywords = {proton exchange membrane fuel cells; optimisation; control system analysis; control system synthesis; sensitivity analysis; coolants; flow control},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2009.09.24},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/3/99/1}
}
@article{Muller2007,
  author = {Muller, E. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G. and Guzzella, L.},
  title = {Optimal Power Control of Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems for an Accelerated System Warm-Up},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {290--305},
  month = {March },
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2006.886435},
  file = {papers/optimalpowercontrolofhybrid.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{MullerKolbGuzzellaEtAl2008,
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  booktitle = {Proc. ASME 2008 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Parts A and B},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {DSCC2008-2156},
  pages = {393-401},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/DSCC2008-2156},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2008/i43352/p393/s1}
}
@article{MullerKolbGuzzellaEtAl2010,
  author = {Eric A. Muller and Florian Kolb and Lino Guzzella and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise A. McKay},
  title = {Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation With Temporal Fuel Cell Performance},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {021013},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3177447},
  eid = {021013},
  file = {papers/021013_1.pdf},
  keywords = {anodes; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; permeability; proton exchange membrane fuel cells},
  numpages = {11},
  owner = {Admin},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2011.05.12},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?FCT/7/021013/1}
}
@inproceedings{Pukrushpan2002,
  author = {J. T. Pukrushpan and A. G. Stefanopoulou and H. Peng},
  title = {Modeling and Control of PEM Fuel Cell Stack Systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the American Control Conference},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {3117-3122},
  month = {May},
  file = {papers/modelingandcontrolforpem.pdf}
}
@article{Pukrushpan2004a,
  title = {Control-Oriented Modeling and Analysis for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems},
  author = {Jay T. Pukrushpan and Huei Peng and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2004},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14-25},
  volume = {126},
  doi = {10.1115/1.1648308},
  keywords = {compressors; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; fuel cell vehicles; observability; eigenvalues and eigenfunctions},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ASME},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/126/14/1}
}
@book{Pukrushpan2004b,
  title = {Control Of Fuel Cell Power Systems},
  author = {Pukrushpan, Jay T. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Peng, Huei.},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2004},
  number = {ISBN: 1-85233-816-4},
  series = {Advances in industrial control},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.24}
}
@inproceedings{RipaccioliSiegelStefanopoulouEtAl2009,
  author = {Ripaccioli, Giulio and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Di Cairano, Stefano},
  title = {Derivation and Simulation Results of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Water Purge Scheduling in a Fuel Cell},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2nd Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Hollywood, CA, USA},
  month = {October 12-14},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {This paper illustrates the application of hybrid modeling and model predictive control techniques to the water purge management in a fuel cell with dead-end anode. The anode water flow dynamics are approximated as a two-mode discrete-time switched affine system that describes the propagation of water inside the gas diffusion layer, the spilling into the channel and consequent filling and plugging the channel. Using this dynamical approximation, a hybrid model predictive controller based on on-line mixed-integer quadratic optimization is tuned, and the effectiveness of the approach is shown through simulations with a high-fidelity model. Then, using an off-line multiparametric optimization procedure, the controller is converted into an equivalent piecewise affine form which is easily implementable even in an embedded controller through a lookup table of affine gains.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.18},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000149.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Schilter2006,
  author = {Arlette L. Schilter and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Parameterization of Fuel Cell Stack Voltage: Issues on Sensitivity, Cell-to Cell Variation, and Transient Response},
  booktitle = {Proc. ASME 2006 4th Intl Conf on Fuel Cell Science, Engrg and Tech},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {2006},
  number = {42479},
  pages = {307-317},
  doi = {10.1115/FUELCELL2006-97177},
  file = {307_1.pdf},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.22},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2006/i42479/p307/s1}
}
@article{SiegelBohacStefanopoulouEtAl2010,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Stanislav V. Bohac and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Serhat Yesilyurt},
  title = {Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  journal = {J. Electrochem. Soc.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {157},
  number = {7},
  pages = {B1081-B1093},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {In this paper, we model and experimentally verify the evolution of liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended anode that is fed by dry hydrogen. The accumulation of inert nitrogen and liquid water in the anode causes a voltage drop, which is recoverable by purging the anode. Experiments were designed to clarify the effect of N2 blanketing, water plugging of the channels, and flooding of the gas diffusion layer. The observation of each phenomenon is facilitated by simultaneous gas chromatography measurements on samples extracted from the anode channel to measure the nitrogen content and neutron imaging to measure the liquid water distribution. A model of the accumulation is presented, which describes the dynamic evolution of a N2 blanketing front in the anode channel leading to the development of a hydrogen starved region. The prediction of the voltage drop between purge cycles during nonwater plugging channel conditions is shown. The model is capable of describing both the two-sloped behavior of the voltage decay and the time at which the steeper slope begins by capturing the effect of H2 concentration loss and the area of the H2 starved region along the anode channel.},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3425743},
  keywords = {chromatography; electrochemical electrodes; nitrogen; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/JES0B1081.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelMcKayStefanopoulou2008,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and McKay, Denise and Stefanopoulou, Anna},
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science Engineering and Technology},
  year = {2008},
  note = {FuelCell2008-65053},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a dead-ended anode is observed using neutron imaging. The measurements are performed on a single cell with 53 square centimeter active area, Nafion 111-IP membrane and carbon cloth Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL). Even though dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation, accumulation of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels was observed for all current densities up to 566 mA cm−2 and 100% cathode humidification. The accumulation of liquid water in the anode channels is followed by a significant voltage drop even if there is no buildup of water in the cathode channels. Anode purges and cathode surges are also used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between anode and cathode water flooding. The rate of accumulation of anode liquid water, and its impact on the rate of cell voltage drop is shown for a range of temperature, current density, cathode relative humidity and air stoichiometric conditions. Neutron imaging of the water while operating the fuel cell under dead-ended anode conditions offers the opportunity to observe water dynamics and measured cell voltage during large and repeatable transients.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2008-65053},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.26},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000757.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelMcKayStefanopoulou2008a,
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and McKay, D. A. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Modeling and Validation of Fuel Cell Water Dynamics Using Neutron Imaging},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2008 American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2573-2578},
  month = {June},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {Using neutron imaging, the mass of liquid water within the gas diffusion layer and flow channels of an operating polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is measured under a range of operating conditions. Between anode purge events, it is demonstrated that liquid water accumulates and is periodically removed from the anode gas channels; this event is well correlated with the dynamic cell voltage response. The estimation of flooding and cell performance is achieved by a spatially distributed (through-membrane plane), temporally-resolved, and two-phase (liquid and vapor) water model. Neutron imaging techniques have never before been applied to characterize flooding with a dead-ended anode and elucidate important issues in water management as well as provide a means for calibrating and validating a dynamic lumped parameter fuel cell model.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2008.4586879},
  keywords = {fuel cells, image processing, anode gas channel, dead-ended anode, dynamic cell voltage response, dynamic lumped parameter fuel cell model, flow channel, fuel cell water dynamics, gas diffusion layer, liquid water, neutron imaging, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, water management},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/04586879.pdf}
}
@article{SiegelMcKayStefanopoulouEtAl2008,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Denise A. McKay and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Daniel S. Hussey and David L. Jacobson},
  title = {Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode},
  journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {155},
  number = {11},
  pages = {B1168-B1178},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1149/1.2976356},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/Siegel2008.pdf},
  keywords = {current density; electrochemical electrodes; humidity; neutron diffraction; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; water},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  publisher = {ECS},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelStefanopoulou2009,
  author = {Siegel, J. B. and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Through the Membrane \& Along the Channel Flooding in {PEMFCs}},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2009 American Control Conference},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2666-2671},
  month = {June},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {Neutron imaging of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) revealed distinct patterns of water fronts moving through the gas diffusion layers (GDL) and channels. The PEMFC was operating with dead-ended, straight and almost vertically-oriented anode channels; hence the gravity driven accumulation of liquid water at the end of the channel caused flooding in an upward direction. In order to predict the spatiotemporal evolution of water patterns inside severely-flooded fuel cells, various distributed parameter models of the water transport through the membrane and GDLs to the cathode and anode channels have been developed by the authors and others. In this paper, a zero-dimensional moving front model is presented which captures the location of the water phase transition inside the GDL, instead of using the standard partial differential equation (PDE) approach for modeling liquid water in porous media which is numerically difficult to solve. This model uses three nonlinear states (the anode and cathode GDL front location and the membrane water content) and three inputs (the anode and cathode vapor concentration and the current density) to predict the slowly evolving front locations in both anode and cathode side GDLs during flooding and drying as well as the dynamic changes in membrane water content. The unit cell model is finally formulated with three hybrid modes and their transition laws. The hybrid-state model will be parameterized in the future using experimentally observed front evolutions. This parameterized unit cell model will be used to model the water accumulation along the channel in order to predict and avoid severe flooding conditions.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2009.5160290},
  issn = {0743-1619},
  keywords = {diffusion, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, spatiotemporal phenomenaPEMFC, channel flooding, gas diffusion layers, hybrid state model, membrane water content, neutron imaging, parameterized unit cell, partial differential equation, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, porous media, spatiotemporal evolution, water accumulation, water patterns, water phase transition},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.14},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05160290.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelStefanopoulou2010,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 2010 American Control Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {6606-6611},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {This paper parameterizes the 0-dimensional model of liquid water front evolution associated with: (1) water transport through the membrane, and (2) accumulation and transport of liquid water in the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) originally presented in [1]. We add here vapor transport into and out of the channels and liquid water removal from the anode channel during a purge. This completely describes a model for purge scheduling, to avoid anode channel plugging, and to prevent over-drying of the membrane. The model is parameterized using two tunable and one experimentally identified parameter to match the rate of liquid water accumulation in the anode channel that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane model augmented with a lumped channel model are presented and compared with measured liquid water values.},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2010.5531386},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/05531386.pdf}
}
@conference{SiegelStefanopoulou2010a,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Reduced Complexity Models for Water Management and Anode Purge Scheduling in DEA Operation of PEMFC},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {MA2010-02},
  number = {10},
  pages = {766},
  publisher = {ECS},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  review = {In this work, the dynamic behavior of Fuel Cell operation under Dead-Ended Anode conditions is shown. A DEA can be fed with dry hydrogen, since water crossing through the membrane is sufficient to humidify the fuel. The reduced requirements for inlet humidification yield a system with lower cost and weight compared to FCs with flow-through or recirculated anodes. The accumulation of water and nitrogen in the anode channel is first observed near the outlet. A stratified pattern develops in the channel where a hydrogen-rich area sits above a depleted region and is stabilized by the effect of gravity. A model is presented which describes the dynamic evolution of a blanketing N2 front in the anode channel and a hydrogen starved region. Understanding, modeling, and predicting the front evolution can reduce the H2 wasted during purges, avoid over drying the membrane, and mitigate degradation associated with hydrogen starved areas.},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECS_Meeting_2010.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelStefanopoulouYesilyurt2010,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  title = {Modeling and Simulations of PEMFCs Operating with Periodically Purged Dead-ended Anode Channels},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 8th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2010},
  number = {FuelCell2010-33341},
  pages = {823-83},
  address = {Brooklyn, New York, USA},
  month = {June 14-16},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {PEMFC operation with dead-ended anode has inherent transient behavior: the cell operates between purge cycles that replenish fuel and discharge accumulated gases, such as nitrogen and water vapor, and liquid water. During the operation when the anode exit is shut, gases that cross-over from the cathode accumulate and stratify in the anode channels above the liquid water when the gravity is acting in the flow direction. In this work, we present transient two-dimensional along the channel model and simulations of the PEMFC operating with a deadended anode. Transport of gas species in flow channels and gas diffusion layers is modeled by Maxwell-Stefan equations. Flow in the channels is modeled by laminarized Navier-Stokes equations, where the inertial terms are dropped from the force balance, but the buoyancy effect due to the variation of the composition of gas mixture is included at the anode side. Flow in the gas diffusion layers is modeled by Darcy’s Law. Permeation of nitrogen in the membrane is considered since it can accumulate in the anode as opposed to instant reaction of oxygen (hydrogen) at the anode (cathode) catalyst layer(s). Membrane is considered as a resistance (interface) to transport of water vapor and nitrogen. Ohm’s Law is used to model the transport of charged particles, i.e. electrons in the electrodes and flow plates and protons in the membrane. Finite-element representation of the governing equations in the 2D PEMFC geometry and subject to boundary conditions mimicking experimental conditions is solved using a commercial multiphysics software, COMSOL. According to model results reversible voltage degradation between purge cycles is mostly due to nitrogen accumulation in the anode that leads to partial fuel starvation in the cell.},
  doi = {10.1115/FuelCell2010-33341},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.04.01},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/Fuelcell2010-33341-FINAL.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelStefanopoulouYesilyurt2011,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G. and Yesilyurt, Serhat},
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of PEM Fuel Cells with the Dead-Ended Anode},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2011},
  number = {ESFuelCell2011-54768},
  address = {Washington DC},
  organization = {ASME},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {The operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with dead-ended anode (DEA) leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen, water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in the case of downward orientation of the gravity. Here, we present a transient 1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the membrane to express the permeance of nitrogen and transport of water through the membrane. The model results agree very well with experimental results for the voltage transients of the PEMFC operating with DEA. In order to emphasize the effect of nitrogen accumulation in the anode, we present experimentally obtained cell voltage measurements during DEA transients, when the cathode is supplied with pure oxygen. In the absence of nitrogen in the cathode, voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient. Then, the model is used to determine the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen feed ratio in the cathode on the voltage transient behavior for different load currents. Lastly, the model is used to show the effect of the small amount of leak from the anode exit on the voltage transient; even for leak rates as low as less than 10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels is alleviated and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2011.08.06},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ESFuelCell2011-54768.pdf}
}
@article{SiegelYesilyurtbStefanopoulou2010,
  author = {Jason B. Siegel and Serhat Yesilyurtb and Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Reduced Complexity Models for Water Management and Anode Purge Scheduling in DEA Operation of PEMFCs},
  journal = {ECS Transactions},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1583-1596},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  doi = {10.1149/1.3484648},
  file = {papers/reducedcomplexitymodelsforwater.pdf},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@inproceedings{SiegelYesilyurtStefanopoulou2009,
  author = {Siegel, Jason B. and Yesilyurt, Serhat and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Extracting Model Parameters and Paradigms from Neutron Imaging of Dead-Ended Anode Operation},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 7th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference},
  year = {2009},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {In a PEMFC, feeding dry hydrogen into a dead-ended anode (DEA), reduces the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced need for a hydrogen-grade humidification and recirculation subsystems, but requires purging to remove the accumulated water and inert gas. Although the DEA method of operation might be undesirable due to its associated high spatial variability it provides a unique perspective on the evolution of the water accumulation in the anode. Sections of the channel nearest the inlets are significantly drier than those nearest the outlet as shown in the neutron imaging of a 53 cm2 PEMFC. This method allows in-situ visualization of distinct patterns, including water front propagation along the channels. In this paper we utilize neutron imaging of the liquid water distributions and a previously developed PDE model of liquid water flow in the GDL to (a) identify a range of numerical values for the immobile saturation limit, (b) propose a gravity-driven liquid flow in the channels, and (c) derive the two-phase GDL boundary conditions associated with the presence of liquid water in the channel.},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.27},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/MCP000439.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Stefanopoulou2004,
  title = {Mechatronics in Fuel Cell Systems},
  author = {Anna G. Stefanopoulou},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Federation of Control, Symposium in Mechatronics},
  year = {2004},
  address = {Sydney},
  month = {Sept},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/FCPlenary.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.09.24}
}
@article{StefanopoulouKolmanovskyMcCain2009,
  author = {Stefanopoulou, A.G. and Kolmanovsky, I.V. and McCain, B.A.},
  title = {A Dynamic Semi-Analytic Channel-to-Channel Model of Two-Phase Water Distribution for a Unit Fuel Cell},
  journal = {Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {17},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1055-1068},
  month = {Sept. },
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {The critical task of controlling the water accumulation within the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the channels of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cell is shown to benefit from a partial-differential-equation (PDE) approach. Starting from first principles, a model of a fuel cell is represented as a boundary value problem for a set of three coupled nonlinear second-order PDEs for mass transport across the GDL of each electrode. These three PDEs are approximated, with justification founded in linear systems theory and a time-scale decomposition approach, by a semianalytic model that requires less than one-third the number of states to be numerically integrated. A set of numerical transient, analytic transient, and analytic steady-state solutions for the semianalytic model are presented, and an experimental verification of the cell voltage prediction due to liquid-water accumulation is demonstrated. The semianalytic model derived and the associated analysis represent our main contribution for which future expansion of along-the-channel dynamics and statistical consideration of cell-to-cell variations can be implemented for application to control, estimation, and diagnostic algorithms.},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.2005064},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  keywords = {linear systems, partial differential equations, proton exchange membrane fuel cellsanalytic steady-state solutions, analytic transient, cell voltage prediction, dynamic semi-analytic channel-to-channel model, gas diffusion layer, linear systems theory, liquid-water accumulation, mass transport, numerical transient, partial-differential-equation approach, polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell, semianalytic model, time-scale decomposition approach, two-phase water distribution, unit fuel cell},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.01.06}
}
@inproceedings{Suh2006,
  author = {Kyung-Won Suh and Stefanopoulou, A. G.},
  title = {Inherent performance limitations of power-autonomous fuel cell system},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference},
  year = {2006},
  month = {June},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.2006.1655404},
  file = {papers/01655404.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{Sundstroem2007,
  author = {O. Sundstroem and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Optimum Battery Size for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Part I},
  journal = {ASME Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {167-175},
  month = {December},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2713775},
  file = {papers/167_1.pdf},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@article{Sundstroem2007a,
  author = {O. Sundstroem and A. G. Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Optimum Battery Size for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Transient Loading Consideration, Part II},
  journal = {ASME Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {176-184},
  month = {December},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2713779},
  file = {papers/176_1.pdf},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.02.27}
}
@inproceedings{Sundstrom2006,
  author = {Sundstrom, Olle and Stefanopoulou, Anna},
  title = {Optimal power split in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle with different battery sizes, drive cycles, and objectives},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Computer Aided Control System Design IEEE International Conference on Control Applications IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1681--1688},
  month = {4--6 Oct. },
  doi = {10.1109/CACSD-CCA-ISIC.2006.4776894},
  file = {papers/04776894.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@inproceedings{Tsourapas2008,
  author = {Tsourapas, V. and Sun, J. and Stefanopoulou, A.},
  title = {Incremental step reference governor for load conditioning of hybrid Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine power plants},
  booktitle = {In Proc. IEEE American Control Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2184-2189},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2008.2010554},
  file = {papers/incrementialstepreference.pdf},
  owner = {choonhun},
  timestamp = {2015.03.04}
}
@inproceedings{Vahidi2004,
  title = {Model predictive control for starvation prevention in a hybrid fuel cell system},
  author = {Vahidi, A. and Stefanopoulou, A. and Huei Peng},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Control Conference the 2004},
  year = {2004},
  month = {June},
  pages = {834-839},
  volume = {1},
  file = {FuelCellPdf/ACC2004_Vahidi.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@article{Vahidi2006,
  author = {Vahidi, A. and Stefanopoulou, A. and Huei Peng},
  title = {Current Management in a Hybrid Fuel Cell Power System: A Model-Predictive Control Approach},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {14},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1047--1057},
  month = {Nov. },
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2006.880199},
  file = {papers/IEEE_TCST_FinalSubmission.pdf},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2009.02.06}
}
@conference{YesilyurtSiegelStefanopoulou2009,
  author = {Serhat Yesilyurt and Jason Siegel and Anna Stefanopoulou},
  title = {Effects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells},
  booktitle = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {901},
  number = {6},
  pages = {359-359},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  journal = {ECS Meeting Abstracts},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2010.09.22},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/ECA000359.pdf}
}
@article{YesilyurtSiegelStefanopoulou2012,
  author = {Yesilyurt, Serhat and Siegel, Jason B. and Stefanopoulou, Anna G.},
  title = {Modeling and Experiments of Voltage Transients of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells With the {Dead-Ended} Anode},
  journal = {Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {021012},
  month = {April},
  __markedentry = {[gabrieli:6]},
  abstract = {Operation of PEM fuel cells (PEMFC) with the dead-ended anode (DEA) leads to severe voltage transients due to accumulation of nitrogen, water vapor and liquid water in the anode channels and the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Accumulation of nitrogen causes a large voltage transient with a characteristic profile whereas the amount of water vapor in the anode is limited by the saturation pressure, and the liquid water takes up very small volume at the bottom of the anode channels in the case of downward orientation of the gravity. We present a transient 1D along-the-channel model of PEMFCs operating with periodically-purged DEA channels. In the model, transport of species is modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations coupled with constraint equations for the cell voltage. A simple resistance model is used for the permeance of nitrogen and transport of water through the membrane. Simulation results agree very well with experimental results for voltage transients of the PEMFC operating with the DEA. In order to emphasize the effect of nitrogen accumulation in the anode, we present experimentally obtained cell voltage measurements during DEA transients when the cathode is supplied with pure oxygen. In the absence of nitrogen in the cathode, voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient. The model is used to demonstrate the effect of oxygen-to-nitrogen feed ratio in the cathode on the voltage transient behavior for different load currents. Lastly, the effect of small leaks from the anode exit on the voltage transient is studied: even for leak rates as low as 10 ml/h, nitrogen accumulation in the anode channels is alleviated and the cell voltage remained almost constant throughout the transient according to the results.},
  doi = {10.1115/1.4005626},
  issn = {{1550624X}},
  owner = {siegeljb},
  timestamp = {2012.07.10},
  url = {http://www.umich.edu/~siegeljb/My_Papers/FCT021012.pdf}
}
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